Public Policy Decision Making and Analysis

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A PowerPoint presentation on public policy analysis and decision making. The presentation focuses on criminal justice, but is applicable in all government fields. Lastly, this presentation is part one of three.

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Public Policy Decision Making and Analysis

  1. 1. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Public Policy andPublic Policy and Criminal JusticeCriminal Justice Policy AnalysisPolicy Analysis (Decision Making Part I)(Decision Making Part I)
  2. 2. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Policy Making TheoriesPolicy Making Theories  PluralistPluralist  Open processOpen process  Power elitePower elite  Small group of people whoSmall group of people who are the most informedare the most informed make best decisions.make best decisions.  Public choicePublic choice  Market will makeMarket will make choices.choices.  Competition is goodCompetition is good  BureaucraticBureaucratic  ExpertiseExpertise
  3. 3. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster ProblemsProblems  PluralistPluralist  Assumes all groupsAssumes all groups are representedare represented  Power elitePower elite  Upper Class BiasUpper Class Bias  Right and Left wingRight and Left wing distrust of governmentdistrust of government  Public choicePublic choice  People always act inPeople always act in their own self-interesttheir own self-interest  May not protect theMay not protect the public interestpublic interest  Equity issuesEquity issues  BureaucraticBureaucratic  May be out of touchMay be out of touch with citizens.with citizens.  Fear of abuse.Fear of abuse.  Street level bureaucratStreet level bureaucrat
  4. 4. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Private GoodsPrivate Goods  PrivatePrivate  CanCan NOTNOT be easilybe easily divideddivided  ExclusiveExclusive
  5. 5. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Public GoodsPublic Goods  Public: value toPublic: value to larger societylarger society  Can not be dividedCan not be divided  Non-exclusiveNon-exclusive
  6. 6. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Criminal JusticeCriminal Justice  A public or PrivateA public or Private good?good? Photograph provided by Woodcrest Vehicle Center
  7. 7. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster ScarcityScarcity  Conflict betweenConflict between unlimited humanunlimited human wants and theirwants and their limited resourceslimited resources  ConsequenceConsequence -- wewe must choose betweenmust choose between wants and resourcewants and resource allocationallocation
  8. 8. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster General Analysis ProcessGeneral Analysis Process  Define/analyze the problemDefine/analyze the problem  Determine goalsDetermine goals  Construct alternativesConstruct alternatives  Design evaluation criteriaDesign evaluation criteria  Evaluate alternativesEvaluate alternatives  Draw Conclusion and makeDraw Conclusion and make recommendationsrecommendations
  9. 9. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Define/analyze problemDefine/analyze problem  What is the problem?What is the problem?  Where is the problem?Where is the problem?  Who or what is affected?Who or what is affected?  How did the problem develop?How did the problem develop?  What are the primary causes?What are the primary causes?  How might the problem be improved byHow might the problem be improved by policy action?policy action?
  10. 10. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster QuestionQuestion  Would Criminological Theory choiceWould Criminological Theory choice affect:affect:  What is the problem?What is the problem?  Where is the problem?Where is the problem?  Who or what is affected?Who or what is affected?  How did the problem develop?How did the problem develop?  What are the primary causes?What are the primary causes?  How might the problem be improved by policyHow might the problem be improved by policy action?action?
  11. 11. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Determine GoalsDetermine Goals  What are economic,What are economic, political, culturalpolitical, cultural and/or social goals?and/or social goals?  How are the goalsHow are the goals specifically stated?specifically stated?  Are they measurable?Are they measurable?
  12. 12. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Construct OptionsConstruct Options  What policy optionsWhat policy options available?available?  Looking for multipleLooking for multiple solutionssolutions
  13. 13. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster QuestionQuestion  Would CriminologicalWould Criminological Theory choice affectTheory choice affect options?options?
  14. 14. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Design evaluation criteriaDesign evaluation criteria  What criteria would best evaluate currentWhat criteria would best evaluate current problem and policy options?problem and policy options?  What is the cost?What is the cost?  What is the potential effectiveness?What is the potential effectiveness?  How feasible is the solution:How feasible is the solution:  EconomicallyEconomically  PoliticallyPolitically  CulturallyCulturally  Are theirAre their Equity IssuesEquity Issues??
  15. 15. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Evaluate alternativesEvaluate alternatives  Best Option?Best Option?  Is there more research that could find aIs there more research that could find a better policy?better policy?  Sufficient data for analysis?Sufficient data for analysis?  Appropriate dataAppropriate data  Measurement techniquesMeasurement techniques  What other data and/or information isWhat other data and/or information is required to decide?required to decide?
  16. 16. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Draw Conclusion and makeDraw Conclusion and make recommendationsrecommendations  Under currentUnder current conditions, which isconditions, which is the most desirablethe most desirable policy?policy?  Are there otherAre there other factors?factors?
  17. 17. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Needs AnalysisNeeds Analysis  A management and/or research technique thatA management and/or research technique that can be used to determine the differencecan be used to determine the difference between the current state and desired state.between the current state and desired state.  The difference between an analysis and an evaluationThe difference between an analysis and an evaluation is that an analysis is based on science oris that an analysis is based on science or mathematics.mathematics.
  18. 18. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Analysis StepsAnalysis Steps  Collect Data Collect Data   Collate Data Collate Data   Develop a Response Develop a Response   Describe What is Being Analyzed Describe What is Being Analyzed   Analyze or Review the Data Analyze or Review the Data   Assess the ResultsAssess the Results
  19. 19. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Collect DataCollect Data  List the dataList the data  Where can the data be obtained?Where can the data be obtained?  What time period will be collected?What time period will be collected?  SurveysSurveys  Focus GroupsFocus Groups  StudiesStudies  Available statistical informationAvailable statistical information
  20. 20. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Collate the DataCollate the Data  Collating is not analysis. It is putting theCollating is not analysis. It is putting the information in some order so that you caninformation in some order so that you can conduct an analysisconduct an analysis
  21. 21. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster AnalysisAnalysis  Where?Where?  When?When?  What conditions or events precede?What conditions or events precede?  What conditions or events accompany?What conditions or events accompany?  What harm?What harm?  What has been done?What has been done?  Stakeholders and assets?Stakeholders and assets?
  22. 22. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster ResponseResponse  BrainstormBrainstorm  Feasibility-Feasibility-  TimeTime  MoneyMoney  resourcesresources  What preparations are need?What preparations are need?  Who is responsible to implement?Who is responsible to implement?  What should or should not be done?What should or should not be done?
  23. 23. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster AssessmentAssessment  Collect the data again and see if theCollect the data again and see if the analysis was correct.analysis was correct.  Did you achieve the intended outcome?Did you achieve the intended outcome?  Does the plan need to be changed?Does the plan need to be changed?  How will you monitor the situation to beHow will you monitor the situation to be sure the problem does not reoccur?sure the problem does not reoccur?
  24. 24. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Public Policy andPublic Policy and Criminal JusticeCriminal Justice Explore Public Safety TechnologyExplore Public Safety Technology atat www.police-technology.netwww.police-technology.net

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