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Policy formulation


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Policy formulation

  1. 1. Policy Formulation Harry Specht
  2. 2. • “whatever governments choose to do or not to do” Thomas Dye (1987) • “Purposive course of action or inaction undertaken by an actor or a set of actors in dealing with a problem or matter of concern” Anderson (1994) What is Policy Policy is a formal documented statement of intentions and sets of actions of an organization/authority to either remove certain deficiencies or improve the conditions in any particular area of concern/interest such as housing shortage, food crises, water contamination, growing poverty etc. It could either be a part of an overall development policy and strategy of the country could be a specific document addressing a particular issue i.e. Food Security Policy, Poverty Reduction Strategy, National Housing Policy, Climate Change Policy and the over over overland terminal in Midsayap
  3. 3. Eight Stages in Policy Formulation 1. Identification of the problem or issue. State the problem meaningfully:  Determine the magnitude and extent of the problem  Continually re-define the problem in light of what is possible  Eliminate irrelevant material  Question the accepted thinking about the problem  Question initial formulations of the problem  Say it with data  Locate similar policy analyses  Locate relevant sources of data  Eliminate ambiguity  Clarify objectives  Resolve conflicting goals  Focus on the central, critical factors  Identify who is concerned, and why?  What power do concerned parties have?  Make a quick estimate of resources required to deal with the problem
  4. 4. Eight Stages in Policy Formulation
  5. 5. Eight Stages in Policy Formulation
  6. 6. 4. Development of Policy goals A public policy is a deliberate and (usually) careful decision that provides guidance for addressing selected public concerns. Policy development can be seen, then, as a decision making process that helps address identified goals, problems or concerns. At its core, policy development entails the selection of a destination or desired objective. Eight Stages in Policy Formulation
  7. 7. 5. Building of public support In building public support, governments must ensure that: -information is complete, objective, reliable, relevant and easy to find and understand - consultation has clear goals and rules defining the limits of the exercise and government’s obligation to account for its use. Eight Stages in Policy Formulation
  8. 8. 6. Legislation or enunciation of policy •Policy adoption can be influenced the same factors that affect the composition of policy agendas: the lobbying efforts of significant interest groups, crises, and public attention brought by the media. •Governors and mayors can adopt policies to bring about change on the state or local level. Eight Stages in Policy Formulation
  9. 9. 7. Implementation How Policies are Implemented Policy implementation involves putting adopted policies into effect. Successful implementation is dependent upon three elements. First, policies must be passed down from the president or state and local government officials to the appropriate agency within the government bureaucracy.) The second element essential to effective policy implementation is clear interpretation. The final element needed in effective policy implementation is also difficult to accomplish. The dedication of resources to implement the policy under the first element must be joined with coordination of the policy with ongoing operations. In other words, a new initiative or agency must not cause excessive competition or disagreement with existing initiatives or agencies. Eight Stages in Policy Formulation
  10. 10. 8. Evaluation Policy evaluation is the last step in the policy process. It may ask deep and wide-ranging questions, such as: -- was the problem correctly identified, or was the correct problem identified? -- were any important aspects overlooked? -- were any important data left out of the analysis? did this nfluence the analysis? -- were recommendations properly implemented? -- is the policy having the desired effect? -- are there any needs for modification, change, or re-design? what should be done differently next time? When policies fail to have the intended effect, it is usually due to one of two types of failure: theory failure, or program failure. Eight Stages in Policy Formulation
  11. 11. and-processes-6271793?from_search=19 OADBRETA6319_RegCSOWshop_4-PolicyFormandAnalys is.pdf 040.pdf