Emerging and Future Technologies

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The companion PowerPoint presentation for Chapter Twenty One (Emerging and Future Technologies) for the book Police Technology.

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Emerging and Future Technologies

  1. 1. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police TechnologyPolice Technology Chapter Twenty-OneChapter Twenty-One EmergingEmerging andand Future TechnologiesFuture Technologies
  2. 2. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives  Understand the importance of looking atUnderstand the importance of looking at future technologies.future technologies.  Explore a variety of potential technologicalExplore a variety of potential technological applications in law enforcement.applications in law enforcement.
  3. 3. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo FuturistsFuturists  QualitativeQualitative TechniquesTechniques  Delphi Surveys, etc.Delphi Surveys, etc.  QuantitativeQuantitative TechniquesTechniques  StatisticalStatistical extrapolation, etc.extrapolation, etc.  Role-playing andRole-playing and simulationsimulation
  4. 4. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Finding UsFinding Us  Emergency LocationEmergency Location Transmitters (ELT)Transmitters (ELT)  Emergency PositionEmergency Position Indicating RadioIndicating Radio Beacons (EPIRB)Beacons (EPIRB)  Both use satelliteBoth use satellite technology differenttechnology different from GPSfrom GPS
  5. 5. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Automatic Collision NotificationAutomatic Collision Notification  Typically installed inTypically installed in new cars, it is a formnew cars, it is a form of Automatic Vehicleof Automatic Vehicle Locator (AVL)Locator (AVL) technologies which istechnologies which is activated when an air-activated when an air- bad is deployed.bad is deployed.  Commercial serviceCommercial service then contacts PSAPthen contacts PSAP
  6. 6. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Universal Product CodeUniversal Product Code  Or Bar Coding, it isOr Bar Coding, it is finding its way intofinding its way into evidence managementevidence management and equipmentand equipment management systemsmanagement systems
  7. 7. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Chipping GoodsChipping Goods  The installation of Radio Frequency (RF)The installation of Radio Frequency (RF) transmitters into commercial goods.transmitters into commercial goods.  A means of inventory control and lossA means of inventory control and loss prevention.prevention.  However, chips remain active – evenHowever, chips remain active – even when you take the product home.when you take the product home.  Someday, it is likely the “chipped” products inSomeday, it is likely the “chipped” products in your refrigerator will “talk” to your refirgerator.your refrigerator will “talk” to your refirgerator.
  8. 8. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Chipped Handguns?Chipped Handguns?  Many people are killedMany people are killed accidentally by handguns.accidentally by handguns.  Many police officers areMany police officers are killed when offenderskilled when offenders take the officer’stake the officer’s handgun.handgun.  Chipping guns so thatChipping guns so that only the registered useronly the registered user can fire the handgun iscan fire the handgun is one proposed method ofone proposed method of prevention.prevention.
  9. 9. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Remote Control InformationRemote Control Information SystemSystem  Transmitter on a police officer constantlyTransmitter on a police officer constantly broadcasting and receiving informationbroadcasting and receiving information  Continuous contact with PSAPContinuous contact with PSAP  Originally developed for military useOriginally developed for military use  Provide remote supervisionProvide remote supervision  Provide remote feedback on the user’s vitalProvide remote feedback on the user’s vital signssigns
  10. 10. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Our Homes as PrisonsOur Homes as Prisons  Currently, a personCurrently, a person under “homeunder “home supervision” wears asupervision” wears a transponder bracelet.transponder bracelet. At random intervals,At random intervals, the supervisingthe supervising agency calls theagency calls the home and thehome and the transponder respondstransponder responds to the call.to the call.
  11. 11. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Our Homes as PrisonsOur Homes as Prisons  Expansions of the transponder modelExpansions of the transponder model involve the use of GPS and AVLinvolve the use of GPS and AVL technology so that offenders who are ontechnology so that offenders who are on probation are constantly sending out aprobation are constantly sending out a signal as to their whereabouts.signal as to their whereabouts.
  12. 12. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Scanning UsScanning Us  Magnetic GradientMagnetic Gradient Measuring and PassiveMeasuring and Passive Wave Millimeter WaveWave Millimeter Wave Imaging are two means toImaging are two means to supplement traditionalsupplement traditional metal detectorsmetal detectors
  13. 13. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Optical License Plate ScanningOptical License Plate Scanning  Using Video, infrared light, opticalUsing Video, infrared light, optical character recognition and other hardwarecharacter recognition and other hardware and software license plates can beand software license plates can be automatically scanned.automatically scanned.  The scan is compared against databases:The scan is compared against databases:  TollsTolls  Access controlAccess control  Stolen vehiclesStolen vehicles  Unpaid parking citationsUnpaid parking citations
  14. 14. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo DataveillanceDataveillance  A term used to describe the investigationA term used to describe the investigation and monitoring of individuals through data:and monitoring of individuals through data:  Financial transactions (ATM, Credit card, etc)Financial transactions (ATM, Credit card, etc)  Use of library resources (e.g., PATRIOTUse of library resources (e.g., PATRIOT ACT).ACT).  Passing toll boothsPassing toll booths  Communication recordsCommunication records  Civil RecordsCivil Records  Other government and commercial recordsOther government and commercial records
  15. 15. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo BiometricsBiometrics  The science ofThe science of automatically identifyautomatically identify someone based onsomeone based on physiological andphysiological and behavioralbehavioral characteristicscharacteristics
  16. 16. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo BiometricsBiometrics  FingerprintsFingerprints  Hand GeometryHand Geometry  RetinaRetina  Facial CharacteristicsFacial Characteristics  Thermal ImagesThermal Images  GaitGait  SpeechSpeech  HandwritingHandwriting
  17. 17. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo BiometricsBiometrics  Two broad uses ofTwo broad uses of biometrics:biometrics:  Access ControlAccess Control  IdentificationIdentification  Passwords andPasswords and identification cardsidentification cards are often combinedare often combined with biometricwith biometric information toinformation to increase accuracyincrease accuracy and securityand security
  18. 18. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Accuracy and Security Triangle BiometricsBiometrics What you are: BIOMETRIC MEASUREMENT What you have: IDENTIFICATION CARD (Like ATM Card) What you know: PASSWORD
  19. 19. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo BiometricsBiometrics  Iris and Retinal ScanIris and Retinal Scan  Low intensity beam into subject’s eyeball.Low intensity beam into subject’s eyeball.  Patterns of veins are compared againstPatterns of veins are compared against databasedatabase  Facial RecognitionFacial Recognition  Measurements betweenMeasurements between NodesNodes (center of(center of nose, eye, etc.)nose, eye, etc.)  Over 80 points can be measuredOver 80 points can be measured  Compared against databaseCompared against database
  20. 20. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo BiometricsBiometrics  Any biometric systemAny biometric system that makesthat makes comparisons againstcomparisons against a database needs toa database needs to have the subjecthave the subject EnrolledEnrolled forfor comparisoncomparison
  21. 21. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo SatellitesSatellites  Currently used byCurrently used by Law Enforcement forLaw Enforcement for GPS, and someGPS, and some communications.communications.  May some dayMay some day supplement visualsupplement visual surveillance – lookingsurveillance – looking down like today’sdown like today’s military satellitesmilitary satellites
  22. 22. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Pursuit TechnologiesPursuit Technologies  Most advances haveMost advances have been relatively lowbeen relatively low tech such as:tech such as:  Spike stripsSpike strips  Pursuit InterventionPursuit Intervention TechniqueTechnique
  23. 23. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Pursuit TechnologiesPursuit Technologies  Hi-Tech advancesHi-Tech advances have surrounded thehave surrounded the commercialcommercial installation of “chips”installation of “chips” that allow the fleeingthat allow the fleeing vehicle to be “turnedvehicle to be “turned off” by the police –off” by the police –  The effect is similar toThe effect is similar to running out of gasrunning out of gas Screen Capture provided by FAAC, Inc
  24. 24. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Less-Lethal TechnologiesLess-Lethal Technologies  Note that the term has changed from “non-Note that the term has changed from “non- lethal” to “less-lethal” because alllethal” to “less-lethal” because all techniques are dangerous.techniques are dangerous.  Chemical gas and electrical shock fairlyChemical gas and electrical shock fairly common.common.  The use of light beams and sound is beingThe use of light beams and sound is being used by the military and some foreignused by the military and some foreign police agencies.police agencies.
  25. 25. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Getting SmallerGetting Smaller  Bicycle patrol and footBicycle patrol and foot beat officers are nowbeat officers are now accessing databasesaccessing databases via small hand-heldvia small hand-held computers.computers. Photograph provided by CyberCop-Software
  26. 26. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Technology CombinationsTechnology Combinations  The combination ofThe combination of different types ofdifferent types of technologies istechnologies is creating innovativecreating innovative solutions for lawsolutions for law enforcementenforcement Screen captured by ShotSpotter, Inc.
  27. 27. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police TechnologyPolice Technology Go to theGo to the Student ResourcesStudent Resources page atpage at www.hitechcj.comwww.hitechcj.com

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