The Internet and Law Enforcement

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The companion PowerPoint presentation for Chapter Ten (The Internet and Law Enforcement) for the book Police Technology.

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  • Licklikder’s 1962 paper ON-Line Man and Computer Communications introduced the idea of the “galactic network.” During the 1960s and 1970 APRANet took the lead in development along with the academic community The first two computers were at UCLA and Stanford.
  • 1. You may want to review the concept of packet data from chapters from Chapter Three and Four
  • 1. Chapter Three provides definition on GUI.
  • 1. Spiders and Spam are explained in chapter ten, beginning on page 207
  • The Internet and Law Enforcement

    1. 1. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police TechnologyPolice Technology Chapter TenChapter Ten The Internet and LawThe Internet and Law EnforcementEnforcement
    2. 2. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives  Understand the Historical Development ofUnderstand the Historical Development of the Internet,the Internet,  Increased navigation skills,Increased navigation skills,  Explore how law enforcement has usedExplore how law enforcement has used the Internet,the Internet,  Understand how the Internet mightUnderstand how the Internet might increase efficiency and effectiveness,increase efficiency and effectiveness,  View the Internet as an enhancer ofView the Internet as an enhancer of community orientated policing.community orientated policing.
    3. 3. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo The History of the InternetThe History of the Internet  Licklider’s “Galactic Network”Licklider’s “Galactic Network”  Department of DefenseDepartment of Defense  Advanced Project Research AgencyAdvanced Project Research Agency  APRANetAPRANet  The First Two Computers “hooked it”The First Two Computers “hooked it”  1972 Computer Communications1972 Computer Communications ConferenceConference
    4. 4. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Open ArchitectureOpen Architecture  No one “big” network; rather a collection of smallNo one “big” network; rather a collection of small networks.networks.  Each Network has its own designEach Network has its own design  Relies on Transmission Control Protocol/InternetRelies on Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)Protocol (TCP/IP)  Error checking standardsError checking standards  Access points control flow, do not record dataAccess points control flow, do not record data
    5. 5. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Bigger and BiggerBigger and Bigger  Early use was primarily academicEarly use was primarily academic  In 1987, Simple Network ManagementIn 1987, Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) was adopted to TCP/IPProtocol (SNMP) was adopted to TCP/IP  In essence the Internet is a system ofIn essence the Internet is a system of protocols that allow different networks toprotocols that allow different networks to “connect.”“connect.”
    6. 6. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo The World Wide WebThe World Wide Web  The Internet is the system of protocols thatThe Internet is the system of protocols that allow different networks to connect. Theallow different networks to connect. The World Wide Web (WWW) consists of WebWorld Wide Web (WWW) consists of Web pages that are connected together viapages that are connected together via HyperlinksHyperlinks..  Hyperlinks may take you to pages on theHyperlinks may take you to pages on the same website, or to a website halfwaysame website, or to a website halfway around the worldaround the world
    7. 7. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Navigating the WebNavigating the Web  A website is a cyber-locationA website is a cyber-location created by people to exchangecreated by people to exchange information – websites mayinformation – websites may consist of a single page, orconsist of a single page, or hundreds of pages.hundreds of pages.  The first page is referred to as theThe first page is referred to as the homepagehomepage oror index pageindex page  The physical site (the hardware)The physical site (the hardware) storing the webpage is called thestoring the webpage is called the Point of PresencePoint of Presence and the entityand the entity providing the Point of Presence is theproviding the Point of Presence is the Internet Service ProviderInternet Service Provider (ISP).(ISP).
    8. 8. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Navigating the WebNavigating the Web  People (users)People (users) navigate the webnavigate the web using a GUI softwareusing a GUI software tool called atool called a BrowserBrowser..
    9. 9. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo  Websites have an address called aWebsites have an address called a domaindomain namename..  www.hitechcj.comwww.hitechcj.com the companion website for thethe companion website for the book “Police Technology.”book “Police Technology.”  The domain name is a series of numbers calledThe domain name is a series of numbers called an Internet Protocol (IP) address:an Internet Protocol (IP) address:  www.hitechcj.comwww.hitechcj.com is 209.35.187.202is 209.35.187.202  Numbers would be difficult to recall, so softwareNumbers would be difficult to recall, so software called Uniform Resource Locator (URL) translates thecalled Uniform Resource Locator (URL) translates the number to names we remembernumber to names we remember Navigating the WebNavigating the Web
    10. 10. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Navigating the WebNavigating the Web URL Hot Tip: The Domain Name is the plain language we use to find sites – IP Address is the computer version they use to find each other!
    11. 11. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Navigating the WebNavigating the Web  Domain names haveDomain names have different parts –different parts –  WWW = world wide webWWW = world wide web  HITECHCJ = is the nameHITECHCJ = is the name  .COM is the extension.COM is the extension  Domain names haveDomain names have extensions that generallyextensions that generally describe the entity thatdescribe the entity that manages the website:manages the website:  .com or commercial.com or commercial  .edu or educational.edu or educational  .mil or military.mil or military  .gov or government.gov or government  .org or different.org or different organizations often non-organizations often non- profitprofit
    12. 12. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Navigating the WebNavigating the Web  The most commonThe most common website programmingwebsite programming language islanguage is HypertextHypertext Markup LanguageMarkup Language oror HTMLHTML  Websites often useWebsites often use short programs calledshort programs called “scripts” that make your“scripts” that make your website interactivewebsite interactive
    13. 13. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Navigating the WebNavigating the Web  Search engines, likeSearch engines, like Google constantlyGoogle constantly search and classifysearch and classify the WebPages on thethe WebPages on the Internet.Internet.  Once search enginesOnce search engines classify theclassify the information we areinformation we are able to search itable to search it
    14. 14. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Navigating the WebNavigating the Web (Search Engine Basics)(Search Engine Basics)  Search enginesSearch engines searchsearch,, retrieveretrieve andand classifyclassify information.information.  Search engines useSearch engines use software programssoftware programs called “called “spidersspiders” to” to crawl the web.crawl the web. Spiders bring theSpiders bring the information back toinformation back to the search enginethe search engine where it is classified.where it is classified.
    15. 15. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Navigating the WebNavigating the Web Boolean logic isBoolean logic is Typically used byTypically used by ““end users”end users” to search theto search the information as itinformation as it has been classified byhas been classified by the search engine.the search engine.  Boolean operatorsBoolean operators ––  AndAnd  OrOr  NotNot  Followed byFollowed by  NearNear  ““quotation marks”quotation marks”
    16. 16. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Web TermsWeb Terms  Webmaster – the person who createsWebmaster – the person who creates and/or maintains the website.and/or maintains the website.  Cookies – information gathered by aCookies – information gathered by a website about a user – often used towebsite about a user – often used to record site settingsrecord site settings  Spam – Unsolicited commercial email.Spam – Unsolicited commercial email.
    17. 17. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Web TermsWeb Terms  Hyperlink – Words, information or symbolsHyperlink – Words, information or symbols that contains coding that jumps the user tothat contains coding that jumps the user to a new webpage when the hyperlink is clicka new webpage when the hyperlink is click  FAQs – Frequently Asked QuestionsFAQs – Frequently Asked Questions
    18. 18. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Email and Instant MessagingEmail and Instant Messaging EmailEmail is transmitting an electronic file fromis transmitting an electronic file from one user to another. Like regular mail, it canone user to another. Like regular mail, it can be sent and opened at the user’s convenience.be sent and opened at the user’s convenience. Instant MessagingInstant Messaging (IM) or(IM) or Internet RelayInternet Relay ChatChat (IRC) is the real-time transmission of(IRC) is the real-time transmission of electronic files (conversations) over theelectronic files (conversations) over the InternetInternet
    19. 19. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Email and Instant MessagingEmail and Instant Messaging  Generally, email or IM transmitted to orGenerally, email or IM transmitted to or from an employer’s computer is subject tofrom an employer’s computer is subject to unrestricted:unrestricted:  InterceptionInterception  MonitoringMonitoring  AuditingAuditing
    20. 20. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo ListservListserv  A listserv is a programA listserv is a program that automaticallythat automatically redistributes emailredistributes email messages to users tomessages to users to have registered to thehave registered to the service.service.  Crimeweb.net is aCrimeweb.net is a sophisticated Listservsophisticated Listserv used by many lawused by many law enforcementenforcement organizationsorganizations
    21. 21. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Law Enforcement on the NetLaw Enforcement on the Net  E-government is following e-commerce.E-government is following e-commerce.  Most law enforcement websites are staticMost law enforcement websites are static or one-way systems of communication.or one-way systems of communication.  Law enforcement use of the Internet as aLaw enforcement use of the Internet as a means of communicating and conductingmeans of communicating and conducting investigations is increasing.investigations is increasing.  While the “open” nature of the InternetWhile the “open” nature of the Internet does increase interoperability it also raisesdoes increase interoperability it also raises security concerns.security concerns.
    22. 22. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Law Enforcement on the NetLaw Enforcement on the Net  Although the LosAlthough the Los Angeles PoliceAngeles Police Department’s website isDepartment’s website is probably the largest, it isprobably the largest, it is primarily a one-way formprimarily a one-way form of communication.of communication.
    23. 23. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Law Enforcement on the NetLaw Enforcement on the Net Some crime andSome crime and incident reporting canincident reporting can be completed over thebe completed over the internetinternet What crimes can beWhat crimes can be reported?reported? Is this an efficient andIs this an efficient and effective tool?effective tool?
    24. 24. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Law Enforcement on the NetLaw Enforcement on the Net  Advanced lawAdvanced law enforcementenforcement applications involveapplications involve real-time crimereal-time crime mapping. In thismapping. In this instance, the San Diegoinstance, the San Diego Police DepartmentPolice Department provides real-time crimeprovides real-time crime maps to the public.maps to the public.
    25. 25. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Law Enforcement on the NetLaw Enforcement on the Net NCJRS hosts one of theNCJRS hosts one of the largest criminal and juvenilelargest criminal and juvenile justice libraries andjustice libraries and databases in the world, thedatabases in the world, the NCJRS Abstracts Database.NCJRS Abstracts Database. The collection, with holdingsThe collection, with holdings from the early 1970s to thefrom the early 1970s to the present, contains more thanpresent, contains more than 180,000 publications,180,000 publications, reports, articles, andreports, articles, and audiovisual products.audiovisual products.
    26. 26. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Law Enforcement on the NetLaw Enforcement on the Net  Some commercialSome commercial organizations, likeorganizations, like policeone.com publishpoliceone.com publish news, articles andnews, articles and product informationproduct information directly to policedirectly to police officers.officers.
    27. 27. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo PortalsPortals LargerLarger governmentgovernment agencies areagencies are beginning tobeginning to designdesign portalsportals –– gateways to allgateways to all governmentgovernment servicesservices
    28. 28. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Community PolicingCommunity Policing  As an technology enhancer of communityAs an technology enhancer of community policing, websites can:policing, websites can:  Enhance servicesEnhance services  Increase one-way communicationsIncrease one-way communications  Facilitate two-way communicationsFacilitate two-way communications  Increase partnershipsIncrease partnerships  Enhance problem solvingEnhance problem solving
    29. 29. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Community PolicingCommunity Policing  Problem SolvingProblem Solving  Increased communicationIncreased communication  Interactive mappingInteractive mapping  Hyperlinks to essentialHyperlinks to essential services.services.  FAQsFAQs  Access to web-based bestAccess to web-based best practicespractices  PartnershipPartnership  Community participation inCommunity participation in content and design.content and design.  Hyperlinks to essentialHyperlinks to essential non-governmentalnon-governmental services.services.  FAQsFAQs  Interactive nature canInteractive nature can make law enforcementmake law enforcement seem more part of ratherseem more part of rather than apart from.than apart from.
    30. 30. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police TechnologyPolice Technology Go to theGo to the Student ResourcesStudent Resources page atpage at www.hitechcj.comwww.hitechcj.com

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