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Theories and Practice of Public Admibistration


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Public Admibistration

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Theories and Practice of Public Admibistration

  1. 1. Josefina B. Bitonio, DPA LNU - IGPS Dagupan City
  2. 2. PA Justifying Itself to the Larger Community French Magistrate Alexander Tocqueville (1831)- The study of the American panel system. He wrote: Democracy in America (1835 & 1840) Emphasis on the inner workings of American democracy and its viability of its system of government.
  3. 3. 09/19/15 In 1831, Alexis de Tocqueville, a young French aristocrat visiting the United States, saw a new phenomenon in America. In Democracy in America, the book that emerged from his experiences, he described it, with a word he coined, as “individualism.” He was struck by Americans’ individualism because of the contrast to Europe, where “Our fathers only knew about egoism.”
  4. 4. Jacksonian Democracy • President Andrew Jackson democratization of jobs in the civil service, open to all segments of society. • Public employment was awarded to citizens on the basis of their political loyalties. • In 1881 Charles Guiteau failed to secure an appointment for a consulship in Paris and assassinated President James Garfield.
  5. 5. Emergence of the Progressive Movement The progressive movement led to the professionalization of the civil service with the passage of the Pendleton Act of 1883 ---the institution of the merit system in the civil service.
  6. 6. Woodrow Wilson (1887) Classical PA • In his famous essay – ” The Study of Administration” the separation of politics from administration and developing a science of administrative practices. • Politics /administration dichotomy
  7. 7. What is Public Administration? Various authors and scholars contributed to the definition of the discipline in the following manner and context.
  8. 8. 09/19/15 Dwight Waldo -1955 He says PA is the organization and management of men an materials to achieve the purposes of government. He further said that PA is the art and science of management as applied to the affairs of the state.
  9. 9. Gerald Caiden- 1971 - He says PA is cooperative group effort in public setting. - He says it covers all three branches - legislative, judicial and executive - It has an important role in formulating public policy an it is also the political process. - It has been influenced in recent years by the human – relations approach.
  10. 10. - it is policy-making, but it is not autonomous. -It is one of a number of basic political processes by which the people achieves and controls governance. Brian Fry- 1989
  11. 11. 09/19/15 David H. Rosenbloom- 1989 - It is the action part of government - It is the field mainly concerned with the means for implementing political values. It can best be identified with the executive branch.
  12. 12. -It is the process and contents of implementing public policies and programs. - It is cooperative human action whether within the public bureaucracy, the private sector, or in NGOs aimed at delivering services to the people. Raul P. De Guzman -1993
  13. 13. Identity Crisis and Issue of Acceptance According to Danilo Reyes (The study of PA in Perspective) He says PA has experienced constant, almost periodic episodes of re-examination in the course of its struggle for academic acceptance.
  14. 14. PA Focus and Process - Public Policy Making - Fiscal Administration - Organization and Management - Public Personnel Administration - Local Government Administration - Spatial Information Management
  15. 15. Leonard White (1926) in his writing “Introduction to Public Administration” acknowledged the politics/administration dichotomy
  16. 16. • Luther Gulick and Lybdall Urwick – POSDCORB planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting and budgeting. • William Willoughby- The introduction to the study of modern states (1919) • The reorganization of the administrative branch of government (1925) • The Principles of administration (1927) Application of scientific process to the administrative process (1930s)
  17. 17. Scientific Principles Frederick Taylor: Less wastage and inefficiency at the shop room level. - It was to increase predictive values to account for the fluid nature of the administrative phenomena.
  18. 18. Focus on the political process PA as an eclectic field Public choice model: adoption of economic theory Sociology: bureaucracy contains dysfunctions Psychologists began to offer new perspectives Public administration as Political Science
  19. 19. New Public Administration 1968 • Minnowbrook conference at the Syracuse University Public Administration attention to policy issues and concerns of policy analysis.
  20. 20. Scientific Revolution • Thomas Kuhn: The Scientific Revolutions (1962) • The notion of paradigms: an accepted model or pattern of approaching and explaining phenomena shared by community of scholars. • It made the discipline self conscious, integration of thoughts accumulated in the order of paradigms.
  21. 21. • The development of each phase may be characterized by locus or focus. • Locus: is the institutional” where” of the field, e.g. the bureaucracy • Focus: is the specialized “what” of the field, e.g. principles of administration. Paradigms of PA –Nicholas Henry
  22. 22. Paradigm 1: The Politics/Administration Dichotomy 1900-1926 • Goodnow: politics has to do with policies or expressions of the will while administration has to do with the execution of these policies. • Locus: PA should center in the government bureaucracy • PA was a significant clear field of political science • Analytical territory between PA and PS –emphasis organizational theory, budgeting and personnel
  23. 23. Paradigm 2: The Principles of Administration (1927-1937) Willoughby –claim that certain principles of PA are there, that they could be discovered and that administrators would be expert in their work if they learned how to apply these principles. * The Challenge 1938-1950: Chester Barnard “The Functions of the Executive” Politics and administration could never be dichotomized.
  24. 24. • Simon : 1947 “Administrative Behavior” that for every principle of administration advocated in literature there was a counter principle, then rendering the very idea moot. • The reaction to the Challenge (1947-1950) Simon: pure science of administration based on social psychology and prescribing for public policy based on political economy both approaches are mutually reinforcing…
  25. 25. • PA is faced of retooling to become a technically oriented pure science that might lose touch with political and social realities. • PA to retain their linkages with political science, their conceptual conception to the public policy making process, public administration considered the black box of that process, the formulation of public policies within the bureaucracy and their delivery to the polity.
  26. 26. • Lyndon Caldwell : called for the intelletualized understanding of the executive branch rather than knowledgeable action on the part of public administrators.
  27. 27. Paradigm 3: PA as Political Science (1950-1970) • PA as a field, area of interest of political science • A survey conducted in 1972 of the five major political science journals of a non- specialized nature that only four percent of all the articles published between 1960 and 1970 could be included in the category of bureaucratic politics.
  28. 28. • As a paradigm, administrative science provides a focus but not a locus. It offers techniques that require expertise and specialization • Administration was administration; there was no need for distinction between public, business and institutional • Rise of organization development-opening up organizations and self-actualization offered tempting attentive for conducting research. Paradigm 4: PA as Administrative Science (1956-1970)
  29. 29. Paradigm 5: PA as PA (1970 –Onwards) • Use of organizational theory and managerial service • Evolving locus and focus-distinction between public and private sphere appears to be waning. • PA concerned with policy science, political economy, and public policy making process and its analysis and measure of policy outputs
  30. 30. • PA is rearing away from political science • PA must borrow and redefine in its terms the concept with the methodologies and bureaucratic focus in administrative science. This can be achieved only in institutionally autonomous academic units free from the intellectual baggage of political science and administrative science.