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Trait Theories.pdf

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Trait Theories.pdf

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The following PPT covers the topics- Overview of trait theories, Allport’s Trait Theory, Cattell’s Trait Theory, Eysenck’s Trait Theory and McCrae and Costa’s Theory of Big-five Factors. The presentation is a part of the course "Psychology for everyday living".

The following PPT covers the topics- Overview of trait theories, Allport’s Trait Theory, Cattell’s Trait Theory, Eysenck’s Trait Theory and McCrae and Costa’s Theory of Big-five Factors. The presentation is a part of the course "Psychology for everyday living".

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Trait Theories.pdf

  1. 1. Trait theories of personality Psychology for Everyday Living – PSY 111 30-11-2022 Pavan Mohan N 1
  2. 2. Outline • Overview of trait theories • Allport’s Trait Theory • Hierarchy • Cattell’s Trait Theory • Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire • Eysenck’s Trait Theory • Personality dimensions • McCrae and Costa’s Theory • Big-five Factors • Conclusion 30-11-2022 Pavan Mohan N 2
  3. 3. Overview of trait theories • Personality, a characteristic way of thinking, feeling, and behaving • The entire puzzle is personality • Each piece in the puzzle can be considered a trait • Each piece of puzzle influences personality • Personality is a combination of traits that determine our behaviour • Traits are viewed as continuous dimension Ex: the trait of ‘extroversion-introversion’ • Trait-labels used to identify the characteristic way of behaving 30-11-2022 Pavan Mohan N 3 Infographic : Which Personality Type Are You? - AdvertisingRow.com | Home of Advertising Professionals, Advertising news, Infographics, Job offers..
  4. 4. Example of a trait-label and dimensions 30-11-2022 Pavan Mohan N 4 Viewed as continuous dimension Eysenck, H. J. (1952). The scientific study of personality.
  5. 5. Famous trait theorists • Gordon Allport • Raymond Cattell • Hans Eysenck • Robert McCrae and Paul Costa 30-11-2022 Pavan Mohan N 5
  6. 6. Allport’s Trait Theory • Examined 4,500 words used in the English language that could describe people • According to their theory, three types of traits govern our personality (in a hierarchy) 30-11-2022 Pavan Mohan N 6 Cardinal Central Secondary
  7. 7. Allport’s Trait Theory These are the dominant traits of one’s personality Cardinal Traits • Top of Allport’s trait hierarchy • Master controller of one’s personality • These traits may dominate personality Ex: M.K. Gandhi for his honesty • Very few people have personalities dominated by cardinal traits They come second in the hierarchy Central Traits • According to Allport, every person possesses 5-10 central traits in varying degrees • Responsible for shaping our personality • Ex: intelligent, loyal, dependable, aggressive etc. These are less relevant traits of personality Secondary Traits • These are basically situational or circumstantial traits • These can be numerous in number and are responsible for behaviors incongruent to individual’s usual behaviour • “aroused by a narrower range of equivalent stimuli and they issue into a narrower range of equivalent responses” 30-11-2022 Pavan Mohan N 7
  8. 8. Cattell’s Trait Theory • Using factor analysis-a statistical procedure, Cattell factor analysed the Allport’s list of 4,500 English adjectives. • He came up with the following sixteen trait dimensions of human personality 30-11-2022 Pavan Mohan N 8 Allport’s 4,500 Adjectives/Words Cattell’s 16 trait dimensions
  9. 9. Cattell’s Trait Theory 30-11-2022 Pavan Mohan N 9
  10. 10. Cattell’s Trait Theory 30-11-2022 Pavan Mohan N 10 Developed a questionnaire known as the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) 16PF psychology sheet - Bing..
  11. 11. Eysenck’s Trait Theory • He believed that our personality is largely innate and genetically based. • He also used factor analysis to understand the underlying personality traits • Initially, he proposed that our personality is comprised of two major personality dimensions: (extroversion vs. introversion) and (neuroticism vs. stability). • Different combinations of these dimensions lead to the development of different personalities • Later, he added the third dimension to his model and named it as psychoticism vs. socialization 30-11-2022 Pavan Mohan N 11
  12. 12. Eysenck’s Trait Theory Extroversion-introversion • Refers to the degree to which one seeks external or internal stimulation • Extroverts: Social, seek adventurous and prefer company when in stress. • Introverts: shy, enjoy their own company and turns inward when in stress. Neuroticism-stability • Refers to a dimension that describes people in the context of their emotionality and maladjusted behaviour 30-11-2022 Pavan Mohan N 12
  13. 13. Eysenck’s Trait Theory • Neuroticism: emotionally unstable, moody and maladjusted • Stable: tend to be calm Psychoticism-socialization • Psychoticism: aggressive, egocentric, anti-social and impulsive • Socialization: empathetic and conventional 30-11-2022 Pavan Mohan N 13
  14. 14. McCrae and Costa’s Big-five Factor Theory • McCrae and Costa believed that all human personality traits can be reduced to five factors only (OCEAN): • Openness to experience • Conscientiousness • Extraversion • Agreeableness • Neuroticism 30-11-2022 Pavan Mohan N 14
  15. 15. McCrae and Costa’s Big-five Factor Theory 30-11-2022 Pavan Mohan N 15 Openness to experience: such people love novelty and creativity. They have a curious mind and have an appreciation for art. They are an independent thinker and prefer to do a variety of things instead of routine activities. Conscientiousness: these people are more goal-directed, self- disciplined, hardworking, honest and competent. They prefer planned activity instead of spontaneous behaviour. Extraversion: similar to the description of Eysenck’s theory Agreeableness: people who score high on agreeableness have a tendency to be cooperative and compassionate. Such people are generally helpful and trustworthy. Neuroticism: these are worried, insecure and self-pitying people. Whereas, people who score low on neuroticism are self-satisfied and secure.

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