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Personality Theories
Road to Success
Prepared By
Manu Melwin Joy
Assistant Professor
Ilahia School of Management Studies
Kerala, India.
Phone – 9744551114
Mail – manu_melwinjoy@yahoo.com
1001 Skills
MMJ’s Management Skills Archive
The term personality is derived from the Latin
word persona meaning a mask.
A to Z  personality theories - A complete guide to human behavior
1. The total of one's nature
• self, oneself, being;
2. Individual characteristics
• disposition, nature, temper, temperament;
3. A notable person
• celebrity, star, cynosure;
Synonyms for personality (noun)
“Personality is the dynamic organization within the
individual of that psychophysical system that determines his
unique adjustmentto his environment.”
- Gordon Allport
Personality is the sum total of ways inwhichan individual
reacts and interacts withothers.
“Personality is I We get a good idea of what
personality is by listening to what we say when
we use "I". When you say I, you are, in effect,
summing up everything about yourself - your
likes and dislikes, fears and virtues, strengths
and weaknesses. The word I is what defined
you as an individual, as a person separate from
allothers.”
Adams (1954, cited in Schultz & Schultz, 1994)
• Trait and type approaches.
• Trait Theories
• Type Theories
• Dynamic approaches.
• Psychoanalytical theories
• Learning and behavioral approaches.
• Behaviorist theories.
• Social learning theories.
• Cognitive theories.
• Humanistic approaches
Approaches to personality
Traittheories
On the play ground, 6 year oldSam pushes little
Samanthaoff her tricycle and rides awayon it.
Why?
SAMSAMANTHA Traits
Aggressive
Hot Tempered
Undisciplined
personality traits are "enduring patterns of perceiving, relating
to, and thinking about the environment and oneself that are
exhibited in a wide range of social and personal contexts."
A trait is what wecall a characteristic way in which an individual
perceives,feels, believes, or acts.
Theorists generally assume
1. Traits are relatively stable over time,
2. Traits differ among individuals
3. Traits are also bipolar and
4. Traits influence behavior.
Threetrait theory
In 1936, psychologist Gordon Allport found that one English-
language dictionary alone contained more than 4,000 words
describing different personality traits. He categorized these
traits into three levels.
Threetrait theory
1. Cardinal Traits: Traits that dominate an individual’s whole life, often to the point
that the person becomes known specifically for these traits. Freudian,
Machiavellian, narcissism, Don Juan, Christ-like, etc.
2. Central Traits: These are the general characteristics that form the basic
foundations of personality. Terms such as intelligent, honest, shy and anxious
are considered central traits.
3. Secondary Traits: These are the traits that are sometimes related to attitudes or
preferences and often appear only in certain situations or under specific
circumstances. Some examples would be getting anxious when speaking to a
group or impatient while waiting in line.
16 personality factor theory
Trait theorist Raymond Cattell reduced the number of main
personality traits from All port’s initial list of over 4,000 down to 16
by means of a statistical technique called factor analysis.
16 personality factor theory
1. emotional, easily upset vs. calm, stable
2. Intelligent vs. unintelligent
3. suspicious vs. trusting
4. reserved, unfriendly vs. outgoing, friendly
5. assertive, dominant vs. not assertive, humble
6. sober, serious vs. happy-go-lucky
7. conscientious vs. expedient
8. shy, timid vs. venturesome
9. tender-minded vs. tough-minded
10.practical vs. imaginative
11.shrewd vs. forthright
12.self-assured, placid vs. apprehensive
13.conservative vs. experimenting
14.group oriented vs. self-sufficient
15.undisciplined vs. self-disciplined
16.Relaxed vs. tense, driven
Universal trait theory
British psychologist Hans Eysenck developed a model of
personality based upon just three universal traits were sufficient
to describe human personality. Differences between Cattell
and Eysenck emerged due to preferences for different forms of
factor analysis, with Cattell using oblique, Eysenck orthogonal
rotation to analyze the factors that emerged when personality
questionnaires were subjected to statistical analysis.
1. Introversion/Extraversion: Introversion involves directing attention on inner experiences,
while extraversion relates to focusing attention outward on other people and the
environment. So, a person high in introversion might be quiet and reserved, while an
individual high in extraversion might be sociable and outgoing.
2. Neuroticism/Emotional Stability: This dimension of Eysenck’s trait theory is related to
moodiness versus even-temperedness. Neuroticism refers to an individual’s tendency to
become upset or emotional, while stability refers to the tendency to remain
emotionally constant.
3. Psychoticism: Later, after studying individuals suffering from mental illness, Eysenck added
a personality dimension he called psychoticism to his trait theory. Individuals who are
high on this trait tend to have difficulty dealing with reality and may be antisocial,
hostile, non-empathetic and manipulative.
Universal trait theory
Big five model
Both Cattell’s and Eysenck’s theory have been the subject of
considerable research, which has led some theorists to believe that
Cattell focused on too many traits, while Eysenck focused on too few.
As a result, a new trait theory often referred to as the "Big Five" theory
emerged. This five-factor model of personality represents five core
traits that interact to form human personality. Lewis Goldberg proposed
a five-dimension personality model, nicknamed the Big five.
Big five model
1. Openness to Experience: the tendency to be imaginative, independent, and interested in
variety vs. practical, conforming, and interested in routine.
2. Conscientiousness: the tendency to be organized, careful, and disciplined vs.
disorganized, careless, and impulsive.
3. Extraversion: the tendency to be sociable, fun-loving, and affectionate vs. retiring,
somber, and reserved.
4. Agreeableness: the tendency to be soft-hearted, trusting, and helpful vs. ruthless,
suspicious, and uncooperative.
5. Neuroticism: the tendency to be calm, secure, and self-satisfied vs. anxious, insecure,
and self-pitying.
HEXACO model
Michael Ashton and Kibeom Lee , in 2008, proposed a six dimensional
HEXACO model of personality structure. Ashton and Lee especially
emphasize the Honesty-Humility (H) factor as differentiating the
HEXACO model from other personality frameworks. Specifically, the H
factor is described as sincere, honest, faithful/loyal,
modest/unassuming, fair-minded, VERSUS sly, deceitful, greedy,
pretentious, hypocritical, boastful and pompous. The H factor has
been linked to criminal, materialistic, power-seeking and unethical
tendencies.
HEXACO model
1. Honesty-Humility
2. Emotionality
3. Extraversion
4. Agreeableness
5. Conscientiousness and
6. Openness to Experience .
Criticisms of trait theories
1. being purely descriptive and offering little explanation of the underlying
causes of personality
2. Lead some people to accept oversimplified classifications
3. Underestimate the effect of specific situations on people's behavior.
4. Poor predictors of behavior.
Typetheories
SAMSAMANTHA Type
TypeA
Choleric
Types Vs Traits
Personalitytypereferstothe psychological
classificationofdifferenttypesofpeople
Personalitytraitreferstopsychological
classification ofdifferentlevels ordegrees
For example, according to type theories, there are two types of people, introverts and extroverts. According to trait
theories, introversion and extroversion are part of a continuousdimension, with manypeople in the middle.
4 Temperamenttheory
Temperament theory has its roots in the ancient four humors theory.
It may have origins in ancient Egypt or Mesopotamia, but it was the
Greek physician Hippocrates (460–370 BC) who developed it into a
medical theory. Next, Galen (AD 131–200) developed the first
typology of temperament. The word "temperament" itself comes
from Latin "temperare", "to mix". In the ideal personality, the
complementary characteristics or warm-cool and dry-moist were
exquisitely balanced.
Temperament theory
Blood
Yellow bile
Black bile
Phlegm.
Sanguine (pleasure-seeking and sociable)
Choleric (ambitious and leader-like)
Melancholic (introverted and thoughtful)
Phlegmatic (relaxed and quiet)
4 Temperaments4 humors
Melancholic
(introverted and thoughtful)
Sanguine
(pleasure-seeking and sociable)
Choleric
(ambitious and leader-like)
4 Temperaments
Phlegmatic
(relaxed and quiet)
A to Z  personality theories - A complete guide to human behavior
5 Temperament theory
Five temperaments is a theory in psychology, that expands upon the Four
Temperaments proposed in ancient medical theory. The development of a theory
of five temperaments begins with the Two-factor models of personality and the work
of the late William Schultz, and his FIRO-B program. It is a measure of interpersonal
relations orientations that calculates a person's behavior patterns based on the
scoring of a questionnaire. Although FIRO-B does not speak in terms of
"temperament," this system of analysis graded questionnaires on two scales in
three dimensions of interpersonal relations. When paired with temperament
theory, a measurement of five temperaments resulted
5 Temperament theory
Blood
Yellow bile
Black bile
Phlegm.
Sanguine (pleasure-seeking and sociable)
Choleric (ambitious and leader-like)
Melancholic (introverted and thoughtful)
Phlegmatic (relaxed and quiet)
5 Temperaments4 humors
Supine (Low self esteem)
Melancholic
(introverted and thoughtful)
Phlegmatic
(relaxed and quiet)
Choleric
(ambitious and leader-like)
Supine
(Low Self esteem)
Sanguine
(pleasure-seeking and sociable)
Type A andType B theory
Type A personality behavior was first described as a potential risk
factor for heart disease in the 1950s by cardiologists Meyer Friedman
and Ray Rosenman. After a ten-year study of healthy men between the
ages of 35 and 59, Friedman and Rosenman estimated that Type A
behavior doubles the risk of coronary heart disease in otherwise
healthy individuals.[
TypeA and Type B theory
Ambitious, rigidly organized, highly status
conscious, can be sensitive, care for other
people, are truthful, impatient, always try
to help others, take on more than they can
handle, want other people to get to the
point, proactive, and obsessed with time
management. People with Type A
personalities are often high-achieving
"workaholics" who multi-task, push
themselves with deadlines, and hate both
delays and ambivalence.
Type A
Live at a lower stress level and typically work
steadily, enjoying achievements but not
becoming stressed when they are not
achieved. When faced with competition,
they do not mind losing and either enjoy
the game or back down. They are often
reflective, thinking about the outer and
inner worlds. Furthermore, Type B
personalities may have a poor sense of
time schedule and can be predominately
right brained thinkers.
Type B
A to Z  personality theories - A complete guide to human behavior
Type D theory
Type D personality, a concept used in the field of medical
psychology, is defined as the joint tendency towards negative
affectivity (e.g. worry, irritability, gloom) and social inhibition (e.g.
reticence and a lack of self-assurance). The letter D stands for
'distressed'. Johan Denollet, professor of Medical Psychology at Tilburg
University, Tilburg, The Netherlands, developed the construct based
on clinical observations in cardiac patients, empirical evidence, and
existing theories of personality.
Type Dtheory
1. Individuals with a Type D personality have the tendency to experience
increased negative emotions across time and situations and tend not to
share these emotions with others, because of fear of rejection or
disapproval.
2. The prevalence of Type D personality is 21% in the general population and
ranges between 18 to 53% in cardiac patients.
3. Type D is associated with a 4-fold increased risk of mortality, recurrent
myocardial infarction (MI), or sudden cardiac death, independently of
traditional risk factors, such as disease severity.
Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
This was one of the more influential ideas originated in the
theoretical work of Carl Jung as published in the book Psychological
Types. The original developers of the personality inventory were
Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers. these
two, having studied extensively the work of Jung, turned their
interest of human behavior into a devotion of turning the theory of
psychological types to practical use.
A to Z  personality theories - A complete guide to human behavior
A to Z  personality theories - A complete guide to human behavior
A to Z  personality theories - A complete guide to human behavior
Enneagram of Personality
The Enneagram of Personality (or simply the Enneagram, from the
Greek words ennea [nine] and gramma [something written or
drawn]) is a model of human personality which is principally used as
a typology of nine interconnected personality types. Principally
developed by Oscar Ichazo and Claudio Naranjo, it is also partly based on
earlier teachings of G. I. Gurdjieff. The typology defines nine personality
types which are represented by the points of a geometric figure
called an enneagram.
Enneagramof Personality
Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus
Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus is a book written by American
author, and relationship counsellor, John Gray. The book asserts that most of
common relationship problems between men and women are a result of
fundamental differences between the genders, which the author exemplifies by
means of the book's eponymous metaphor: that men and women are from
distinct planets – men from Mars and women from Venus – and that each
gender is acclimated to its own planet's society and customs, but not those of
the other.
Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus
1. When men are stressed, they withdraw until they find a solution to the
problem. When women are stressed their natural reaction is to talk about
issues (even if talking does not solve the problem).
PsychoanalyticalTheories
SAMSAMANTHA
Thoughts
Feelings
Displaced Anger
Unconscious
• Psychoanalytic theories explain human behaviour in terms of the interaction of
various components of personality.
• SigmundFreud was the founder of this school.
• Freud drew on the physics of his day (thermodynamics) to coin the term psycho-
dynamics.
• Based on the idea of converting heat into mechanical energy, he proposed
psychic energy could be converted into behaviour.
• Freud's theory places central importance on dynamic, unconscious psychological
conflicts.
PsychoanalyticalTheories
Structural model of personality
The founder of psychoanalytic theory was Sigmund Freud. The term
psychoanalysis is used to refer to many aspects of Freud’s work and
research, including Freudian therapy and the research methodology
he used to develop his theories. Freud relied heavily upon his
observations and case studies of his patients when he formed his
theory of personality development.
Structuralmodel of personality
According to Freud the mind can be divided
into two main parts:
• The conscious mind includes everything that we are
aware of. This is the aspect of our mental
processing that we can think and talk about
rationally.
• The unconscious mind is a reservoir of feelings,
thoughts, urges, and memories that outside of
our conscious awareness. Most of the
contents of the unconscious are unacceptable
or unpleasant, such as feelings of pain, anxiety,
or conflict.
A to Z  personality theories - A complete guide to human behavior
Stages of Psychosexual Development
According to Sigmund Freud, personality is mostly established by the
age of five. Early experiences play a large role in personality
development and continue to influence behavior later in life. Freud's
theory of psychosexual development is one of the best known, but
also one of the most controversial. Freud believed that personality
develops through a series of childhood stages during which the
pleasure-seeking energies of the id become focused on certain
erogenous areas. This psychosexual energy, or libido, was described
as the driving force behind behavior.
Sigmund Freud defined
libido as the instinct energy
or force, contained in what
Freud called the id, the
largely unconscious
structure of the psyche.
Building on the work of Karl
Abraham, Freud developed
the idea of a series of
developmental phases in
which the libido fixates on
different erogenous zones
Structuralmodel of personality
DefenceMechanisms
The term got its start in psychoanalytic therapy, but it has slowly worked its
way into everyday language. In Sigmund Freud's topographical model of
personality, the ego is the aspect of personality that deals with reality. While
doing this, the ego also has to cope with the conflicting demands of the id and
the superego. The id seeks to fulfil all wants, needs and impulses while the
superego tries to get the ego to act in an idealistic and moral manner. What
happens when the ego cannot deal with the demands of our desires, the
constraints of reality and our own moral standards?
DefenceMechanisms
According to Freud, anxiety is an unpleasant inner state that people seek to avoid.
Anxiety acts as a signal to the ego that things are not going right. Frued identified
three types of anxiety:
• Neurotic anxiety is the unconscious worry that we will lose control of the id's
urges, resulting in punishment for inappropriate behavior.
• Reality anxiety is fear of real-world events. The cause of this anxiety is usually
easily identified. For example, a person might fear receiving a dog bite when
they are near a menacing dog. The most common way of reducing this anxiety
is to avoid the threatening object.
• Moralanxietyinvolves a fear of violating our own moral principles.
In order to deal with this anxiety, Freud believed that defense mechanisms helped
shield the ego from the conflicts created by the id, superego and reality.
DefenceMechanisms
• Denial - Denial is an outright refusal to admit or recognize that something has
occurred or is currently occurring. Drug addicts or alcoholics often deny that
they have a problem, while victims of traumatic events may deny that the
event ever occurred.
• Repression - Repression acts to keep information out of conscious awareness.
However, these memories don't just disappear; they continue to influence
our behavior. For example, a person who has repressed memories of abuse
suffered as a child may later have difficulty forming relationships.
• Suppression - Sometimes we do this consciously by forcing the unwanted
information out of our awareness, which is known as suppression. In most
cases, however, this removal of anxiety-provoking memories from our
awareness is believed to occur unconsciously.
A to Z  personality theories - A complete guide to human behavior
Defence Mechanisms
• Displacement - Displacement involves taking out our frustrations, feelings and
impulses on people or objects that are less threatening. Displaced aggression
is a common example of this defense mechanism.
• Sublimation - Sublimation is a defence mechanism that allows us to act out
unacceptable impulses by converting these behaviours into a more
acceptable form. For example, a person experiencing extreme anger might
take up kick-boxing as a means of venting frustration.
• Projection - Projection is a defense mechanism that involves taking our own
unacceptable qualities or feelings and ascribing them to other people. For
example, if you have a strong dislike for someone, you might instead believe
that he or she does not like you
A to Z  personality theories - A complete guide to human behavior
Defence Mechanisms
• Intellectualization - Intellectualization works to reduce anxiety by thinking about
events in a cold, clinical way. For example, a person who has just been
diagnosed with a terminal illness might focus on learning everything about the
disease in order to avoid distress and remain distant from the reality of the
situation.
• Rationalization - Rationalization is a defense mechanism that involves explaining
an unacceptable behavior or feeling in a rational or logical manner, avoiding
the true reasons for the behavior. For example a student might blame a poor
exam score on the instructor rather than his or her lack of preparation.
• Regression - When confronted by stressful events, people sometimes abandon
coping strategies and revert to patterns of behavior used earlier in
development. For example, an individual fixated at an earlier developmental
stage might cry or sulk upon hearing unpleasant news.
A to Z  personality theories - A complete guide to human behavior
Criticisms
• The theory is focused almost entirely on male development with little
mention of femalepsychosexualdevelopment.
• His theories are difficult to test scientifically. Concepts such as the libido are
impossible to measure, and therefore cannot be tested.
• Future predictions are too vague. How can we know that a current behavior was
caused specifically by a childhood experience? The length of time
between the cause and the effect is too long to assume that there is a
relationship between the two variables.
• Freud's theory is based upon case studies and not empirical research. Also,
Freud based his theory on the recollections of his adult patients, not on
actual observation and study of children.
Behavioristtheories
SAMSAMANTHA
Learned
Behavior
Previous aggressive behavior
rewarded
Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up
in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of
specialist I might select -- doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man
and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his
ancestors.
--John Watson, Behaviorism, 1930
a. Behavioral psychology, also known as behaviorism, is a theory of learning based
upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning.
b. Advocated by famous psychologists such as John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner,
behavioral theories dominated psychology during the early half of the twentieth
century. Today, behavioral techniques are still widely used in therapeutic settings
to help clients learn new skills and behaviors.
c. The school of behaviorism emerged in the 1910s, led by John B. Watson.
d. Unlike psychodynamic theorists, behaviorists study only observable behavior.
e. Their explanations of personality focus on learning.
f. Skinner, Bandura, and Walter Mischel all proposed important behaviourist
theories.
Behaviourist Theories
1. Learning occurs through interactions with the environment.
2. The environment shapes behavior and
3. Taking internal mental states such as thoughts, feelings and emotions
into consideration is useless in explaining behavior.
Assumptions of behaviorism
Classical Conditioning
Ivan Pavlov was a noted Russian physiologist who went on to win the
1904 Nobel Prize for his work studying digestive processes. It was
while studying digestion in dogs that Pavlov noted an interesting
occurrence – his canine subjects would begin to salivate whenever
an assistant entered the room.
A to Z  personality theories - A complete guide to human behavior
A to Z  personality theories - A complete guide to human behavior
ClassicalConditioning
1. The Unconditioned Stimulus - The unconditioned stimulus is one that
unconditionally, naturally, and automatically triggers a response.
2. The Unconditioned Response - The unconditioned response is the unlearned
response that occurs naturally in response to the unconditioned stimulus.
3. The Conditioned Stimulus - The conditioned stimulus is previously neutral stimulus
that, after becoming associated with the unconditioned stimulus, eventually
comes to trigger a conditioned response.
4. The Conditioned Response - The conditioned response is the learned response to
the previously neutral stimulus.
ClassicalConditioning
Behaviorists have described a number of different phenomena associated with
classical conditioning.
1. Acquisition - Acquisition is the initial stage of learning when a response is first
established and gradually strengthened.
2. Extinction - Extinction is when the occurrences of a conditioned response
decrease or disappear.
3. Spontaneous Recovery - Spontaneous Recovery is the reappearance of the
conditioned response after a rest period or period of lessened response.
4. Stimulus Generalization - Stimulus Generalization is the tendency for the conditioned
stimulus to evoke similar responses after the response has been conditioned.
5. Discrimination - Discrimination is the ability to differentiate between a conditioned
stimulus and other stimuli that have not been paired with an unconditioned
stimulus.
Operant Conditioning
Operant conditioning was coined by behaviourist B.F. Skinner. As a
behaviorist, Skinner believed that internal thoughts and motivations
could not be used to explain behavior. Instead, he suggested, we
should look only at the external, observable causes of human
behavior.
"The consequences of behavior determine the probability that the
behavior willoccur again"
-B. F. Skinner
Operant Conditioning
1. Skinner used the term operant to refer to any "active behavior that operates upon the
environmenttogenerateconsequences.”
2. Reinforcement is any event that strengthens or increases the behavior it
follows. There are two kinds of reinforcers:
a. Positive reinforcers are favorable events or outcomes that are presented after
the behavior. In situations that reflect positive reinforcement, a response
or behavior is strengthened by the addition of something, such as praise
or a direct reward.
b. Negative reinforcers involve the removal of an unfavorable events or
outcomes after the display of a behavior. In these situations, a response
is strengthened by the removal of something considered unpleasant.
Operant Conditioning
1. Punishment, on the other hand, is the presentation of an adverse event or
outcome that causes a decrease in the behavior it follows. There are two
kinds of punishment:
a. Positive punishment, sometimes referred to as punishment by application,
involves the presentation of an unfavorable event or outcome in order to
weaken the response it follows.
b. Negative punishment, also known as punishment by removal, occurs when an
favorable event or outcome is removed after a behavior occurs.
A to Z  personality theories - A complete guide to human behavior
Operant Conditioning
1. In operant conditioning, schedules of reinforcement are an important component of
the learning process. When and how often we reinforce a behavior can have a dramatic
impact on the strength and rate of the response.
a. Continuous Reinforcement - In continuous reinforcement, the desired behavior is
reinforced every single time it occurs. Generally, this schedule is best used during
the initial stages of learning in order to create a strong association between the
behavior and the response. Once the response if firmly attached, reinforcement is
usually switched to a partial reinforcement schedule.
b. Partial Reinforcement - In partial reinforcement, the response is reinforced only part of
the time. Learned behaviors are acquired more slowly with partial reinforcement,
but the response is more resistant to extinction.
Operant Conditioning
There are four schedules of partial reinforcement:
1. Fixed-ratio schedules are those where a response is reinforced only after a specified number
of responses. This schedule produces a high, steady rate of responding with only a brief
pause after the delivery of the reinforcer.
2. Variable-ratio schedules occur when a response is reinforced after an unpredictable number
of responses. This schedule creates a high steady rate of responding. Gambling and
lottery games are good examples of a reward based on a variable ratio schedule.
3. Fixed-interval schedules are those where the first response is rewarded only after a specified
amount of time has elapsed. This schedule causes high amounts of responding near the
end of the interval, but much slower responding immediately after the delivery of the
reinforcer.
4. Variable-interval schedules occur when a response is rewarded after an unpredictable amount
of time has passed. This schedule produces a slow, steady rate of response.
Techniquesin behaviorism
Some of the techniques used by behavior analysts include:
1. Chaining: This behavior techniques involves breaking a task down into smaller
components. The simplest or first task in the process is taught first. Once that task has
been learned, the next task can be taught. This continues until the entire sequence is
successfully chained together.
2. Prompting: This approach involves using some type of prompt to trigger a desired
response. This might involve issues a verbal cue, such as telling the person what to do,
or a visual cue, such as displaying a picture designed to cue the response.
3. Shaping: This strategy involves gradually altering a behavior, rewarding closer and closer
approximations of the desired behavior.
Stages to behavioural change
Stages to behavioural change
Stages to behavioural change
Stages to behavioural change
Stages to behavioural change
Stages to behavioural change
1. Behaviorism is a one-dimensional approach to understanding human behavior and that
behavioural theories do not account for free will and internal influences such as
moods, thoughts and feelings.
2. Behaviorism does not account for other types of learning, especially learning that occurs
without the use of reinforcement and punishment.
3. People and animals are able to adapt their behavior when new information is introduced,
even if a previous behavior pattern has been established through reinforcement.
4. Behaviourist researchers often do animal studies of behavior and then generalize
their results to human beings. Generalizing results in this way can be misleading, since
humans have complex thought processes that affect behavior.
5. Behaviourists often underestimate the importance of biological factors.
6. By emphasizing the situational influences on personality, some social-cognitive
theorists underestimate the importance of personality traits.
Criticisms of behaviorism
SocialLearningtheories
LittleboysOnly Littlegirls
Allboys pushingsamanth
Social Learning theory
social learning theory was proposed by Neal E. Miller and John Dollard in 1941. The
proposition of social learning was expanded upon and theorized by Canadian
psychologist Albert Bandura from 1962 until the present. . Bandura provided his
concept of self-efficacy in 1977, while he refuted the traditional learning theory
for understanding learning.
1. Social learning theory, used in psychology, education, and communication, posits
that portions of an individual's knowledge acquisition can be directly related to
observing others within the context of social interactions, experiences, and
outside media influences.
2. In other words, people do not learn new behaviours solely by trying them and
either succeeding or failing, but rather, the survival of humanity is dependent
upon the replication of the actions of others.
3. People learn by observing others, with the environment, behavior, and cognition all as the
chief factors in influencing development. These three factors are not static or
independent elements; rather, they are all reciprocal
Social Learning theory
The main tenets of Albert Bandura’s theory are
that:
• people learn by observing others
• the same set of stimuli may provoke
different responses from different
people, or from the same people at
different times
• the world and a person’s behaviour are
interlinked
• Personality is an interaction between
three factors: the environment,
behaviour, and a person’s psychological
processes.
Concepts
Bandura proposed a four step conceptual scheme of the process involved in
observational learning:
• Step 1: This first step incorporates the attention processes that are involved including
certain model characteristics which may increase the likelihood of the behaviour
being attended to.
• Step 2: The second step refers to retention processes including the observer's ability to
encode, to remember and to make sense of what has been observed.
• Step 3: The third step refers to motor reproduction processes including the capabilities
that the observer has to perform the behaviours being observed.
• Step 4: The final step refers to motivational processes including external reinforcement,
vicarious reinforcement, and self-reinforcement. If a behaviour is to be imitated, an
observer must be motivated to perform that behaviour.
Observational learning
• According to Bandura, behaviour is influenced by multiple determinants.
• The concept of reciprocal determinism proposes that these factors have an
interactive effect on each other and that they exist in the environment as well as
within the individual in the form of affect, cognition, and constitutional disposition.
• External rewards and punishments, internal beliefs and expectancies all form part of
a complex system.
• Consistent with the principles of systems, a change in one aspect requires a change
in all others so that balance and equilibrium can once again be achieved.
Reciprocal Determinism
Bandura used the term self-efficacy to refer to a person's belief that he or she can
successfully carry "courses of action required to deal with prospective situations
containing many ambiguous, unpredictable, and often stressful elements“. Among the
sources of self-efficacy are:
• performance accomplishments: Past experiences of success and failure in attempts to
accomplish goals are the most important regulators of self-efficacy;
• vicarious experience: When individuals witness others' successes and failures, they are
provided with information which they can use as a basis for comparison for their own
personal competence in similar situations;
• verbal persuasion: Being told by others that one can or cannot competently perform a
particular behaviour can lead to increases or decreases in self-efficacy;
• emotional arousal: Levels of self-efficacy are also proposed to be Influenced by the
degree and quality of the emotional arousal an individual experiences when
engaging in a particular behaviour in a specific situation.
Self Efficacy
• Behaviour has been found to be more consistent than is argued by Bandura's theory
which focuses a great deal on the situation. Some researchers have argued that the
theory lacks attention to biological or hormonal processes.
• Probably of most significance is the criticism that the theory is not unified. Concepts and
processes such as observational learning and self-efficacy have been highly
researched but there has been little explanation about the relationship among the
concepts
Criticisms
Cognitivetheories
Sheis weakOtherboysgettingawaywith
aggression
Perception
Memory
Thinking
1. The term "cognitive psychology" was first used in 1967 by American psychologist
Ulric Neisser in his book Cognitive Psychology.
2. According to Neisser, cognition involves "all processes by which the sensory input is
transformed, reduced,elaborated, stored, recovered, and used.
3. It is concerned with these processes even when they operate in the absence of
relevant stimulation, as in images and hallucinations.
4. Given such a sweeping definition, it is apparent that cognition is involved in
everything a human being might possibly do; that every psychological
phenomenon is a cognitive phenomenon."
Cognitive theories
1. Unlike behaviorism, which focuses only on observable behaviors, cognitive
psychology is concerned with internal mental states.
2. Unlike psychoanalysis, which relies heavily on subjective perceptions, cognitive
psychology uses scientific research methods to study mental processes.
How is Cognitive Psychology Different?
Stages of Cognitive Development
Jean Piaget was born in Switzerland in 1896. After receiving his doctoral degree
at age 22, Piaget formally began a career that would have a profound
impact on both psychology and education. After working with Alfred Binet,
Piaget developed an interest in the intellectual development of children.
Based upon his observations, he concluded that children were not less
intelligent than adults, they simply think differently.
Stages of Cognitive Development
1. Sensorimotor Stage - The first stage of Piaget's theory lasts from birth to
approximately age two and is centered on the infant trying to make sense of the
world. During the sensorimotor stage, an infant's knowledge of the world is
limited to his or her sensory perceptions and motor activities
2. Preoperational Stage - The preoperational stage occurs roughly between the ages two
and seven. Language development is one of the hallmarks of this period. During
the preoperational stage, children also become increasingly adept at using
symbols, as evidenced by the increase in playing and pretending.
3. Concrete Operational Stage - The concrete operational stage begins around age seven
and continues until approximately age eleven. During this time, children gain a
better understanding of mental operations. Children begin thinking logically
about concrete events, but have difficulty understanding abstract or hypothetical
concepts.
4. Formal Operational Stage - The formal operational stage begins at approximately age
twelve to and lasts into adulthood. During this time, people develop the ability to
think about abstract concepts. Skills such as logical thought, deductive reasoning,
and systematic planning also emerge during this stage.
1. Schemas - Schemas are categories of
knowledge that help us to interpret and
understand the world.
2. Assimilation - The process of taking in new
information into our previously existing
schema's,
3. Accommodation - Another part of
adaptation involves changing or altering
our existing schemas in light of new
information.
4. Equilibration – Mechanism by which
children try to strike a balance between
assimilation and accommodation.
Key Concepts
A to Z  personality theories - A complete guide to human behavior
1. Problems With Research Methods - A major source of inspiration for the theory was
Piaget's observations of his own three children. In addition to this, the
other children in Piaget's small research sample were all from well-
educated professionals of high socioeconomic status. Because of this
unrepresentative sample, it is difficult to generalize his findings to a larger
population.
2. Problems With Formal Operations - Research has disputed Piaget's argument that
all children will automatically move to the next stage of development as
they mature. Some data suggests that environmental factors may play a
role in the development of formal operations.
3. Underestimates Children's Abilities - Most researchers agree that children possess
many of the abilities at an earlier age than Piaget suspected. Recent theory
of mind research has found that 4- and 5-year-old children have a rather
sophisticated understanding of their own mental processes as well as those
of other people. For example, children of this age have some ability to take
the perspective of another person, meaning they are far less egocentric
than Piaget believed.
Criticisms
General Intelligence
British psychologist Charles Spearman (1863-1945) described a concept he referred
to as general intelligence, or the g factor. After using a technique known as
factor analysis to examine a number of mental aptitude tests, Spearman
concluded that scores on these tests were remarkably similar. People who
performed well on one cognitive test tended to perform well on other tests,
while those who scored badly on one test tended to score badly on others. He
concluded that intelligence is general cognitive ability that could be measured
and numerically expressed.
Primary Mental Abilities
Psychologist Louis L. Thurstone (1887-1955) offered a differing theory of
intelligence. Instead of viewing intelligence as a single, general ability,
Thurstone's theory focused on seven different "primary mental abilities
Primary Mental Abilities
Thurstone's theory focused on seven different "primary mental abilities." The
abilities that he described were:
1. Verbal comprehension
2. Reasoning
3. Perceptual speed
4. Numerical ability
5. Word fluency
6. Associative memory
7. Spatial visualization
Multiple Intelligences
One of the more recent ideas to emerge is Howard Gardner's theory of multiple
intelligences. Instead of focusing on the analysis of test scores, Gardner
proposed that numerical expressions of human intelligence are not a full and
accurate depiction of people's abilities. His theory describes eight distinct
intelligences that are based on skills and abilities that are valued within
different cultures
MultipleIntelligences
The eight intelligences Gardner described are:
1. Visual-spatial Intelligence
2. Verbal-linguistic Intelligence
3. Bodily-kinesthetic Intelligence
4. Logical-mathematical Intelligence
5. Interpersonal Intelligence
6. Musical Intelligence
7. Intra personal Intelligence
8. Naturalistic Intelligence
TriarchicTheory of Intelligence
Psychologist Robert Sternberg defined intelligence as "mental activity directed
toward purposive adaptation to, selection and shaping of, real-world
environments relevant to one’s life." While he agreed with Gardner that
intelligence is much broader than a single, general ability, he instead suggested
some of Gardner's intelligences are better viewed as individual talents.
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Sternberg proposed what he refers to as 'successful intelligence,' which is
comprised of three different factors:
1. Analyticalintelligence: This component refers to problem-solving abilities.
2. Creative intelligence: This aspect of intelligence involves the ability to deal
with new situations using past experiences and current skills.
3. Practical intelligence: This element refers to the ability to adapt to a changing
environment.
Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization
Gestalt psychology was founded by German thinkers Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler and Kurt
Koffka and focused on how people interpret the world. The Gestalt perspective formed
partially as a response to the structuralism of Wilhelm Wundt, who focused on breaking
down mental events and experiences to the smallest elements. Max Wertheimer noted
that rapid sequences of perceptual events, such as rows of flashing lights, create the
illusion of motion even when there is none. This is known as the phi phenomenon
Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization
Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization
Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization
Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization
Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization
Humanistictheories
Quest forpersonal
competence
Achievement
Self
Esteem
As matures, finds ways of enhancing his self without
hurting others
HumanisticTheories
1. In humanistic psychology it is emphasized people have free will and they
play an active role in determining how they behave.
2. Humanistic psychologists try to see people’s lives as those people would
see them. They tend to have an optimistic perspective on human nature
3. Accordingly, humanistic psychology focuses on subjective experiences of
persons as opposed to forced, definitive factors that determine behavior.
4. AbrahamMaslowand CarlRogerswere proponents of humanistic view
HumanisticTheories
The humanistic approach states that the self is composed of concepts unique to
ourselves. The self-concept includes three components:
• Self worth – what we think about ourselves. Rogers believed feelings of self-
worth developed in early childhood and were formed from the interaction of
the child with the mother and father.
• Self-image – How we see ourselves, which is important to good psychological
health. Self-image includes the influence of our body image on inner
personality.
• Ideal self – This is the person who we would like to be. It consists of our goals
and ambitions in life, and is dynamic – i.e. forever changing. The ideal self in
childhood is not the ideal self in our teens or late twenties etc.
Hierarchy of needs
Psychologist Abraham Maslow first introduced his concept of a hierarchy of
needs in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation" and his
subsequent book Motivation and Personality. This hierarchy suggests that
people are motivated to fulfil basic needs before moving on to other, more
advanced needs.
A to Z  personality theories - A complete guide to human behavior
Personcentered theory
Carl Rogers (1902-1987) was a humanistic psychologist agreed with most of what
Maslow believed, but added that for a person to "grow", they need an
environment that provides them with genuineness (openness and self-
disclosure), acceptance (being seen with unconditional positive regard), and
empathy (being listened to and understood).
Person centeredtheory
Rogers identified five characteristics of the fully functioning person:
• Open to experience: both positive and negative emotions accepted. Negative feelings are not
denied, but worked through
• Existential living: in touch with different experiences as they occur in life, avoiding prejudging
and preconceptions. Being able to live and fully appreciate the present, not always looking
back to the past or forward to the future
• Trust feelings: feeling, instincts and gut-reactions are paid attention to and trusted. People’s
own decisions are the right ones and we should trust ourselves to make the right choices.
• Creativity: creative thinking and risk taking are features of a person’s life. Person does not
play safe all the time. This involves the ability to adjust and change and seek new
experiences.
• Fulfilled life: person is happy and satisfied with life, and always looking for new challenges
and experiences.
A to Z  personality theories - A complete guide to human behavior
Youare different
A to Z  personality theories - A complete guide to human behavior
Stop hiding behind the mask
Don’t confuse
yourself with
the mask
Drop the mask…
Be yourself..
Thank you
Prepared By
Manu Melwin Joy
Assistant Professor
Ilahia School of Management Studies
Kerala, India.
Phone – 9744551114
Mail – manu_melwinjoy@yahoo.com

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A to Z personality theories - A complete guide to human behavior

  • 2. Road to Success Prepared By Manu Melwin Joy Assistant Professor Ilahia School of Management Studies Kerala, India. Phone – 9744551114 Mail – manu_melwinjoy@yahoo.com
  • 4. The term personality is derived from the Latin word persona meaning a mask.
  • 6. 1. The total of one's nature • self, oneself, being; 2. Individual characteristics • disposition, nature, temper, temperament; 3. A notable person • celebrity, star, cynosure; Synonyms for personality (noun)
  • 7. “Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of that psychophysical system that determines his unique adjustmentto his environment.” - Gordon Allport
  • 8. Personality is the sum total of ways inwhichan individual reacts and interacts withothers.
  • 9. “Personality is I We get a good idea of what personality is by listening to what we say when we use "I". When you say I, you are, in effect, summing up everything about yourself - your likes and dislikes, fears and virtues, strengths and weaknesses. The word I is what defined you as an individual, as a person separate from allothers.” Adams (1954, cited in Schultz & Schultz, 1994)
  • 10. • Trait and type approaches. • Trait Theories • Type Theories • Dynamic approaches. • Psychoanalytical theories • Learning and behavioral approaches. • Behaviorist theories. • Social learning theories. • Cognitive theories. • Humanistic approaches Approaches to personality
  • 12. On the play ground, 6 year oldSam pushes little Samanthaoff her tricycle and rides awayon it. Why?
  • 14. personality traits are "enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and oneself that are exhibited in a wide range of social and personal contexts." A trait is what wecall a characteristic way in which an individual perceives,feels, believes, or acts.
  • 15. Theorists generally assume 1. Traits are relatively stable over time, 2. Traits differ among individuals 3. Traits are also bipolar and 4. Traits influence behavior.
  • 16. Threetrait theory In 1936, psychologist Gordon Allport found that one English- language dictionary alone contained more than 4,000 words describing different personality traits. He categorized these traits into three levels.
  • 17. Threetrait theory 1. Cardinal Traits: Traits that dominate an individual’s whole life, often to the point that the person becomes known specifically for these traits. Freudian, Machiavellian, narcissism, Don Juan, Christ-like, etc. 2. Central Traits: These are the general characteristics that form the basic foundations of personality. Terms such as intelligent, honest, shy and anxious are considered central traits. 3. Secondary Traits: These are the traits that are sometimes related to attitudes or preferences and often appear only in certain situations or under specific circumstances. Some examples would be getting anxious when speaking to a group or impatient while waiting in line.
  • 18. 16 personality factor theory Trait theorist Raymond Cattell reduced the number of main personality traits from All port’s initial list of over 4,000 down to 16 by means of a statistical technique called factor analysis.
  • 19. 16 personality factor theory 1. emotional, easily upset vs. calm, stable 2. Intelligent vs. unintelligent 3. suspicious vs. trusting 4. reserved, unfriendly vs. outgoing, friendly 5. assertive, dominant vs. not assertive, humble 6. sober, serious vs. happy-go-lucky 7. conscientious vs. expedient 8. shy, timid vs. venturesome 9. tender-minded vs. tough-minded 10.practical vs. imaginative 11.shrewd vs. forthright 12.self-assured, placid vs. apprehensive 13.conservative vs. experimenting 14.group oriented vs. self-sufficient 15.undisciplined vs. self-disciplined 16.Relaxed vs. tense, driven
  • 20. Universal trait theory British psychologist Hans Eysenck developed a model of personality based upon just three universal traits were sufficient to describe human personality. Differences between Cattell and Eysenck emerged due to preferences for different forms of factor analysis, with Cattell using oblique, Eysenck orthogonal rotation to analyze the factors that emerged when personality questionnaires were subjected to statistical analysis.
  • 21. 1. Introversion/Extraversion: Introversion involves directing attention on inner experiences, while extraversion relates to focusing attention outward on other people and the environment. So, a person high in introversion might be quiet and reserved, while an individual high in extraversion might be sociable and outgoing. 2. Neuroticism/Emotional Stability: This dimension of Eysenck’s trait theory is related to moodiness versus even-temperedness. Neuroticism refers to an individual’s tendency to become upset or emotional, while stability refers to the tendency to remain emotionally constant. 3. Psychoticism: Later, after studying individuals suffering from mental illness, Eysenck added a personality dimension he called psychoticism to his trait theory. Individuals who are high on this trait tend to have difficulty dealing with reality and may be antisocial, hostile, non-empathetic and manipulative. Universal trait theory
  • 22. Big five model Both Cattell’s and Eysenck’s theory have been the subject of considerable research, which has led some theorists to believe that Cattell focused on too many traits, while Eysenck focused on too few. As a result, a new trait theory often referred to as the "Big Five" theory emerged. This five-factor model of personality represents five core traits that interact to form human personality. Lewis Goldberg proposed a five-dimension personality model, nicknamed the Big five.
  • 23. Big five model 1. Openness to Experience: the tendency to be imaginative, independent, and interested in variety vs. practical, conforming, and interested in routine. 2. Conscientiousness: the tendency to be organized, careful, and disciplined vs. disorganized, careless, and impulsive. 3. Extraversion: the tendency to be sociable, fun-loving, and affectionate vs. retiring, somber, and reserved. 4. Agreeableness: the tendency to be soft-hearted, trusting, and helpful vs. ruthless, suspicious, and uncooperative. 5. Neuroticism: the tendency to be calm, secure, and self-satisfied vs. anxious, insecure, and self-pitying.
  • 24. HEXACO model Michael Ashton and Kibeom Lee , in 2008, proposed a six dimensional HEXACO model of personality structure. Ashton and Lee especially emphasize the Honesty-Humility (H) factor as differentiating the HEXACO model from other personality frameworks. Specifically, the H factor is described as sincere, honest, faithful/loyal, modest/unassuming, fair-minded, VERSUS sly, deceitful, greedy, pretentious, hypocritical, boastful and pompous. The H factor has been linked to criminal, materialistic, power-seeking and unethical tendencies.
  • 25. HEXACO model 1. Honesty-Humility 2. Emotionality 3. Extraversion 4. Agreeableness 5. Conscientiousness and 6. Openness to Experience .
  • 26. Criticisms of trait theories 1. being purely descriptive and offering little explanation of the underlying causes of personality 2. Lead some people to accept oversimplified classifications 3. Underestimate the effect of specific situations on people's behavior. 4. Poor predictors of behavior.
  • 29. Types Vs Traits Personalitytypereferstothe psychological classificationofdifferenttypesofpeople Personalitytraitreferstopsychological classification ofdifferentlevels ordegrees For example, according to type theories, there are two types of people, introverts and extroverts. According to trait theories, introversion and extroversion are part of a continuousdimension, with manypeople in the middle.
  • 30. 4 Temperamenttheory Temperament theory has its roots in the ancient four humors theory. It may have origins in ancient Egypt or Mesopotamia, but it was the Greek physician Hippocrates (460–370 BC) who developed it into a medical theory. Next, Galen (AD 131–200) developed the first typology of temperament. The word "temperament" itself comes from Latin "temperare", "to mix". In the ideal personality, the complementary characteristics or warm-cool and dry-moist were exquisitely balanced.
  • 31. Temperament theory Blood Yellow bile Black bile Phlegm. Sanguine (pleasure-seeking and sociable) Choleric (ambitious and leader-like) Melancholic (introverted and thoughtful) Phlegmatic (relaxed and quiet) 4 Temperaments4 humors
  • 32. Melancholic (introverted and thoughtful) Sanguine (pleasure-seeking and sociable) Choleric (ambitious and leader-like) 4 Temperaments Phlegmatic (relaxed and quiet)
  • 34. 5 Temperament theory Five temperaments is a theory in psychology, that expands upon the Four Temperaments proposed in ancient medical theory. The development of a theory of five temperaments begins with the Two-factor models of personality and the work of the late William Schultz, and his FIRO-B program. It is a measure of interpersonal relations orientations that calculates a person's behavior patterns based on the scoring of a questionnaire. Although FIRO-B does not speak in terms of "temperament," this system of analysis graded questionnaires on two scales in three dimensions of interpersonal relations. When paired with temperament theory, a measurement of five temperaments resulted
  • 35. 5 Temperament theory Blood Yellow bile Black bile Phlegm. Sanguine (pleasure-seeking and sociable) Choleric (ambitious and leader-like) Melancholic (introverted and thoughtful) Phlegmatic (relaxed and quiet) 5 Temperaments4 humors Supine (Low self esteem)
  • 36. Melancholic (introverted and thoughtful) Phlegmatic (relaxed and quiet) Choleric (ambitious and leader-like) Supine (Low Self esteem) Sanguine (pleasure-seeking and sociable)
  • 37. Type A andType B theory Type A personality behavior was first described as a potential risk factor for heart disease in the 1950s by cardiologists Meyer Friedman and Ray Rosenman. After a ten-year study of healthy men between the ages of 35 and 59, Friedman and Rosenman estimated that Type A behavior doubles the risk of coronary heart disease in otherwise healthy individuals.[
  • 38. TypeA and Type B theory Ambitious, rigidly organized, highly status conscious, can be sensitive, care for other people, are truthful, impatient, always try to help others, take on more than they can handle, want other people to get to the point, proactive, and obsessed with time management. People with Type A personalities are often high-achieving "workaholics" who multi-task, push themselves with deadlines, and hate both delays and ambivalence. Type A Live at a lower stress level and typically work steadily, enjoying achievements but not becoming stressed when they are not achieved. When faced with competition, they do not mind losing and either enjoy the game or back down. They are often reflective, thinking about the outer and inner worlds. Furthermore, Type B personalities may have a poor sense of time schedule and can be predominately right brained thinkers. Type B
  • 40. Type D theory Type D personality, a concept used in the field of medical psychology, is defined as the joint tendency towards negative affectivity (e.g. worry, irritability, gloom) and social inhibition (e.g. reticence and a lack of self-assurance). The letter D stands for 'distressed'. Johan Denollet, professor of Medical Psychology at Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherlands, developed the construct based on clinical observations in cardiac patients, empirical evidence, and existing theories of personality.
  • 41. Type Dtheory 1. Individuals with a Type D personality have the tendency to experience increased negative emotions across time and situations and tend not to share these emotions with others, because of fear of rejection or disapproval. 2. The prevalence of Type D personality is 21% in the general population and ranges between 18 to 53% in cardiac patients. 3. Type D is associated with a 4-fold increased risk of mortality, recurrent myocardial infarction (MI), or sudden cardiac death, independently of traditional risk factors, such as disease severity.
  • 42. Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) This was one of the more influential ideas originated in the theoretical work of Carl Jung as published in the book Psychological Types. The original developers of the personality inventory were Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers. these two, having studied extensively the work of Jung, turned their interest of human behavior into a devotion of turning the theory of psychological types to practical use.
  • 46. Enneagram of Personality The Enneagram of Personality (or simply the Enneagram, from the Greek words ennea [nine] and gramma [something written or drawn]) is a model of human personality which is principally used as a typology of nine interconnected personality types. Principally developed by Oscar Ichazo and Claudio Naranjo, it is also partly based on earlier teachings of G. I. Gurdjieff. The typology defines nine personality types which are represented by the points of a geometric figure called an enneagram.
  • 48. Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus is a book written by American author, and relationship counsellor, John Gray. The book asserts that most of common relationship problems between men and women are a result of fundamental differences between the genders, which the author exemplifies by means of the book's eponymous metaphor: that men and women are from distinct planets – men from Mars and women from Venus – and that each gender is acclimated to its own planet's society and customs, but not those of the other.
  • 49. Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus 1. When men are stressed, they withdraw until they find a solution to the problem. When women are stressed their natural reaction is to talk about issues (even if talking does not solve the problem).
  • 52. • Psychoanalytic theories explain human behaviour in terms of the interaction of various components of personality. • SigmundFreud was the founder of this school. • Freud drew on the physics of his day (thermodynamics) to coin the term psycho- dynamics. • Based on the idea of converting heat into mechanical energy, he proposed psychic energy could be converted into behaviour. • Freud's theory places central importance on dynamic, unconscious psychological conflicts. PsychoanalyticalTheories
  • 53. Structural model of personality The founder of psychoanalytic theory was Sigmund Freud. The term psychoanalysis is used to refer to many aspects of Freud’s work and research, including Freudian therapy and the research methodology he used to develop his theories. Freud relied heavily upon his observations and case studies of his patients when he formed his theory of personality development.
  • 54. Structuralmodel of personality According to Freud the mind can be divided into two main parts: • The conscious mind includes everything that we are aware of. This is the aspect of our mental processing that we can think and talk about rationally. • The unconscious mind is a reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories that outside of our conscious awareness. Most of the contents of the unconscious are unacceptable or unpleasant, such as feelings of pain, anxiety, or conflict.
  • 56. Stages of Psychosexual Development According to Sigmund Freud, personality is mostly established by the age of five. Early experiences play a large role in personality development and continue to influence behavior later in life. Freud's theory of psychosexual development is one of the best known, but also one of the most controversial. Freud believed that personality develops through a series of childhood stages during which the pleasure-seeking energies of the id become focused on certain erogenous areas. This psychosexual energy, or libido, was described as the driving force behind behavior.
  • 57. Sigmund Freud defined libido as the instinct energy or force, contained in what Freud called the id, the largely unconscious structure of the psyche. Building on the work of Karl Abraham, Freud developed the idea of a series of developmental phases in which the libido fixates on different erogenous zones
  • 59. DefenceMechanisms The term got its start in psychoanalytic therapy, but it has slowly worked its way into everyday language. In Sigmund Freud's topographical model of personality, the ego is the aspect of personality that deals with reality. While doing this, the ego also has to cope with the conflicting demands of the id and the superego. The id seeks to fulfil all wants, needs and impulses while the superego tries to get the ego to act in an idealistic and moral manner. What happens when the ego cannot deal with the demands of our desires, the constraints of reality and our own moral standards?
  • 60. DefenceMechanisms According to Freud, anxiety is an unpleasant inner state that people seek to avoid. Anxiety acts as a signal to the ego that things are not going right. Frued identified three types of anxiety: • Neurotic anxiety is the unconscious worry that we will lose control of the id's urges, resulting in punishment for inappropriate behavior. • Reality anxiety is fear of real-world events. The cause of this anxiety is usually easily identified. For example, a person might fear receiving a dog bite when they are near a menacing dog. The most common way of reducing this anxiety is to avoid the threatening object. • Moralanxietyinvolves a fear of violating our own moral principles. In order to deal with this anxiety, Freud believed that defense mechanisms helped shield the ego from the conflicts created by the id, superego and reality.
  • 61. DefenceMechanisms • Denial - Denial is an outright refusal to admit or recognize that something has occurred or is currently occurring. Drug addicts or alcoholics often deny that they have a problem, while victims of traumatic events may deny that the event ever occurred. • Repression - Repression acts to keep information out of conscious awareness. However, these memories don't just disappear; they continue to influence our behavior. For example, a person who has repressed memories of abuse suffered as a child may later have difficulty forming relationships. • Suppression - Sometimes we do this consciously by forcing the unwanted information out of our awareness, which is known as suppression. In most cases, however, this removal of anxiety-provoking memories from our awareness is believed to occur unconsciously.
  • 63. Defence Mechanisms • Displacement - Displacement involves taking out our frustrations, feelings and impulses on people or objects that are less threatening. Displaced aggression is a common example of this defense mechanism. • Sublimation - Sublimation is a defence mechanism that allows us to act out unacceptable impulses by converting these behaviours into a more acceptable form. For example, a person experiencing extreme anger might take up kick-boxing as a means of venting frustration. • Projection - Projection is a defense mechanism that involves taking our own unacceptable qualities or feelings and ascribing them to other people. For example, if you have a strong dislike for someone, you might instead believe that he or she does not like you
  • 65. Defence Mechanisms • Intellectualization - Intellectualization works to reduce anxiety by thinking about events in a cold, clinical way. For example, a person who has just been diagnosed with a terminal illness might focus on learning everything about the disease in order to avoid distress and remain distant from the reality of the situation. • Rationalization - Rationalization is a defense mechanism that involves explaining an unacceptable behavior or feeling in a rational or logical manner, avoiding the true reasons for the behavior. For example a student might blame a poor exam score on the instructor rather than his or her lack of preparation. • Regression - When confronted by stressful events, people sometimes abandon coping strategies and revert to patterns of behavior used earlier in development. For example, an individual fixated at an earlier developmental stage might cry or sulk upon hearing unpleasant news.
  • 67. Criticisms • The theory is focused almost entirely on male development with little mention of femalepsychosexualdevelopment. • His theories are difficult to test scientifically. Concepts such as the libido are impossible to measure, and therefore cannot be tested. • Future predictions are too vague. How can we know that a current behavior was caused specifically by a childhood experience? The length of time between the cause and the effect is too long to assume that there is a relationship between the two variables. • Freud's theory is based upon case studies and not empirical research. Also, Freud based his theory on the recollections of his adult patients, not on actual observation and study of children.
  • 70. Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select -- doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors. --John Watson, Behaviorism, 1930
  • 71. a. Behavioral psychology, also known as behaviorism, is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. b. Advocated by famous psychologists such as John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner, behavioral theories dominated psychology during the early half of the twentieth century. Today, behavioral techniques are still widely used in therapeutic settings to help clients learn new skills and behaviors. c. The school of behaviorism emerged in the 1910s, led by John B. Watson. d. Unlike psychodynamic theorists, behaviorists study only observable behavior. e. Their explanations of personality focus on learning. f. Skinner, Bandura, and Walter Mischel all proposed important behaviourist theories. Behaviourist Theories
  • 72. 1. Learning occurs through interactions with the environment. 2. The environment shapes behavior and 3. Taking internal mental states such as thoughts, feelings and emotions into consideration is useless in explaining behavior. Assumptions of behaviorism
  • 73. Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov was a noted Russian physiologist who went on to win the 1904 Nobel Prize for his work studying digestive processes. It was while studying digestion in dogs that Pavlov noted an interesting occurrence – his canine subjects would begin to salivate whenever an assistant entered the room.
  • 76. ClassicalConditioning 1. The Unconditioned Stimulus - The unconditioned stimulus is one that unconditionally, naturally, and automatically triggers a response. 2. The Unconditioned Response - The unconditioned response is the unlearned response that occurs naturally in response to the unconditioned stimulus. 3. The Conditioned Stimulus - The conditioned stimulus is previously neutral stimulus that, after becoming associated with the unconditioned stimulus, eventually comes to trigger a conditioned response. 4. The Conditioned Response - The conditioned response is the learned response to the previously neutral stimulus.
  • 77. ClassicalConditioning Behaviorists have described a number of different phenomena associated with classical conditioning. 1. Acquisition - Acquisition is the initial stage of learning when a response is first established and gradually strengthened. 2. Extinction - Extinction is when the occurrences of a conditioned response decrease or disappear. 3. Spontaneous Recovery - Spontaneous Recovery is the reappearance of the conditioned response after a rest period or period of lessened response. 4. Stimulus Generalization - Stimulus Generalization is the tendency for the conditioned stimulus to evoke similar responses after the response has been conditioned. 5. Discrimination - Discrimination is the ability to differentiate between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that have not been paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
  • 78. Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning was coined by behaviourist B.F. Skinner. As a behaviorist, Skinner believed that internal thoughts and motivations could not be used to explain behavior. Instead, he suggested, we should look only at the external, observable causes of human behavior.
  • 79. "The consequences of behavior determine the probability that the behavior willoccur again" -B. F. Skinner
  • 80. Operant Conditioning 1. Skinner used the term operant to refer to any "active behavior that operates upon the environmenttogenerateconsequences.” 2. Reinforcement is any event that strengthens or increases the behavior it follows. There are two kinds of reinforcers: a. Positive reinforcers are favorable events or outcomes that are presented after the behavior. In situations that reflect positive reinforcement, a response or behavior is strengthened by the addition of something, such as praise or a direct reward. b. Negative reinforcers involve the removal of an unfavorable events or outcomes after the display of a behavior. In these situations, a response is strengthened by the removal of something considered unpleasant.
  • 81. Operant Conditioning 1. Punishment, on the other hand, is the presentation of an adverse event or outcome that causes a decrease in the behavior it follows. There are two kinds of punishment: a. Positive punishment, sometimes referred to as punishment by application, involves the presentation of an unfavorable event or outcome in order to weaken the response it follows. b. Negative punishment, also known as punishment by removal, occurs when an favorable event or outcome is removed after a behavior occurs.
  • 83. Operant Conditioning 1. In operant conditioning, schedules of reinforcement are an important component of the learning process. When and how often we reinforce a behavior can have a dramatic impact on the strength and rate of the response. a. Continuous Reinforcement - In continuous reinforcement, the desired behavior is reinforced every single time it occurs. Generally, this schedule is best used during the initial stages of learning in order to create a strong association between the behavior and the response. Once the response if firmly attached, reinforcement is usually switched to a partial reinforcement schedule. b. Partial Reinforcement - In partial reinforcement, the response is reinforced only part of the time. Learned behaviors are acquired more slowly with partial reinforcement, but the response is more resistant to extinction.
  • 84. Operant Conditioning There are four schedules of partial reinforcement: 1. Fixed-ratio schedules are those where a response is reinforced only after a specified number of responses. This schedule produces a high, steady rate of responding with only a brief pause after the delivery of the reinforcer. 2. Variable-ratio schedules occur when a response is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses. This schedule creates a high steady rate of responding. Gambling and lottery games are good examples of a reward based on a variable ratio schedule. 3. Fixed-interval schedules are those where the first response is rewarded only after a specified amount of time has elapsed. This schedule causes high amounts of responding near the end of the interval, but much slower responding immediately after the delivery of the reinforcer. 4. Variable-interval schedules occur when a response is rewarded after an unpredictable amount of time has passed. This schedule produces a slow, steady rate of response.
  • 85. Techniquesin behaviorism Some of the techniques used by behavior analysts include: 1. Chaining: This behavior techniques involves breaking a task down into smaller components. The simplest or first task in the process is taught first. Once that task has been learned, the next task can be taught. This continues until the entire sequence is successfully chained together. 2. Prompting: This approach involves using some type of prompt to trigger a desired response. This might involve issues a verbal cue, such as telling the person what to do, or a visual cue, such as displaying a picture designed to cue the response. 3. Shaping: This strategy involves gradually altering a behavior, rewarding closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
  • 92. 1. Behaviorism is a one-dimensional approach to understanding human behavior and that behavioural theories do not account for free will and internal influences such as moods, thoughts and feelings. 2. Behaviorism does not account for other types of learning, especially learning that occurs without the use of reinforcement and punishment. 3. People and animals are able to adapt their behavior when new information is introduced, even if a previous behavior pattern has been established through reinforcement. 4. Behaviourist researchers often do animal studies of behavior and then generalize their results to human beings. Generalizing results in this way can be misleading, since humans have complex thought processes that affect behavior. 5. Behaviourists often underestimate the importance of biological factors. 6. By emphasizing the situational influences on personality, some social-cognitive theorists underestimate the importance of personality traits. Criticisms of behaviorism
  • 96. Social Learning theory social learning theory was proposed by Neal E. Miller and John Dollard in 1941. The proposition of social learning was expanded upon and theorized by Canadian psychologist Albert Bandura from 1962 until the present. . Bandura provided his concept of self-efficacy in 1977, while he refuted the traditional learning theory for understanding learning.
  • 97. 1. Social learning theory, used in psychology, education, and communication, posits that portions of an individual's knowledge acquisition can be directly related to observing others within the context of social interactions, experiences, and outside media influences. 2. In other words, people do not learn new behaviours solely by trying them and either succeeding or failing, but rather, the survival of humanity is dependent upon the replication of the actions of others. 3. People learn by observing others, with the environment, behavior, and cognition all as the chief factors in influencing development. These three factors are not static or independent elements; rather, they are all reciprocal Social Learning theory
  • 98. The main tenets of Albert Bandura’s theory are that: • people learn by observing others • the same set of stimuli may provoke different responses from different people, or from the same people at different times • the world and a person’s behaviour are interlinked • Personality is an interaction between three factors: the environment, behaviour, and a person’s psychological processes. Concepts
  • 99. Bandura proposed a four step conceptual scheme of the process involved in observational learning: • Step 1: This first step incorporates the attention processes that are involved including certain model characteristics which may increase the likelihood of the behaviour being attended to. • Step 2: The second step refers to retention processes including the observer's ability to encode, to remember and to make sense of what has been observed. • Step 3: The third step refers to motor reproduction processes including the capabilities that the observer has to perform the behaviours being observed. • Step 4: The final step refers to motivational processes including external reinforcement, vicarious reinforcement, and self-reinforcement. If a behaviour is to be imitated, an observer must be motivated to perform that behaviour. Observational learning
  • 100. • According to Bandura, behaviour is influenced by multiple determinants. • The concept of reciprocal determinism proposes that these factors have an interactive effect on each other and that they exist in the environment as well as within the individual in the form of affect, cognition, and constitutional disposition. • External rewards and punishments, internal beliefs and expectancies all form part of a complex system. • Consistent with the principles of systems, a change in one aspect requires a change in all others so that balance and equilibrium can once again be achieved. Reciprocal Determinism
  • 101. Bandura used the term self-efficacy to refer to a person's belief that he or she can successfully carry "courses of action required to deal with prospective situations containing many ambiguous, unpredictable, and often stressful elements“. Among the sources of self-efficacy are: • performance accomplishments: Past experiences of success and failure in attempts to accomplish goals are the most important regulators of self-efficacy; • vicarious experience: When individuals witness others' successes and failures, they are provided with information which they can use as a basis for comparison for their own personal competence in similar situations; • verbal persuasion: Being told by others that one can or cannot competently perform a particular behaviour can lead to increases or decreases in self-efficacy; • emotional arousal: Levels of self-efficacy are also proposed to be Influenced by the degree and quality of the emotional arousal an individual experiences when engaging in a particular behaviour in a specific situation. Self Efficacy
  • 102. • Behaviour has been found to be more consistent than is argued by Bandura's theory which focuses a great deal on the situation. Some researchers have argued that the theory lacks attention to biological or hormonal processes. • Probably of most significance is the criticism that the theory is not unified. Concepts and processes such as observational learning and self-efficacy have been highly researched but there has been little explanation about the relationship among the concepts Criticisms
  • 105. 1. The term "cognitive psychology" was first used in 1967 by American psychologist Ulric Neisser in his book Cognitive Psychology. 2. According to Neisser, cognition involves "all processes by which the sensory input is transformed, reduced,elaborated, stored, recovered, and used. 3. It is concerned with these processes even when they operate in the absence of relevant stimulation, as in images and hallucinations. 4. Given such a sweeping definition, it is apparent that cognition is involved in everything a human being might possibly do; that every psychological phenomenon is a cognitive phenomenon." Cognitive theories
  • 106. 1. Unlike behaviorism, which focuses only on observable behaviors, cognitive psychology is concerned with internal mental states. 2. Unlike psychoanalysis, which relies heavily on subjective perceptions, cognitive psychology uses scientific research methods to study mental processes. How is Cognitive Psychology Different?
  • 107. Stages of Cognitive Development Jean Piaget was born in Switzerland in 1896. After receiving his doctoral degree at age 22, Piaget formally began a career that would have a profound impact on both psychology and education. After working with Alfred Binet, Piaget developed an interest in the intellectual development of children. Based upon his observations, he concluded that children were not less intelligent than adults, they simply think differently.
  • 108. Stages of Cognitive Development 1. Sensorimotor Stage - The first stage of Piaget's theory lasts from birth to approximately age two and is centered on the infant trying to make sense of the world. During the sensorimotor stage, an infant's knowledge of the world is limited to his or her sensory perceptions and motor activities 2. Preoperational Stage - The preoperational stage occurs roughly between the ages two and seven. Language development is one of the hallmarks of this period. During the preoperational stage, children also become increasingly adept at using symbols, as evidenced by the increase in playing and pretending. 3. Concrete Operational Stage - The concrete operational stage begins around age seven and continues until approximately age eleven. During this time, children gain a better understanding of mental operations. Children begin thinking logically about concrete events, but have difficulty understanding abstract or hypothetical concepts. 4. Formal Operational Stage - The formal operational stage begins at approximately age twelve to and lasts into adulthood. During this time, people develop the ability to think about abstract concepts. Skills such as logical thought, deductive reasoning, and systematic planning also emerge during this stage.
  • 109. 1. Schemas - Schemas are categories of knowledge that help us to interpret and understand the world. 2. Assimilation - The process of taking in new information into our previously existing schema's, 3. Accommodation - Another part of adaptation involves changing or altering our existing schemas in light of new information. 4. Equilibration – Mechanism by which children try to strike a balance between assimilation and accommodation. Key Concepts
  • 111. 1. Problems With Research Methods - A major source of inspiration for the theory was Piaget's observations of his own three children. In addition to this, the other children in Piaget's small research sample were all from well- educated professionals of high socioeconomic status. Because of this unrepresentative sample, it is difficult to generalize his findings to a larger population. 2. Problems With Formal Operations - Research has disputed Piaget's argument that all children will automatically move to the next stage of development as they mature. Some data suggests that environmental factors may play a role in the development of formal operations. 3. Underestimates Children's Abilities - Most researchers agree that children possess many of the abilities at an earlier age than Piaget suspected. Recent theory of mind research has found that 4- and 5-year-old children have a rather sophisticated understanding of their own mental processes as well as those of other people. For example, children of this age have some ability to take the perspective of another person, meaning they are far less egocentric than Piaget believed. Criticisms
  • 112. General Intelligence British psychologist Charles Spearman (1863-1945) described a concept he referred to as general intelligence, or the g factor. After using a technique known as factor analysis to examine a number of mental aptitude tests, Spearman concluded that scores on these tests were remarkably similar. People who performed well on one cognitive test tended to perform well on other tests, while those who scored badly on one test tended to score badly on others. He concluded that intelligence is general cognitive ability that could be measured and numerically expressed.
  • 113. Primary Mental Abilities Psychologist Louis L. Thurstone (1887-1955) offered a differing theory of intelligence. Instead of viewing intelligence as a single, general ability, Thurstone's theory focused on seven different "primary mental abilities
  • 114. Primary Mental Abilities Thurstone's theory focused on seven different "primary mental abilities." The abilities that he described were: 1. Verbal comprehension 2. Reasoning 3. Perceptual speed 4. Numerical ability 5. Word fluency 6. Associative memory 7. Spatial visualization
  • 115. Multiple Intelligences One of the more recent ideas to emerge is Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. Instead of focusing on the analysis of test scores, Gardner proposed that numerical expressions of human intelligence are not a full and accurate depiction of people's abilities. His theory describes eight distinct intelligences that are based on skills and abilities that are valued within different cultures
  • 116. MultipleIntelligences The eight intelligences Gardner described are: 1. Visual-spatial Intelligence 2. Verbal-linguistic Intelligence 3. Bodily-kinesthetic Intelligence 4. Logical-mathematical Intelligence 5. Interpersonal Intelligence 6. Musical Intelligence 7. Intra personal Intelligence 8. Naturalistic Intelligence
  • 117. TriarchicTheory of Intelligence Psychologist Robert Sternberg defined intelligence as "mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection and shaping of, real-world environments relevant to one’s life." While he agreed with Gardner that intelligence is much broader than a single, general ability, he instead suggested some of Gardner's intelligences are better viewed as individual talents.
  • 118. Triarchic Theory of Intelligence Sternberg proposed what he refers to as 'successful intelligence,' which is comprised of three different factors: 1. Analyticalintelligence: This component refers to problem-solving abilities. 2. Creative intelligence: This aspect of intelligence involves the ability to deal with new situations using past experiences and current skills. 3. Practical intelligence: This element refers to the ability to adapt to a changing environment.
  • 119. Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization Gestalt psychology was founded by German thinkers Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler and Kurt Koffka and focused on how people interpret the world. The Gestalt perspective formed partially as a response to the structuralism of Wilhelm Wundt, who focused on breaking down mental events and experiences to the smallest elements. Max Wertheimer noted that rapid sequences of perceptual events, such as rows of flashing lights, create the illusion of motion even when there is none. This is known as the phi phenomenon
  • 120. Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization
  • 121. Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization
  • 122. Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization
  • 123. Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization
  • 124. Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization
  • 126. Quest forpersonal competence Achievement Self Esteem As matures, finds ways of enhancing his self without hurting others
  • 127. HumanisticTheories 1. In humanistic psychology it is emphasized people have free will and they play an active role in determining how they behave. 2. Humanistic psychologists try to see people’s lives as those people would see them. They tend to have an optimistic perspective on human nature 3. Accordingly, humanistic psychology focuses on subjective experiences of persons as opposed to forced, definitive factors that determine behavior. 4. AbrahamMaslowand CarlRogerswere proponents of humanistic view
  • 128. HumanisticTheories The humanistic approach states that the self is composed of concepts unique to ourselves. The self-concept includes three components: • Self worth – what we think about ourselves. Rogers believed feelings of self- worth developed in early childhood and were formed from the interaction of the child with the mother and father. • Self-image – How we see ourselves, which is important to good psychological health. Self-image includes the influence of our body image on inner personality. • Ideal self – This is the person who we would like to be. It consists of our goals and ambitions in life, and is dynamic – i.e. forever changing. The ideal self in childhood is not the ideal self in our teens or late twenties etc.
  • 129. Hierarchy of needs Psychologist Abraham Maslow first introduced his concept of a hierarchy of needs in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation" and his subsequent book Motivation and Personality. This hierarchy suggests that people are motivated to fulfil basic needs before moving on to other, more advanced needs.
  • 131. Personcentered theory Carl Rogers (1902-1987) was a humanistic psychologist agreed with most of what Maslow believed, but added that for a person to "grow", they need an environment that provides them with genuineness (openness and self- disclosure), acceptance (being seen with unconditional positive regard), and empathy (being listened to and understood).
  • 132. Person centeredtheory Rogers identified five characteristics of the fully functioning person: • Open to experience: both positive and negative emotions accepted. Negative feelings are not denied, but worked through • Existential living: in touch with different experiences as they occur in life, avoiding prejudging and preconceptions. Being able to live and fully appreciate the present, not always looking back to the past or forward to the future • Trust feelings: feeling, instincts and gut-reactions are paid attention to and trusted. People’s own decisions are the right ones and we should trust ourselves to make the right choices. • Creativity: creative thinking and risk taking are features of a person’s life. Person does not play safe all the time. This involves the ability to adjust and change and seek new experiences. • Fulfilled life: person is happy and satisfied with life, and always looking for new challenges and experiences.
  • 136. Stop hiding behind the mask
  • 138. Drop the mask… Be yourself..
  • 139. Thank you Prepared By Manu Melwin Joy Assistant Professor Ilahia School of Management Studies Kerala, India. Phone – 9744551114 Mail – manu_melwinjoy@yahoo.com