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Jaana Kettunen: Social media in guidande and counselling

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Presentation in November 2015

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Jaana Kettunen: Social media in guidande and counselling

  1. 1. UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ Aktuel Vejledningsforskning: Inspiration & indsigt November 20, 2015 – Copenhagen, Denmark Jaana Kettunen, University of Jyväskylä, Finland Understanding the use of social media in guidance and counselling
  2. 2. UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ Aim To provide a basis for understanding the different ways in which practitioners experience the use of social media guidance and counselling
  3. 3. UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ Skills and Competencies Needed How do we most effectively train Role of Social media in guidance Social media in Guidance Guidance in Social media
  4. 4. UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ Introduction  Initially ICT is used to automate existing functions (such as assessments) and in supporting existing services (such as using the telephone to deliver one-on-one career counseling).  ICT was used to improve what was already being done  Recent advances in the Web have changed the ways in which information is created and disseminated.  The Web has evolved from a resource to facilitate communication and disseminate information to the collaborative construction of knowledge using social media  The locus of control in the Web is shifting from experts to a blend of expert and socially-constructed knowledge.
  5. 5. UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ
  6. 6. UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ Introduction  Considerable research has been conducted on identifying the skills and competencies required for using ICT in career services (e.g. Barnes & Watts, 2009; Bimrose, Barnes, & Atwell, 2010; Cogoi, 2005; Cedefop, 2009; Pyle 2000).  Additionally and importantly, attention has also been given to ethical principles and guidelines career service delivery and usage (e.g. NBCC, NCDA, IAEVG).
  7. 7. UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ Gap: Due to the relatively recent use of social media in career services, a very limited amount of research has been conducted in this area, especially describing the experiences of practitioners Successful integration social media in career services is not only dependent on the skills or technical facilities available, but also on practitioners' willingness to accept the changes that new technology may bring to service delivery. Introduction
  8. 8. UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ Defining social media “Social media is a process, where individuals and groups build up a common understanding and meanings with contents, communities and web 2.0 technology.” Sources: Ahlqvist et al., (2010) and Kolbwich & Maurer (2006)
  9. 9. UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ  “form of communication which makes use of information networks and information technology and deals with content created by users in an interactive way and in which interpersonal relationships are created and maintained” Source: Finnish Terminology Center (2010) Defining social media
  10. 10. UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ Aim of the study  The main aim is to investigate the different understandings of social media and competency for social media in guidance and counselling as experienced by practitioners.  The overarching aim is to identify the critical aspects of qualitative different ways of understanding
  11. 11. UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ Data  collected using focus group interview methodology  16 Danish and Finnish career practitioners with experience using social media in career services  10 females, 6 males  age from 30 to 59  career services experience from 2 to 17 years  from variety of settings (comprehensive, secondary, higher education, as well as public employment services)  purposeful sampling was utilized: experiences concerning the use of social media guided the identification and selection of interviewees.
  12. 12. UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ  Phenomenographic research  Investigates the qualitatively different ways in which people at collective level experience or conceptualize the target phenomenon (Marton and Booth, 1997; Marton and Pong, 2005; Åkerlind, 2005; 2012)  The research outcome contains a hierarchically structured set of categories that describe people’s qualitatively different ways of experiencing the same phenomenon (Marton, 1986). Method
  13. 13. UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ PRACTITIONERS´ EXPERIENCES OF SOCIAL MEDIA
  14. 14. UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ I find the use of social media in guidance and counselling important A) Yes B) Some C) No
  15. 15. UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ Kettunen, J., Vuorinen, R., Sampson, J. P., Jr. (2015). Practitioners´ experiences of social media. Results
  16. 16. UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ DIMENSIONS OF VARIATION CATEGORIES Means for delivering information Medium for one- to-one communication Interactive working space Impetus for paradigm change and reform Role of social media Function of social media Attitude Rationale Intervention paradigm Nature of interaction Practitioner's role Kettunen, Vuorinen & Sampson 2015. Practitioners´ experiences of social media
  17. 17. UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ Category 1: Means for delivering information Role of social media useful tools Purpose delivering information and advice Attitude reserved Rationale visibility Perception challenge Intervention paradigm individual face-to-face intervention Nature of interaction practitioner  individual Practitioner's role expert role “It is used as, kind of like the first step to something real/proper.”
  18. 18. UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ Category 2: Medium for one-to-one communication Role of social media useful tools viable alternative Purpose delivering information and advice delivering career services Attitude reserved careful Rationale visibility accessibility Perception challenge change Intervention paradigm individual face-to-face intervention individual intervention Nature of interaction practitioner  individual practitioner  individual Practitioner's role expert role reflexive role “How do I integrate these new practices into old, established work routine? ”
  19. 19. UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ Category 3: Interactive working space Role of social media useful tools viable alternative space for career services Purpose delivering information and advice delivering career services collaborative career exploration Attitude reserved careful adaptive Rationale visibility accessibility interactivity Perception challenge change opportunity Intervention paradigm individual face-to-face intervention individual intervention group intervention Nature of interaction practitioner  individual practitioner  individual practitioner  individual/group individual peers Practitioner's role expert role reflexive role facilitating role “It provides possibilities to bring together people who are wrestling with the same problems...”
  20. 20. UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ Category 4: Impetus for paradigm change and reform “When you go into social media you accept that it is social media, and social media works in social ways...” Role of social media useful tools viable alternative space for career services participatory social space Purpose delivering information and advice delivering career services Collaborative career exploration co-careering Attitude reserved careful adaptive proactive Rationale visibility accessibility interactivity influence Perception challenge change opportunity reform Intervention paradigm individual face-to-face intervention individual intervention group intervention co-constructed intervention Nature of interaction practitioner  individual practitioner  individual practitioner  individual/gro up individual peers individual community members individual professional Practitioner's role expert role reflexive role facilitating role participating and engaging role
  21. 21. UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ Kettunen, J., Vuorinen, R., & Sampson, J. (2015). Practitioners experiences of social media in career services.
  22. 22. UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ COMPETENCY FOR SOCIAL MEDIA
  23. 23. UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ The term competency will be used to refer to a combination of the relevant attributes that underlie the aspects of successful professional performance. (Moore, Cheng, & Dainty, 2002). Defining competency
  24. 24. UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ How confident do you feel in using social media in your professional practice? A) I feel very confident B) I feel quite confident C) I don´t feel confident at all
  25. 25. UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ Results Kettunen, J., Sampson, J. P., Jr., & Vuorinen, R. (2015). Practitioners Conceptions of Competency for Social Media in Career Services
  26. 26. UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ DIMENSIONS OF VARIATION CATEGORIES Ability to use social media for delivering information Ability to use social media for delivering career services Ability to utilize social media for collaborative career exploration Ability to utilize social media for co-careering Approach to social media Function in career services Online skills Ethical reflections Personal characteristics Practitioners’ conceptions of competency for social media in guidance and counselling Kettunen, Sampson & Vuorinen 2015.
  27. 27. UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ (2015)
  28. 28. UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ Discussion  The challenge as a profession is to decide how to fully, and best use existing and emerging technologies  We have the opportunity to create new practices and paradigms to better reach individuals who need assistance with career exploration and decision making  Competency for social media in career services is not only about a particular set of new skills.  Success in developing competency for social media in career services is a dynamic combination of cognitive, social, emotional and ethical factors that are interwoven.
  29. 29. UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ Discussion If the career field is to develop career practitioners´ understandings and competency for social media in a more complex direction  it is important to develop pre-service and in-service training and support for the deepening of career practitioners´ understanding of new technologies using the critical aspects that were identified  there is an urgent need for training curricula to be updated to include this knowledge  the hierarchical structure of the findings can serve as a pedagogical tool for trainers
  30. 30. UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ References  Kettunen, J., Sampson, J.P., & Vuorinen, R. (2015). Career practitioners´ conceptions of competency for social media in career services. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 43, 43-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03069885.2014.939945  Kettunen, J., Vuorinen, R., & Sampson, J. P. (2015). Practitioners’ Experiences of Social Media in Career Services. The Career Development Quarterly, 63, 268-282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cdq.12018  Kettunen, J., Vuorinen, R., & Sampson, J. P. (2013). Career practitioners' conceptions of social media in career services. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 41, 302-317. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03069885.2013.781572
  31. 31. UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ Tak, kiitos, thank you! For further information, please contact: Ms. Jaana Kettunen Finnish Institute for Educational Research University of Jyväskylä Tel. + 358 40 805 4255 E-mail: jaana.h.kettunen@jyu.fi https://ktl.jyu.fi/en/staff/kettunen-jaana Acknowledgments to my collaborators: Prof. James P. Sampson, Florida State University Dr. Raimo Vuorinen, University of Jyväskylä

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