History of Nursing - Midieval Era


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Roman empire, monasticism, feudalism, guilds, medieval hospitals, arabic medicine, crusades, military nursing orders, secular nursing orders, nursing saints

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History of Nursing - Midieval Era

  1. 1. <ul><li> III </li></ul><ul><li>MEDIEVAL ERA 500 – 1500 AD ( The ‘servant image’ of the nurse) </li></ul>
  2. 2. EARLY MIDDLE AGE (= THE DARK AGES!) 500 – 1000 AD <ul><li>Began with the fall of the Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barbaric tribes invaded Rome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homes and bridges destroyed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romans turned to monasteries for help </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 protective units developed – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monasticism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feudalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guilds </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. MONASTICISM <ul><li>For a time everything was in confusion </li></ul><ul><li>But the nuns and priests were good organizers & administrators </li></ul><ul><li>Monasteries increased in size </li></ul><ul><li>St Benedict built a large monastery </li></ul><ul><li>By Benedictian rule – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All must work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow poverty, chastity & obedience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men and women had equal rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thus arts & crafts developed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right methods of agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monasteries became the place for education of medicine and nursing. But.. </li></ul><ul><li>Too strict >> Diminished interest in work >> decline of monasteries between 9 th and 10 th centuries </li></ul>
  4. 4. FEUDALISM & CHIVALRY <ul><li>Feudalism – The Kings owned all the land. He gave portions of it to his favourite subjects >> Barons, Earls, Knights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land = Fief/ Feud (in Europe), Manor (in England) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Barons divided land among many ‘Serfs’ who worked on the land in return for food, shelter and protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Serfs also served in the Army. This lead to famine and disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chivalry – An accepted code of living a good life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The church developed youth in ideals of solidarity of conduct and ambitions as necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A system of training given to the knights >> Chivalry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service to God = Service to others, protection and defense of the weak </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. GUILDS <ul><li>An organization of people not attached to monastic/ feudal groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stressed on apprenticeship method of learning a skill, high work standards and insurance of selves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This followed in medical and nursing teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the fore-runner of labour unions and professional organizations </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. MEDIEVAL HOSPITALS <ul><li>Hotel Dieu of Lyons in France (542 AD) </li></ul><ul><li>Hotel Dieu of Paris (651 AD) </li></ul><ul><li>Santo Spurito Hospital in Rome (717 AD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Here, pilgrims, poor, sick and infirm got shelter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Under lay management and penitants for 600 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 th – 16 th century – Ruled by religious order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nursing done by dedicated women, who took vows, but could not leave or get married. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also nursing brothers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age – Bet 16 – 24 yrs </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. ISLAM & ARABIC MEDICINE <ul><li>570 AD – Mohammad </li></ul><ul><li>Moslem – ‘One who submits’ </li></ul><ul><li>They learnt from other cultures about medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Did not allow surgery and dissection – So medicine did not progress </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced ‘catgut’ </li></ul><ul><li>Females kept in ‘purdah’ </li></ul>
  8. 8. Nursing had at last developed roots, purpose, direction and leadership !
  9. 9. LATE MIDDLE AGES (1000 – 1500 AD) <ul><li>Medicine was under two influences – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lay medicine – followed after then Roman tradition and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious medicine – as existed in the monasteries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The ‘Crusades’ stimulated the Military nursing orders </li></ul>
  10. 10. CRUSADES <ul><li>= Religious war between Moslems and Christians (for almost 200 yrs). A pilgrimage undertaken to Jerusalem to rescue Christ’s tomb from the Moslems </li></ul><ul><li>Many died on the way </li></ul><ul><li>Two great Military Nursing orders came into being to care for the sick and injured – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Order of Knight hospitallers of St John of Jerusalem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Order of Knights of St Lazarus (Care of leprosy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>patients) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. MILITARY NURSING ORDERS <ul><li>Made up by Knight hospitallers, monks and serving brothers </li></ul><ul><li>& sisters </li></ul><ul><li>Did excellent work and their fame spread </li></ul><ul><li>The knights & sisters wore black habits with a white cross </li></ul><ul><li>By end of 13 th century – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s efficiency declined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nursing was neglected, politics spoilt it’s reputation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The traditions continue in St John Ambulance Corps, First Aid to the Injured, Societies and Nursing Associations </li></ul><ul><li>Knights of St Lazarus declined with the decline of Leprosy in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Even today, we follow - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The military form & organization and discipline followed then </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strict discipline and unquestioning obedience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ceremony – Hospital rounds, standing at attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self denial for the sake of the sick </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. MENDICANT & SECULAR NURSING ORDERS (1000 – 1500 AD) <ul><li>Mendicant Order – </li></ul><ul><li>Strict rules in monasteries >> Few people attracted to them </li></ul><ul><li>So mendicants (traveling monks) took religion to the homes – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>St Dominic (1170 – 1221) – From wealthy Spanish family. Preached. >> Dominican Order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>St Francis of Assissi (1182 – 1226) – Middle class family in Italy. Cared for Leprosy patients. >> Franciscan Order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor Clares (II Order of St Francis) – Order of women under the leadership of Clarissa, a rich young woman. Cared for the sick (especially leprosy). They improved the community and sanitary conditions </li></ul></ul>St Dominic St Francis of Assissi
  13. 13. <ul><li>Secular nursing orders (Tertiary/ Non religious Order) – </li></ul><ul><li>A third order started by St Francis as many men and women came to join his Order </li></ul><ul><li>They lived in their homes and took no vows. Could leave at any time </li></ul><ul><li>Other Secular Orders – Arose, but did not last long. One – the Beguines of Flanders did private hospital and visiting nursing in Germany, Belgium, France and Switzerland </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Nursing Saints – Considered nursing their religious duty and gave outstanding service – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>St Hildegarde (1098 – 1179) – Wrote books on Medicine (Jaundice, dysentery, lung diseases) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>St Elizabeth of Hungry (1207 – 1231) – Cared for the poor and sick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>St Catherine of Sienna (1347 – 1380) – Looked after Plague affected people. Carried a lantern from home to hospital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>St Isabel (Queen Elizabeth of Portugal) – Founded a hospital for the poor and nursed the sick. Introduced the tent type hospitals and ambulances for the injured on the battlefield </li></ul></ul>St Elizabeth