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Disinfection & Sterilization


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Disinfection, sterilization, hand washing, physical, chemical agents

Published in: Health & Medicine
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Disinfection & Sterilization

  1. 1. <ul><li>I am starting a new career… </li></ul><ul><li>What do I know about it’s </li></ul><ul><li>antecedents? </li></ul>
  2. 2. What are the issues in Nursing? What are the various routes of educational preparation for a career in Nursing? How has Nursing changed with the changes in the ‘Health Care Delivery’ system? Is Nursing a vocation or a profession ? What resulted in Nursing offering the opportunities and challenges today? Who are those who made significant contributions to Nursing? … Here lies the future of my education and my profession
  4. 4. <ul><li>HISTORY, </li></ul><ul><li>in its broadest sense, is the </li></ul><ul><li>totality of all past events, </li></ul><ul><li>although a more realistic definition would limit it to the </li></ul><ul><li>known past . </li></ul>
  5. 5. OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Summarize the health care practices & developments of early civilizations </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze how the 3 historical images of the nurse influenced the development of nursing as a profession </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the ‘Dark Age of Nursing” on the development of nursing profession </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the contributions of ‘Florence Nightingale and it’s development </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the impact of war on the development of nursing Education </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the early development of nursing schools </li></ul><ul><li>Delineate the characteristics of early nursing programme </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the first organizations created by and for nurses and discuss their purposes </li></ul>
  6. 6. DISCUSSION <ul><li>Pre Christian Era </li></ul><ul><li>Early Christian Era (1 AD – 500 AD) </li></ul><ul><li>Medieval Era (500 AD – 1500 AD) </li></ul><ul><li>Modern Era (1500 – 1800 AD) </li></ul><ul><li>Modern Nursing </li></ul><ul><li>Nursing Today </li></ul>
  7. 7. I PRE-CHRISTIAN ERA Influence of ancient cultural practices on health care (The ‘folk image’ of the nurse)
  8. 8. EVOLUTION OF NURSING <ul><li>As an instinctive response to the desire to keep healthy, the sick </li></ul><ul><li>The first nurse – the first mother </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility – nurturing children, care of the elderly and the sick </li></ul><ul><li>Education – Through trial & error and information sharing, intuition </li></ul><ul><li>Religions – fatalistic in their outlook on illness </li></ul><ul><li>Superstition & magic </li></ul>
  9. 9. PRIMITIVE SOCIETIES <ul><li>Nomadic </li></ul><ul><li>Solidarity for mutual protection </li></ul><ul><li>Belief in the power of Gods/ evil spirits </li></ul><ul><li>Black and white magic </li></ul><ul><li>Ingenious techniques of </li></ul><ul><li>health practices </li></ul><ul><li>Med & Surg treatments – </li></ul><ul><li>Massage, fomentation, </li></ul><ul><li>trephining, bone setting, </li></ul><ul><li>amputation, hot and cold </li></ul><ul><li>baths. </li></ul>
  10. 10. EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION <ul><li>By river Nile. Healthiest & most advanced </li></ul><ul><li>Priest physicians - Belief in evil spirits </li></ul><ul><li>Imhotep – A surgeon, architect, priest, scribe, magician) </li></ul><ul><li>A system of community planning (hygiene, sanitation, embalming, dentistry) </li></ul><ul><li>Records preserved in papyrus (diseases, drugs, birth control) </li></ul><ul><li>Women assisted ‘priest- physician’ </li></ul><ul><li>as priestess/ midwives/ wet-nurses </li></ul><ul><li>Dissection – forbidden. </li></ul><ul><li>Hence no further progress </li></ul>
  11. 11. GREEK CIVILIZATION <ul><li>Apollo (son of God) – God of health </li></ul><ul><li>Asculapus (son of Apollo) – God of healing </li></ul><ul><li>Epigone – (Asculapus’ wife) – The soother </li></ul><ul><li>Hygeia – (daughter of Apollo) – Goddess of health </li></ul><ul><li>Temples – became social, intellectual and medical centers </li></ul><ul><li>400 BC – Hippocrates – Father of medicine </li></ul><ul><li>- Brought out medicine from magic to science </li></ul><ul><li>- Stressed on equilibrium of body, mind & environment </li></ul><ul><li>- Diagnosis, fresh air, cleanliness, fresh air, </li></ul><ul><li>music & work </li></ul><ul><li>- Hippocratic oath </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle – differentiated arteries from vein </li></ul>
  12. 12. ROMAN CIVILIZATION <ul><li>Medical advances borrowed from Greece after they conquered it </li></ul><ul><li>Clung to superstitions </li></ul><ul><li>Had good hygiene and sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>Made drainage systems, drinking water aqueducts, public baths, hospitals (for soldiers and slaves) </li></ul><ul><li>Men & women of good </li></ul><ul><li>character did nursing </li></ul><ul><li>Two classes – Patricians </li></ul><ul><li>- Plebicians </li></ul>
  13. 13. CHINESE CIVILIZATION <ul><li>By the Yellow river </li></ul><ul><li>Confucius – Patriarchal role </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance to rule of etiquette </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value of family as a unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women inferior to men </li></ul></ul><ul><li>‘ Yang’ & ‘Yin’ – Active (male) & passive (female) force </li></ul><ul><li>2000 BC – Dissection done, circulation, pulse, elaborate materia medica, importance to hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>Rule of physical exam – ‘Look, listen, ask and feel’ </li></ul><ul><li>Baths to reduce fever, blood- letting for evil spirits </li></ul><ul><li>1000 BC - Sen Lung (Father of medicine), used veg and animal drugs, vaccination, physiotherapy, treated syphilis and gonorrhea </li></ul><ul><li>1200 BC - Liver diet for anemia, Seaweed for thyroid disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Lay people still believed in evil spirits entering into care givers – Hence nursing was impossible </li></ul>
  14. 14. HEBREW CIVILIZATION <ul><li>Moses – A divinely motivated servant of God </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Mosaic code’- Isolation, hygiene, rest & sleep, hrs of work, disposal of excreta, disinfection, regulations to check animals before slaughtering/ eating </li></ul><ul><li>Bible – ‘Do not eat meat past the 3 rd day’ </li></ul><ul><li>King gave health power to ‘priest physician’ </li></ul><ul><li>Priest physician – took the role of health inspector </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Houses of Hospitality’ – the fore runners of inns, hotels, hospitals. </li></ul>
  15. 15. INDIAN CIVILIZATION <ul><li>First civilizations were highly developed… </li></ul><ul><li>1500 BC - Vedic age. Brahmanism/ Hinduism (worship of eternal spirit Brahma) with sub castes </li></ul><ul><li>Ayurveda (Veda of longevity) – explains hygiene, disease prevention, major/ minor surgery, children’s disease, inoculation, materia medica, disease of CNS & GUS </li></ul><ul><li>1400 BC- Sushruta- ‘Father of Surgery’ in India. Charaka wrote ‘Internal medicine’ </li></ul><ul><li>………………… ..>>>> </li></ul>
  16. 16. ..INDIAN CIVILIZATION.. <ul><li>500 BC – Siddhartha Gautama discarded caste system. Hygiene, sanitation, care of women and children, disease prevention. </li></ul><ul><li>King Ashoka (272 – 236 BC) - Public hospitals with male nurses and some older women, hospitals for animals. Universities (monasteries) of Taxila & Nalanda (Bihar) </li></ul><ul><li>Nurses should have 3 qualities – high standards, skills and trustworthiness </li></ul>
  17. 17. … INDIAN CIVILIZATION <ul><li>1 AD – Superstition & magic replaced by more up-to-date practice. </li></ul><ul><li>But medicine remained in the hands of priest physician, who refused to touch blood and pathological tissue </li></ul><ul><li>1000 AD- Brahmin influences gained strength and re-established itself. Buddhism declined. Brahmins were priest physicians </li></ul><ul><li>Rigid Hindu caste system. No dissection. Superstition and magic replaced practice of medicine </li></ul><ul><li>1200 AD – Mohammedans invaded- Accelerated the decline of medicine </li></ul>