History of Nursing - Modern Era


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The renaissance, revolutions and reformations, humanitarians, deaconesses, discoveries and developments

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History of Nursing - Modern Era

  1. 1. <ul><li>IV </li></ul><ul><li>MODERN ERA 1500 – 1850 AD ( Dark age in nursing) </li></ul>
  2. 2. THE RENAISSANCE <ul><li>Expansion of trade and travel </li></ul><ul><li>Art, architecture, literature, printing </li></ul><ul><li>Contributions to medicine – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leonardo da Vinci (Anatomical studies & drawing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Andreas Vesalius (Founder of Anatomy as a Science) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambroisa Pari (Outstanding work in surgery) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>William Harvey (Circulation of blood) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self sacrifice and self denial cast aside. </li></ul><ul><li>More worldly under Pagan influence </li></ul><ul><li>General attitude towards charitable works </li></ul><ul><li>Focus of medicine and nursing </li></ul>
  3. 3. REVOLUTIONS & REFORMATIONS <ul><li>Industrial revolution – Age old spinning and weaving from home >>> Factories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement of population from villages to cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems of poor sanitation, poverty, adjustment </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Reformation – Protestant revolt to free church from its malpractices - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignatius Loyola (with the church) formed the ‘Jesuits’- Trained teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Order of St Ursula – Education of girls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Martin Luther – Emphasis on faith rather than work – Misinterpreted, causing loss of interest in charity & humanity. Monasticism declined </li></ul></ul>Ignatius Loyola Martin Luther
  5. 5. <ul><li>Political revolutions – Kings fought wars >> poverty & discontentment. This led to - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The American revolution (1775 – 1783) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The French revolution (1789 – 1795) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Latin American revolution (1800 – 1825) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>>> Changed the attitude of the people towards human equality and right of people </li></ul><ul><li>>> Rise of Napoleon </li></ul><ul><li>>> Democracy established </li></ul><ul><li>by beginning of 19 th </li></ul><ul><li>century </li></ul>
  6. 6. HOSPITALS & NURSING <ul><li>Darkest period in history of nursing (17 th to mid 19 th century) </li></ul><ul><li>Secular nursing societies (of 12 th and 13 th centuries) were gaining strength </li></ul><ul><li>But the older, more conventional ones became stagnant </li></ul><ul><li>1212 – Bishops drew up regulations for French hospitals – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nursing orders to take a vow of poverty, chastity and obedience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of nurses reduced to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>smallest possible number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(to economize) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remain cloistered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thus women’s freedom limited </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The Beguines refused to be </li></ul><ul><li>enclosed and continued their visiting nursing </li></ul><ul><li>The nurses of France did not resist and their professional standards retrograded </li></ul><ul><li>The Protestant revolt broke up the religious organizations </li></ul><ul><li>>> Problems of care of the sick and the poor </li></ul><ul><li>>> Municipal hospitals built ..But there were no nuns and monks to work </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>So, Lay people hired to take care of patients. They were – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illiterate & with no religious motive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From the category who couldn't find any other work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Without training (skills) with no verification of conduct (morals) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paid very less, poorly fed and over worked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Given day duty (young women) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and night duty (older women) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long hours of cheerless work </li></ul><ul><li>became hard & cruel. </li></ul><ul><li>So they took to drinking </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Doctors did most of the nursing jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Nurses did mostly cleaning, laundry and </li></ul><ul><li>scrubbing </li></ul><ul><li>Such unsanitary conditions >>> hospitals a source of outbreak of many epidemics </li></ul><ul><li>No isolation of patients, no visiting </li></ul><ul><li>Nurses did day and night duty </li></ul><ul><li>Patients were poor and friendless </li></ul><ul><li>Under such conditions, women of refinement and intelligence would not take up nursing </li></ul><ul><li>An average family dreaded and avoided the nurse and the hospital </li></ul><ul><li>Religious orders and other humanitarians re-opened and tried to revive the tradition. </li></ul>
  10. 10. HUMANITARIANS <ul><li>St Vincent De Paul (1576 – 1660) - Made lodges, schools and colonies – to prevent begging and to support people </li></ul><ul><li>John Howard (1727 – 1789) – Care of prisoners </li></ul><ul><li>Elizabeth Fry (1780 – 1845) – Better care of women and children </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Dickens (1812 – 1870) wrote books depicting bad nursing </li></ul><ul><li>Dorothea Lynde Dix (1802 – 1887) – ‘The John Howard of America’ – Worked for the mentally ill and the criminals </li></ul>Charles Dickens
  11. 11. REVIVAL OF DEACONESSES <ul><li>By Pastor Theodor Fliedner at a parish in Kaiserwerth, Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Rented a large house for hospital and deaconess home </li></ul><ul><li>Mrs Fliedner taught Nursing to deaconesses </li></ul><ul><li>Later Elizabeth Fry and Florence Nightingale also visited here </li></ul><ul><li>Modern School of Nursing has adopted their principles – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nurses should be certified healthy and of good conduct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow probationary system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have regular classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be given stipend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a women i/c of nursing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must follow the doctor’s orders </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>V </li></ul><ul><li>MODERN NURSING </li></ul>
  13. 13. DISCOVERIES & DEVELOPMENTS <ul><li>New scientific discoveries – Stethoscope ( Laënnec,), microscope, thermometer (Galileo, Fahrenheit) </li></ul><ul><li>Developments in medicine, surgery and sanitary science – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pasteur (founder of science of microbiology, germ theory of disease, process of pasteurization, vaccines for several diseases, including rabies). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lister (Discovery of antiseptics) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Koch (founded modern medical bacteriology, isolated several disease-causing bacteria, including those of tuberculosis, and discovered animal vectors of a number of major diseases). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loffler (Described foot and mouth disease by virus) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need felt to increase educational facilities for medicine and nursing </li></ul><ul><li>Higher standards and newer techniques adopted </li></ul><ul><li>Social reforms focused on the poor and needy </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership needed to train nurses to be efficient </li></ul><ul><li>co-workers of doctors </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of Florence Nightingale </li></ul>
  14. 14. And then…. Nursing did a crucial spin all over the globe….