Formation of western europe part 1


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Formation of western europe part 1

  1. 1. Formation of Western Europe 800-1500
  2. 2. Section 1: Church Reform and the Crusades Main Idea: The Catholic Church underwent reform and launched Crusades (religious wars) against Muslims and others Why it matters now? The Crusades resulted in trade and exploration between Christians and Muslims but left a legacy of distrust
  3. 3. Setting the Stage: Between 500-1500 AD, Vikings attacked and looted Church monasteries Centers of learning (Monasteries) Church suffered
  4. 4. Monastic Revival & Church Reform By 1000s, the monasteries led a spiritual revival Reformers wanted to return to the basics This age was called, the “Age of Faith”
  5. 5. Problems in the Church Major 3 problems: 1. Many villages priests married and had families (against church rules) 2. Positions in the Church were being sold by bishops (SIMONY) 3. Practice of lay investiture (Feudal lords appointing church leaders) put kings in control of church bishops
  6. 6. Reform Begins at Cluny When? 910 Where? Benedictine monastery at Cluny, France What happened? Cluny’s reputation spread and soon their were 300 houses under Cluny’s leadership This movement influenced the papacy Pope Leo IX, enforced Church laws against simony and the marriage of priests
  7. 7. Reform & Church Organization By 1100s and 1200s, the Church was restructured to resemble a kingdom, with the pope at the head Papal Curia= pope’s group of advisers, acted as a court, developed CANON LAW (law of the Church) Curia decided on laws about marriage, divorce, and inheritance Church collected taxes in the form of taxes Hospitals were ran by the Church
  8. 8. Preaching Friars Wandering FRIARS traveled from place to place preaching and spreading the Church’s ideas Friars were like monks (same vows), but they did not live apart from the world in monasteries DOMINICANS= one of the earliest orders of friars, founded by a Spanish priest (Dominic) FRANCISCANS= order of friars, founded by St. Francis of Assisi (who gave up wealth for
  9. 9. Dominican Friars Pilgrimage
  10. 10. Religious Orders for Women Women participated in the spiritual revival too Franciscan order for women, known as the POOR CLARES Unlike men, women were not allowed to travel from place to place as preachers Many lived in poverty and worked to help the poor and sick
  11. 11. Poor Clares in Malawi
  12. 12. Young Women Flock to Ministry
  13. 13. Cathedrals-Cities of God Cathedrals showed evidence of the Church’s growing wealth
  14. 14. A New Style of Church Architecture 800-1100, churches were built in the ROMANESQUE (round arches and a heavy roof) Early 1100s, GOTHIC (came from the Germanic tribe named the Goths) Looked like it was reaching toward heaven Stained-glass windows Sculptures, woodcarvings The cathedral represented the CITY OF GOD
  15. 15. Romanesque vs. Gothic
  16. 16. The Crusades The Age of Faith inspired wars of conquest Pope Urban II- asked by a Count to help against invading Muslim Turks, who threatened to conquer his capital, Constantinople Pope Urban called for a “holy war” (a Crusade) Over the next 200 years, a number of Crusades were launched GOAL OF CRUSADES: to recover Jerusalem and the Holy Land form the Muslim Turks
  17. 17. Crusades
  18. 18. Causes of the Crusading Spirit Crusades had both ECONOMIC & RELIGIOUS motives 50,000- 60,000 knights became CRUSADERS How did this benefit Europeans? What did Crusaders get? Assured of a place in heaven How did it benefit Kings and Church? Got rid of some quarrelsome knights who fought against each other How did Merchants profit? Making cash loans to finance the Crusade
  19. 19. The 1st and 2nd Crusades First Crusade (1097): Mix of Germans, Englishmen, Scots, Italians, Spaniards, but mostly French Ill prepared- knew nothing of the geography, climate or country of the Holy Land No strategy to capture Jerusalem Argued on who would be their leader Result: Able to capture the city in 1099, carved out territory of a small section of Jerusalem to be ruled by nobles Later on, in 1144, Turks were able to re=conquer Jerusalem
  20. 20. The 1st and 2nd Crusades Second Crusade Goal- organized to recapture the city Result: failure Jerusalem had fallen to the Muslim leader Saladin (1187)
  21. 21. The 3rd & 4th Crusades Third Crusade: Goal: recapture Jerusalem Led by 3 monarchs (French, German, and English) Richard the Lion-Hearted= English King 1 monarch died, 1 left, but Richard stayed • Result1 : After many battles between Saladin and Richard, agreed to a TRUCE Result 2: Jerusalem would remain in Muslim hands, but Christian pilgrims could freely visit the city’s holy places
  22. 22. Richard vs. Saladin
  23. 23. The 3rd & 4th Crusades 4th Crusade Pope Innocent III appealed for another Crusade to recapture Jerusalem Knights became entangled in Italian politics, and looted Constantinople (which ended the 4th Crusade) Result: there was a BREACH (split) between the Church in the east (Constantinople) and the Church in the West (Rome) Why? Crusader’s looting habits
  24. 24. The Crusading Spirit Dwindles In the 1200s, the Crusades became increasingly common and unsuccessful Religious spirit of the First Crusade faded, replaced by a search for personal gain
  25. 25. The Later Crusades Example 1: North Africa- led by French King, Louis IX who was popular throughout Europe Result: Did not conquer much land Example 2: Children’s Crusade- thousands of children went to the Holy Land, only armed with the belief that God would give them the land Result: many died on the march of cold or starvation, one group turned back, the rest drowned at sea or were sold into slavery
  26. 26. Horrible Histories: Crusades
  27. 27. A Spanish Crusade Location: Spain Who was in control (until 1100s): the Moors(Muslims) Reconquista= long effort to drive the Muslims out of Spain Result: By the late 1400s, Muslims held only tiny portion of land (Granada) and then they lost that to a Christian army of Ferdinand and Isabella (Spanish monarchs)
  28. 28. A Spanish Crusade Spain had a large Jewish population Many Jews achieved high positions in finance, government and medicine Many Jews and Muslims converted Inquisition= Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy (views which differed from the Church) If you were a suspect, you could be tried and tortured for months If you confessed, then you were burned at the stake 1492- monarchs expelled all practicing Jews and Muslims from Spain
  29. 29. “Nobody Expects the Spanish Inquisition”
  30. 30. Spanish Inquisition
  31. 31. Medieval Torture Techniques
  32. 32. Medieval Torture
  33. 33. The Effects of the Crusades Negative Effects: 1. Failure of the later Crusades, lessened the power of the Pope 2. Weakened feudal nobility 3. Thousands of knights lost their lives and fortunes 4. Legacy of bitterness towards Muslims which continued Positive Effects: 1. Stimulated trade between Europe and Southwest Asia
  34. 34. Section 2: Trade, Towns & Financial Revolution Main Idea: European cities challenged the feudal system as agriculture, trade, finance, and universities developed Why it matters now? The various changes in the Middle Ages laid the foundation for modern Europe
  35. 35. Setting the Stage: During the Church reform and Crusades, other changes were occurring during the Medieval Ages Between 1000- 1300: Agriculture, trade and finance made remarkable progress Towns and cities grew Population grew because of territorial expansion Creativity exploded
  36. 36. A Growing Food Supply Expanding civilization required an increased food supply Farming was helped by a warmer climate, so farmers could cultivate in land that was once too cold to farm New methods were developed to take advantage of the new land
  37. 37. Using Horsepower Previous way: oxen to pull their plows Oxen were easy to keep, but they moved slowly, did not need a lot of food Horses needed better food, but a team of horses could plow twice as much as an oxen New HARNESS (Old harness nearly strangled the animal when it pulled)
  38. 38. The 3-Field System Old System: 2 field system New System: 3 field system (farmers could grow crops on 2/3 of their land each year, not just half of it) Result: increase in population, could raise larger families
  39. 39. Trade & Finance Expand Population growth led to more artisans and craftsmen manufacturing goods by hand for local and long- distance trade Trade routes spread out (partially because of the Crusades)
  40. 40. Fairs & Trade Most trade took place in towns Peasants from nearby manors traveled to town on fair days, bringing items to trade Most common trade item: cloth Other items sold: bacon, salt, honey, cheese, wine, leather, dyes, knives and ropes No longer was everything produced on a self-sufficient manor
  41. 41. The Guilds Guild= association of people who worked at the same occupation (similar to a union today) Guilds : controlled all wages and prices on their craft Enforced a standard of quality Artisans: wheelwrights, glassmakers, winemakers, tailors, and druggists
  42. 42. A Financial Revolution Fairs and guilds needed a lot of money To make a profit, usually merchants had to purchase things from distant lands to then make their product Many needed to take out loans, but the Church forbid Christians from lending money (usury) Money lending became big among moneylenders
  43. 43. Urban Splendor Reborn Population was growing in Western Europe (from 30 to 42 million) Paris: largest populated city, 60,000 people
  44. 44. Trade & Towns Grow Together As trading grew, so did towns These people were no longer content with their old feudal system Many fled the manors for the towns Medieval towns were organized chaotically
  45. 45. Medieval Towns Streets were narrow Filled with horses, pigs, oxen No sewers, people dumped their waste (both animal and human) into the street in front of the house Most people never bathed Houses were made of wood and thatched roofs- fire hazard
  46. 46. Towns & the Social Order So many serfs fled the manors, that a law was passed that a serf could now be free by living within a town for a year and a day At first, towns came under the authority of feudal lords who levied taxes, fees and rents Burghars= town dwellers, resented the feudal lords
  47. 47. The Revival of Learning Growing trade and towns brought a new interest in learning New European institution- the UNIVERSITY
  48. 48. Scholars & Writers “University” originally designated a group of scholars meeting wherever they could Goal of most students- job in the government or the Church Serious scholars and writers were writing in Latin Vernacular- everyday language of their homeland Masterpieces of the time: The Divine Comedy, The Canterbury Tales, The City of Ladies
  49. 49. The Muslim Connection Crusades brought Europeans into contact with Muslims and Byzantines who had preserved their libraries and writings of Greek philosophers Europeans acquired a new wealth of knowledge with the works of ancient scholars
  50. 50. Aquinas & Medieval Philosophy Question that arose: “Could a Christian scholar use Aristotle’s logical approach to truth and still keep faith with the Bible?” Thomas Aquinas= scholar, argued that the most basic religious truth could be proved by logic Scholastics= schoolmen
  51. 51. Homework Reading: Ch 14:3-4