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Transcultural Nursing is a specialty
with in Nursing focused on the comparative
study and analysis of different cultures and sub-
cultures.
 Various groups are examined with respect to
their caring behaviour, nursing care, health and
illness values, beliefs and patterns of behaviour.
 Culture:
Norms and practices of a particular
group that are learned and shared and guide
thinking, decisions, and actions.
 Cultural values:
The individual's desirable or preferred
way of acting or knowing something that is
sustained over a period of time and which governs
actions or decisions.
 Culturally diverse nursing care:
An optimal mode of health care delivery; it
refers to the variability of nursing approaches needed
to provide culturally appropriate care that incorporates
an individual’s cultural values, beliefs, and practices
including sensitivity to the environment from which
the individual comes and to which the individual may
ultimately return..
Leininger defined transcultural nursing as:
“A legitimate and formal area of study,
research, and practice focused on culturally based
care, values, and practices to help cultures and
sub-cultures maintain or regain their health and
face difficulties or death in a culturally congruent
and beneficial caring ways”
cntd….,
“Transcultural Nursing is a comparitive study
of cultures to understand similarities(cuture
universal) and differences(culture-specific) across
human group.”
 In 1950’s Medeleine M. Leininger, known as the
foundress of Transcultural Nursing, noted cultural
differences between patients and nurses while
working with emotionally disturbed children.
 This experience led to study clinical difference in
perception of the care.
 She recognized that health and illness states are
strongly influenced by culture and formulated the
theory of Transcultural Nursing.
 In 1991, she published ‘Culture Care Diversity And
Universality: A Theory Of Nursing’
 Her theory has now developed into a discipline in
nursing.
 In 1988 Transcultural Nursing Society initiated
certification examinations: certified Transcultural
Nurse (CTN)
1) There is a marked increase in the migration of
people within and between countries world wide.
2) There has been a rise in multicultural identifies,
with people expecting their cultural belief,
values, and lifeways to be understood and
respected by nurses and other health care
providers.
3) The increased use of health care technology
sometimes conflicts with cultural values of
clients.
4)World wide there are cultural conflicts, clashes,
and violence that have an impact health care as
more cultures interact with one another.
5) There was an increase in legal suits resulting from
cultural conflict, negligence, ignorance, and
imposition of health care practices.
6) There is an increase in the number of people
travelling and working in many different parts of
the world.
7) There has been a rise in feminism and gender
issues, with new demands on health care systems
to meet the needs of woman and children
8) There has been an increased demand for
community and culture based health care services
in diverse environmental contexts.
 To help develop, test and organize the emerging
body of knowledge in Transcultural Nursing, it is
necessary to have a conceptual framework from
which various theoritical statements can emerge.
 There are two popular models widely used in the
field
 Leininger’s Sunrise Model
 The Giger and Davidhizar: ‘Transcultural Assessment
Model’
 The model is based on the concept of culture care
and shows 3 major nursing modalities that guide
nursing judgments and activities to provide
‘Culturally Congruent Care’
 3 major modalities are
1) Cultural care preservation/ Maintainance
2) Cultural care Accommodation/Negotiation
3) Cultural care Repatterning /Reconstructing.
 Culturally Congruent Care:
The care that is beneficial and
meaningful to the people being served.
Culturally Diverse Nursing Care:
An optimal mode of health care
delivery; It refers to the variability of nursing
approaches needed to provide culturally
appropriate care that incorporates an individuals
cultural values, beliefs and practices including
sensitivity to the environment from which the
individual comes and to which the individual
ultimately return.
 This model was developed in 1988 in response to
the need for nursing students in an undergraduate
program to assess and provide care for patients
that were culturally diverse.
 Giger and Davidhizar have identified six cultural
phenomena that vary among cultural groups and
affect health care.
 Communication is the means by which culture is
transmitted and preserved. Both verbal and
nonverbal communications are learned in one’s
culture.
 Verbal and nonverbal patterns of communication
vary across cultures, and if nurses do not
understand the client’s cultural rules in
communication, the client’s acceptance of a
treatment regimen may be jeopardized.
Cntd…,
 Accurate diagnosis and treatment is impossible if the
health-care professional cannot understand the
patient.
 Culture not only determines the appropriateness of
the message but also influences all the components of
communication.
 Thus, an assessment of communication should
consider: 1) dialect,
2) style,
3) volume, including silence,
4) touch,
5) context of speech or emotional tone, and
6) kinesics, including gestures, stances, and
eye behaviour
 Space refers to the distance between individuals
when they interact. All communication occurs in
the context of space.
 There are four distinct zones of interpersonal
space: 1)inmate zone (extends up to 1 ½ feet),
 2)personal distance (extends from 1 ½ to 4 feet),
 3)social distance (extends from 4 to 12 feet) and
 4)public distance (extends 12 feet or more)
 3) Social organization:
Social organization refers to the social
group organizations with which clients and
families may identify.
 4) Time Orientation
Time is an important aspect of
interpersonal communication. Some cultures are
considered future oriented, others present
oriented, and still others past oriented
 These differences in time orientation may become
important in health-care measures such as long-
term planning and explanations of medication
schedules.
eg:Latin Americans, Native Americans, and
Middle Easterners are present oriented cultures
and may neglect preventive health care measures.
They may show-up late or not at all for
appointments
Environmental control refers to the
ability of the person to control nature and to plan
and direct factors in the environment.
Some groups perceive man as
having mastery over nature; others perceive
humans to be dominated by nature, while others
see harmonious relationships between humans
and nature
For example, Asians and Native
Americans may perceive that illness is a
disharmony with other forces and that medicine is
only capable of relieving the symptoms rather than
curing the disease. These groups are likely to look
for naturalistic solutions, such as herbs and hot
and cold treatments to resolve or cure a cancerous
condition
Biological variations are:
 (1) body structure,
 (2) skin colour,
 (3) other visible physical characteristics,
 (4) enzymatic and genetic variations,
 (5) electrocardiographic patterns,
 (6) susceptibility to disease,
 (7) nutritional preferences and deficiencies, and
 (8) psychological characteristics
1) Theoritical foundations of Transcultural Nursing.
2) Cultural information gathering.
3) Caring and healing systems.
4) Cultural health patterns and caring patterns.
5) Health care planning.
6) Evaluation.
7) Research.
8) Professional development.
Research studies
Conclusion.
Transcultural nursing

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Transcultural nursing

  • 1.
  • 2. Transcultural Nursing is a specialty with in Nursing focused on the comparative study and analysis of different cultures and sub- cultures.  Various groups are examined with respect to their caring behaviour, nursing care, health and illness values, beliefs and patterns of behaviour.
  • 3.  Culture: Norms and practices of a particular group that are learned and shared and guide thinking, decisions, and actions.  Cultural values: The individual's desirable or preferred way of acting or knowing something that is sustained over a period of time and which governs actions or decisions.
  • 4.  Culturally diverse nursing care: An optimal mode of health care delivery; it refers to the variability of nursing approaches needed to provide culturally appropriate care that incorporates an individual’s cultural values, beliefs, and practices including sensitivity to the environment from which the individual comes and to which the individual may ultimately return..
  • 5. Leininger defined transcultural nursing as: “A legitimate and formal area of study, research, and practice focused on culturally based care, values, and practices to help cultures and sub-cultures maintain or regain their health and face difficulties or death in a culturally congruent and beneficial caring ways” cntd….,
  • 6. “Transcultural Nursing is a comparitive study of cultures to understand similarities(cuture universal) and differences(culture-specific) across human group.”
  • 7.  In 1950’s Medeleine M. Leininger, known as the foundress of Transcultural Nursing, noted cultural differences between patients and nurses while working with emotionally disturbed children.  This experience led to study clinical difference in perception of the care.  She recognized that health and illness states are strongly influenced by culture and formulated the theory of Transcultural Nursing.
  • 8.  In 1991, she published ‘Culture Care Diversity And Universality: A Theory Of Nursing’  Her theory has now developed into a discipline in nursing.  In 1988 Transcultural Nursing Society initiated certification examinations: certified Transcultural Nurse (CTN)
  • 9. 1) There is a marked increase in the migration of people within and between countries world wide. 2) There has been a rise in multicultural identifies, with people expecting their cultural belief, values, and lifeways to be understood and respected by nurses and other health care providers. 3) The increased use of health care technology sometimes conflicts with cultural values of clients.
  • 10. 4)World wide there are cultural conflicts, clashes, and violence that have an impact health care as more cultures interact with one another. 5) There was an increase in legal suits resulting from cultural conflict, negligence, ignorance, and imposition of health care practices. 6) There is an increase in the number of people travelling and working in many different parts of the world. 7) There has been a rise in feminism and gender issues, with new demands on health care systems to meet the needs of woman and children
  • 11. 8) There has been an increased demand for community and culture based health care services in diverse environmental contexts.
  • 12.  To help develop, test and organize the emerging body of knowledge in Transcultural Nursing, it is necessary to have a conceptual framework from which various theoritical statements can emerge.  There are two popular models widely used in the field  Leininger’s Sunrise Model  The Giger and Davidhizar: ‘Transcultural Assessment Model’
  • 13.  The model is based on the concept of culture care and shows 3 major nursing modalities that guide nursing judgments and activities to provide ‘Culturally Congruent Care’  3 major modalities are 1) Cultural care preservation/ Maintainance 2) Cultural care Accommodation/Negotiation 3) Cultural care Repatterning /Reconstructing.
  • 14.
  • 15.  Culturally Congruent Care: The care that is beneficial and meaningful to the people being served. Culturally Diverse Nursing Care: An optimal mode of health care delivery; It refers to the variability of nursing approaches needed to provide culturally appropriate care that incorporates an individuals cultural values, beliefs and practices including sensitivity to the environment from which the individual comes and to which the individual ultimately return.
  • 16.  This model was developed in 1988 in response to the need for nursing students in an undergraduate program to assess and provide care for patients that were culturally diverse.  Giger and Davidhizar have identified six cultural phenomena that vary among cultural groups and affect health care.
  • 17.
  • 18.  Communication is the means by which culture is transmitted and preserved. Both verbal and nonverbal communications are learned in one’s culture.  Verbal and nonverbal patterns of communication vary across cultures, and if nurses do not understand the client’s cultural rules in communication, the client’s acceptance of a treatment regimen may be jeopardized. Cntd…,
  • 19.  Accurate diagnosis and treatment is impossible if the health-care professional cannot understand the patient.  Culture not only determines the appropriateness of the message but also influences all the components of communication.  Thus, an assessment of communication should consider: 1) dialect, 2) style, 3) volume, including silence, 4) touch, 5) context of speech or emotional tone, and 6) kinesics, including gestures, stances, and eye behaviour
  • 20.  Space refers to the distance between individuals when they interact. All communication occurs in the context of space.  There are four distinct zones of interpersonal space: 1)inmate zone (extends up to 1 ½ feet),  2)personal distance (extends from 1 ½ to 4 feet),  3)social distance (extends from 4 to 12 feet) and  4)public distance (extends 12 feet or more)
  • 21.  3) Social organization: Social organization refers to the social group organizations with which clients and families may identify.  4) Time Orientation Time is an important aspect of interpersonal communication. Some cultures are considered future oriented, others present oriented, and still others past oriented
  • 22.  These differences in time orientation may become important in health-care measures such as long- term planning and explanations of medication schedules. eg:Latin Americans, Native Americans, and Middle Easterners are present oriented cultures and may neglect preventive health care measures. They may show-up late or not at all for appointments
  • 23. Environmental control refers to the ability of the person to control nature and to plan and direct factors in the environment. Some groups perceive man as having mastery over nature; others perceive humans to be dominated by nature, while others see harmonious relationships between humans and nature
  • 24. For example, Asians and Native Americans may perceive that illness is a disharmony with other forces and that medicine is only capable of relieving the symptoms rather than curing the disease. These groups are likely to look for naturalistic solutions, such as herbs and hot and cold treatments to resolve or cure a cancerous condition
  • 25. Biological variations are:  (1) body structure,  (2) skin colour,  (3) other visible physical characteristics,  (4) enzymatic and genetic variations,  (5) electrocardiographic patterns,  (6) susceptibility to disease,  (7) nutritional preferences and deficiencies, and  (8) psychological characteristics
  • 26. 1) Theoritical foundations of Transcultural Nursing. 2) Cultural information gathering. 3) Caring and healing systems. 4) Cultural health patterns and caring patterns. 5) Health care planning. 6) Evaluation. 7) Research. 8) Professional development.