The word research means “to search again” or “toexamine carefully”., Research is systematic inquiry, or study to validate andrefine existing knowledge and develop new knowledge. The ultimate goal of research is the development of abody of knowledge for a discipline or profession such asnursing
• Nursing research help the nurses in a variety of settings answer question about patient care, education and administration. Research ensures that the practices are based on evidence rather than tradition.• Nursing research can be done in education, administration and patient in care.
• NEED OF RESEARCH IN NURSING1. To maintain the professionalism , ie: professional dignity2. To have autonomy in nursing.3. To have accountability .4. To develop critical thinking, creativity , and problem solving technique.5. To develop new technique of nursing intervention.6. To evaluate the effectiveness of new nursing techniques.7. To develop a scientific body of knowledge8. To answer problem relating to health delivery and care9. To determine areas of need relating to education, IPR and patient teaching.
Linda Richards became known as America’s first1873 trained nurse. Mary Eliza Mahoney became known as America’s1879 first trained African-American nurse. The Nightingale pledge was written and1893 administered1900 American Journal of Nursing was first published.1901 United States Army Nurse Corps was established.1902 First nurse practice acts were passed1908 United States Navy Nurse Corps established.
CONTRIBUTION OF NIGHTINGALEResearch in nursing began with Florence Nightingale. Her Noteson nursing (1859) , describes her early interest in environmentalfactors that promote physical and emotional wellbeing.Nightingale‟s most widely known research contribution involvedher analysis of factors affecting soldier mortality and morbidityduring the Crimean war.Based on her skilful analyses and presentations , she wassuccessful in effecting some changes in nursing care and moregenerally in public health
1900, Most studies focused on nursing education likeeducational preparation and clinical experience of nursingstudentsBut limited basis to publish their studies, though the Americanjournal of nursing has published on 1900‟sLack of research in nursing practice1960, advances in nursing research occurred„, .International journal of nursing and Canadian journal ofnursing published in 1963
By the 1970s , number of nurse‟s conducted research studies.journals were established in the united states in the 1970s,advances in nursing sciences , research in nursing and health, andthe western journal of nursing research.1970s , nursing research from areas such as teaching,curriculum, and nurse‟s themselves to the improvement of clientcare, practice.Nursing research also expanded internationally. The journal ofadvanced nursing , the premier international journal of nursingresearch, began publication in the united kingdom in 1976.
availability of computers for the collection and the analysis ofinformation, and an ever growing recognition that research is anintegral part of professional nursing.. the first volume of the Annual Review of Nursing Research waspublished in 1983. These annual reviews include summaries of currentresearch evidence on selected areas of research practice andencourage utilization of research findingsin 1986 of the National Centre for Nursing Research (NCNR)at theNational institute of health(NIH).The purpose of NCNR was to promote and financially supportresearch projects and training relating to patient care.
In 1993, the National institute of Nursing Research (NINR) was born.In 1986 ,the NCNR had a budget of 16$ million , whereas in fiscalyear 1999, the budget for NINR had grown to about $70 millionjournals were established during the 1990s in response to the growthin clinically oriented research and interest in EBP among nurses ,including clinical nursing research ,clinical effectiveness, and outcomesmanagement for nursing practiceThe priorities established by CORP in 1994included low birth weight ,human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, long-term care ,symptom management ,nursing informatics, health promotion.
YEAR EVENTS1871 School of nursing started in general hospital, madras1908 TNAI established1809 Bombay presidency association1911 South Indian board of nursing association1912 Nurses registration act was formed at madras1930 Christian nurses auxiliary formed1941 Standardized pay scales and terms of services formed in madras1946 Bhore committee submitted report with recommendation of various aspects of nursing profession
YEAR EVENTS1947 Indian nursing council act passed on 31-12-19471948 First meeting of Indian nursing council was held1951 Establishment of urban field teaching centre is started at college of nursing , Delhi1952 Establishment of residential field teaching centre for teaching community heath nursing at rural area under delhi college of nursing1953 Miss. Edith Buchannan ,sent for Columbia university to earn doctorate in education through WHO felowiship1955 Establishment of child guidance clinic, at college of nursing1955 Miss. Margareta attended ICN met on france and presented the need of research in nursing
YEAR EVENTS1959 Master of nursing programme was started on R.A.K college of nursing1961 Mudhaliar committee established to make to improve nursing profession1964 Dr. Mary furguson with other leaders conducted studies on nursing and non nursing functions of nursing personnel1966 TNAI established research studies under the chairmanship of miss.margrata craig1976 Dr.marie farell and Dr. Aparna of R.A.K college of nursing conducted seminars on nursing research to strength the nursing research in india.1977 – TNAI and Co-coordinating agency for health promotion – Nursing Survey in india1978 Government nurse association of karnataka established
YEAR EVENTS1981 Dr.Farrel and Dr.Bhaduri‟s book on , „health research‟ published by W.H.O1986 NRSI was established1986 M.Phil programme on nursing was started on R.A.K college of nursing1988 R.A.K college of nursing was designated asworld health collaboration centre for nursing developments1992 Phd. In nursing programme started at R.A.K CON P.h.d at nimhans2001 Nursing education furnished in an unprecedented2002 onwards manner through out ondia
RESEARCH PRIORITIES IN NURSINGEpidemiological Studies Studies on the conditions of life and well-beingAn evaluation of health policies and health servicesHealth promotionFrom the perspective of nursing as a professionFrom the perspective of the patient and his/her family,
BARRIERS AND FACILITATORSOF NURSING RESEARCH UTILIZATION
AREA BARRIERSORGANISATION INSUFFICIENT AUTHORITY TO CHANGE PATIENT CARE ADMN NOT ALLOWING IMPLIMENTATION INADEQUATE FACILITIES FOR IMPLIMENTATIONPRESENTATION AND STATISTICAL ANALYSES ARE NOT UNDERSTANDABLEACCESSIBILITY OFRESEARCH LITERATURE IS NOT COMPLIED AT ONE PLACE RESEARCH ARTICLE ARE NOT READILY AVAILABLECHARACTERISTICS LITERATURE REPORTS CONFLICTING RESULITSOF INNOVATION METHODOLOGICAL INADEQUACIES OF RESEARCH RESEARCH REPORTS/ARTICLE ARE NOT PUBLISHED FAST ENOUGH
THE FACILITATORS OF NURSING RESEARCHIncreased administrative support and encouragement are needed colleague support and time to review and implement researchfindings.First and foremost is the creation of an environment in whichnurses are comfortable Questioning and evaluating current practice, seeking outresearch based solutions to care problems, and testing them intrials appropriately. Developing nurses‟ research skills through attendance atconferences, continuing education, and in-service workshops.Research utilization is expected and rewarded
Importance of Nursing ResearchNurses ask questions aimed at gaining new knowledge to improvepatient care.Research-based (evidence based) practice = integratingresearch findings into clinical decision makingAccountability for care-related decisions; research expandsnursing practiceReinforce identity of nursing as a profession – knowing/understanding pts. health care experience
,I have concluded that research in nursing practice has severalpurposes:a) to increase knowledge in the field, thus laying the basic foundationsfor the practice of patient care,b) to build up evidence for such practice;c) to contribute to the attention of the population‟s need for health,quality of life and wellbeing,d) to guide efficiency in health and nursing services, ensuring qualityand cost-benefit,e) to generate the knowledge that guides educational and regulatorypolicies in the nursing profession