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History of nursing


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History of nursing

  2. 2. A NURSE..• N – Nobility, Knowledge• U - Usefulness, Understanding• R – Righteousness, Responsibility• S - Simplicity, Sympathy• E - Efficiency, Equanimity
  3. 3. Nursing is the unique function of the nurse, that is to assist the individual (sick or well) in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to a peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will or knowledge.” - ICN
  4. 4. According to ANA “Nursing is the protection, and optimisation of health and abilities, prevention of illness and injury, alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human response and advocacy in the care of individuals, families, communities and population.”
  5. 5.  300 AD Entry of women into nursing. 1633 -Sisters of Charity founded by Louise de Marillac -established the first educational program to be affiliated with a religious nursing order 1809 -Mother Elizabeth Seton introduced the Sisters of Charity into America, later known as the Daughters of Charity.
  6. 6.  1836 -Deaconess Institute of Kaiserwerth, Germany, founded -institute where Florence Nightingale received her initial education in nursing 1860 -establishment of the Nightingale Training School for Nurses at St. Thomass Hospital in London, England -first organized program for training nurses
  7. 7.  1884 -Mary Snively assumed directorship of Toronto General Hospital and began to form the Canadian National Association of Trained Nurses -later became the Canadian Nurses Association 1890 -establishment of the Nurses Associated Alumni of the United States and Canada -later became the American Nurses Association
  8. 8.  1901 -first university-affiliated nursing program -Army Nurse Corps established 1911 -formed American Nurses Association 1920 -graduate nurse-midwifery programs were established
  9. 9.  1926 -ANA Code of Ethics approved 1953 -National League for Nursing in collaboration with other universities, developed graduate nursing education
  10. 10. FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE (The lady with the lamp)  Founded many Schools of Nursing with theoretical and practical basis in the care of the sick.  First to stress on aseptic precautions while caring for the patient.  Her favourite dictum  “Do the Patient no harm”(12 May 1820 – 13 Aug 1910)
  11. 11. NURSING IN INDIA  1664 the East India Company started a hospital for soldiers  1935 onwards- State-wise councils started developing  1947 - Indian Nursing Council (INC) Act passed by the Parliament  Now India has 23 State Nursing Councils  Colleges of Nursing started in Delhi (1946) and Vellore (1947)  Nursing education in the country integrated into the system of higher education.
  12. 12. NURSING CODE OF ETHICSo A code of ethics is a formal statement of a group’s ideals and values. It is a set of ethical principles that (a) Is shared by members of the group (b) Reflects their moral judgements over time (c) Serves as a standard for their professional actions.
  13. 13. THE ICN CODE OF ETHICSAn international code of ethics for nurses was firstadopted by the International Council of Nurses (ICN) in1953. 1.NURSES AND PEOPLE 2.NURSES AND PRACTICE 3.NURSES AND THE PROFESSION 4.NURSES AND CO-WORKERS
  14. 14. THE ICN CODE OF ETHICS,CONT’D..1. NURSES AND PEOPLE The nurse’s primary professional responsibility is to people requiring nursing care. In providing care, the nurse promotes an environment in which the human rights, values, customs and spiritual beliefs of the individual, family and community are respected. The nurse ensures that the individual receives sufficient information on which to base consent for care and related treatment. The nurse holds in confidence personal information and uses judgement in sharing this information.
  15. 15. THE ICN CODE OF ETHICS,CONT’D..2. NURSES AND PRACTICE The nurse carries personal responsibility and accountability for nursing practice, and for maintaining competence by continual learning. The nurse maintains a standard of personal health such that the ability to provide care is not compromised. The nurse uses judgement regarding individual competence when accepting and delegating responsibility. The nurse at all times maintains standards of personal conduct which reflect well on the profession and enhance public confidence. The nurse, in providing care, ensures that use of technology and scientific advances are compatible with the safety, dignity and rights of people.
  16. 16. THE ICN CODE OF ETHICS,CONT’D..3. NURSES AND THE PROFESSION The nurse assumes the major role in determining and implementing acceptable standards of clinical nursing practice, management, research and education. The nurse is active in developing a core of research-based professional knowledge. The nurse, acting through the professional organisation, participates in creating and maintaining safe, equitable social and economic working conditions in nursing.
  17. 17. THE ICN CODE OF ETHICS,CONT’D..4. NURSES AND CO-WORKERS The nurse sustains a co-operative relationship with co-workers in nursing and other fields. The nurse takes appropriate action to safeguard individuals, families and communities when their health is endangered by a co-worker or any other person.
  18. 18. THE ANA CODE OF ETHICS1. The nurse, in all 6. The nurse participates in professional relationships, establishing values of the practices with compassion profession. and respect. 7. The nurse participates in the2. The nurse’s primary advancement of the profession. commitment is to the 8. The nurse collaborates with patient. others to meet health needs.3. The nurse promotes, 9.Associations and their members advocates for the rights of are responsible for the the patient. articulating of nursing values.4. The nurse is responsible and accountable for individual nursing practice .5. The nurse owes the same duties to self as to others.
  19. 19. CODES OF PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT FOR NURSES:1.Professional responsibility and accountability2. Nursing practice3. Communication and interpersonal relationship4. Valuing human being5. Management6. Professional advancement
  20. 20. AUTONOMY Autonomy means that individuals are able to act forthemselves to the level of their capacity. It is theright of individuals, governing their actionsaccording to their own purpose and reason. Professional nurse autonomy is defined as belief inthe centrality of the client when making responsiblediscretionary decisions, both independently andinterdependently, that reflect advocacy for the client.
  21. 21. ACCOUNTABLITY According to Sullivan and Deekan, “accountability is being responsible for ones actions and accepting the consequences of one’s behaviour”.Accountable to whom? Your patients, through a duty of care Your employer, as defined by your contract of employment and job description; Your profession, as stated in the relevant codes of conduct The public
  22. 22. Nurses are accountable for; Providing safe and therapeutic environment for the patients. Delivering component and personalized care. Maintaining adequate supplies of materials and equipments for smooth functioning of ward. Maintaining accurate and up-to-date records and reports. Protecting client’s legal rights and privacy. Maintaining good interpersonal relationships. Working within ethical and legal boundaries. Delegating responsibility appropriately. Contributing to the development of profession.
  23. 23.  Assertiveness is a style of behaviour to interact with people while standing up for your rights. It is a tool for expressing ourselves confidently and a way of saying yes and no in an appropriate way. 1. Helps to create healthy and meaningful relations. 2. Less friction and conflicts. 3. Enhances the self esteem. 4. Increases the productivity. 5. Improves emotional and physical health. 6. Lessen the stress at work.
  25. 25. The word visibility means capacity of providing aclear unobstructed view. Although nurses comprisethe majority of healthcare professionals, they arelargely invisible. The public views of nursing andnurses are typically based on personal experienceswith nurses, which can lead to a narrow view of anurse often based only on a brief personalexperience. Profession needs to be more concernedabout visibility because nursing is struggling toattract qualified students and keep current nursesin practice.
  26. 26. STEPS TO IMPROVE THE VISIBILITY Nurses Week is used as an opportunity to recognize nurses in practice and to advertise the profession of nursing, increasing its visibility and portraying a positive image. During Nurses’ Week, healthcare organizations typically hold special celebrations to honour nurses, and announce via the media. Attract more men in to nursing profession. Give out awards for leadership and other accomplishments in nursing Uphold the professional dignity. Ensure active participation in society, i.e. by involvement through rescue mission in natural calamities like flood, storm etc.