24.4 Revolutions in the Arts24.4 Revolutions in the ArtsArtistic and Intellectual movementsboth reflect and fuel changes in Europeduring the 1800’s
Romantic Movement The Ideas of RomanticismRomanticism – Interest in nature, preferringemotion, individualityRomanticism linked to folk traditions andnationalism.Romanticism rejects the Enlightenment ideasthat elevate reason as the ultimate reality, andvalidated emotion as an authentic experienceof reality. Emotions of trepidation, horror,terror, and awe gain a new emphasis.
Romantic MovementRomantic MovementRomanticism in LiteratureRomanticism in LiteraturePoetry, music, and painting are thePoetry, music, and painting are thearts best suited to romanticismarts best suited to romanticismMany British romantic poets believeMany British romantic poets believenature is the source of beautynature is the source of beauty
British Romantic Poets William WordsworthWilliam WordsworthLyrical Ballads, with a FewLyrical Ballads, with a FewOther PoemsOther Poems Lord ByronLord ByronDon JuanDon Juan Percy Bysshe ShelleyPrometheus Unbound (play)"Hymn to Intellectual Beauty""Hymn to Intellectual Beauty" John Keats"Ode on a Grecian Urn" Samuel Taylor Coleridge(not pictured)"Kubla Khan; or, A Vision in aDream: A Fragment"
German writersGerman writers Germany’s JohannWolfgang vonGoethe is a greatearly romanticist. 28 August 1749 – 22March 1832 He wrote the playFaust about a doctorwho sells his soul tothe devil to getwhatever he wants.
German WritersGerman Writers Jakob and WilhelmGrimm, known as “TheBrothers Grimm”popularized stories like: RumpelstiltskinRumpelstiltskin Snow WhiteSnow White RapunzelRapunzel CinderellaCinderella Hansel and GretelHansel and Gretel The Frog PrinceThe Frog Prince
French RomanticsFrench Romantics Victor HugoVictor Hugo Les MiserablesLes Miserables The Hunchback ofThe Hunchback ofNotre DameNotre Dame
Gothic FictionGothic horrornovels taking placein medieval castlesbecome popular The Castle of Otranto(1764) by HoraceWalpole is considered thefirst gothic novel. Walpole built his Englishvilla Strawberry Hill in theGothic Revival style muchlike a medieval castle.
Examples of Gothic FictionExamples of Gothic Fiction The “penny dreadful” serializednovels such as The String ofPearls: A Romance (1846-47)which debuts the characterSweeney Todd: TheDemon Barber of FleetStreet. “Penny dreadfuls”were the precursors to pulpfiction and the modern comicbook. Another popular pennyAnother popular pennydreadful wasdreadful was Varney theVarney theVampire or The Feast of BloodVampire or The Feast of Bloodanonymously written foranonymously written forpublication (1845-47).publication (1845-47).
Examples of Gothic FictionExamples of Gothic Fiction Stories by EdgarAllen Poe “The Fall of the Houseof Usher” “The Pit and thePendulum” “The Tell Tale Heart”
Examples of Gothic FictionExamples of Gothic Fiction The most well knownThe most well knowngothic novel isgothic novel isFrankensteinFrankenstein by Maryby MaryWollstonecraft Shelley.Wollstonecraft Shelley.
Composers EmphasizeEmotionComposers abandon Enlightenment styleof musicLudwig van Beethoven leads the way fromEnlightenment to romanticismSome composers draw on literature orcultural themes
Ludwig van Beethoven baptized 17 Dec. 1770 – 26baptized 17 Dec. 1770 – 26March 1827March 1827 He was a crucial figure in theHe was a crucial figure in thetransitional period between thetransitional period between theClassical and Romantic erasClassical and Romantic eras ininWestern classical music, andWestern classical music, andremains one of the mostremains one of the mostacclaimed and influentialacclaimed and influentialcomposers of all time.composers of all time. Around 1796, Beethoven beganAround 1796, Beethoven beganto lose his hearing.to lose his hearing. Beethovens hearing loss did notBeethovens hearing loss did notprevent his composing music,prevent his composing music,but it made playing at concerts—but it made playing at concerts—lucrative sources of income—lucrative sources of income—increasingly difficult.increasingly difficult.
Franz Liszt October 22, 1811 – July 31, 1886October 22, 1811 – July 31, 1886 Was a Hungarian composer,Was a Hungarian composer,virtuoso pianist and teacher.virtuoso pianist and teacher. Liszt became renowned throughoutLiszt became renowned throughoutEurope during the 19th century forEurope during the 19th century forhis great skill as a performer.his great skill as a performer. He was said by his contemporariesHe was said by his contemporariesto have been the most technicallyto have been the most technicallyadvanced pianist of his age andadvanced pianist of his age andperhaps the greatest pianist of allperhaps the greatest pianist of alltime.time.
Robert Schumann 8 June 1810 – 29 July8 June 1810 – 29 July18561856 German composer,German composer,aesthete andaesthete andinfluential music critic.influential music critic.He is one of the mostHe is one of the mostfamous and importantfamous and importantRomantic composersRomantic composersof the 19th century.of the 19th century.
Felix Mendelssohn February 3, 1809 –February 3, 1809 –November 4, 1847November 4, 1847 German composer,German composer,pianist, organist andpianist, organist andconductor of the earlyconductor of the earlyRomantic period.Romantic period. He was born into aHe was born into anotable Jewish family,notable Jewish family,although he himself wasalthough he himself wasbrought up initially withoutbrought up initially withoutreligion, and later as areligion, and later as aLutheran Christian. HeLutheran Christian. Hewas recognized early aswas recognized early asa musical prodigya musical prodigy
Frederic Chopin 1 March 1810 –1 March 1810 –17 October 184917 October 1849 Was a Polish composerWas a Polish composerand virtuoso pianist. He isand virtuoso pianist. He isconsidered one of theconsidered one of thegreat masters ofgreat masters ofRomantic music.Romantic music. The great majority ofThe great majority ofChopins compositionsChopins compositionswere written for the pianowere written for the pianoas solo instrument.as solo instrument.
Hector Berlioz December 11, 1803 – March 8,December 11, 1803 – March 8,18691869 French Romantic composer, bestFrench Romantic composer, bestknown for his compositionsknown for his compositionsSymphonie fantastiqueSymphonie fantastique andand GrandeGrandemesse des morts (Requiem).messe des morts (Requiem). Berlioz made significantBerlioz made significantcontributions to the moderncontributions to the modernorchestra with his Treatise onorchestra with his Treatise onInstrumentation. He specified hugeInstrumentation. He specified hugeorchestral forces for some of hisorchestral forces for some of hisworks; as a conductor, heworks; as a conductor, heperformed several concerts withperformed several concerts withmore than 1,000 musicians.more than 1,000 musicians.
Guiseppe Verdi October 9 or 10, 1813 –October 9 or 10, 1813 –January 27, 1901January 27, 1901 an Italian Romantican Italian Romanticcomposer, mainly ofcomposer, mainly ofopera. He was one of theopera. He was one of themost influentialmost influentialcomposers of the 19thcomposers of the 19thcentury.century. One of his most wellOne of his most wellknown tunes isknown tunes is "La donna"La donnaè mobile" ("Woman isè mobile" ("Woman isfickle") from the operafickle") from the operaRigolettoRigoletto
Richard Wagner 22 May 1813 – 13 February 188322 May 1813 – 13 February 1883 German composer, conductor,German composer, conductor,theatre director and essayist,theatre director and essayist,primarily known for his operas.primarily known for his operas. Unlike most other operaUnlike most other operacomposers, Wagner wrote both thecomposers, Wagner wrote both themusic and libretto for every one ofmusic and libretto for every one ofhis works.his works. Wagner’s music is controversialWagner’s music is controversialbecause Wagner himself wasbecause Wagner himself wasantisemitic in his essays. The Nazisantisemitic in his essays. The Nazisappropriated much of Wagner’sappropriated much of Wagner’swritings and music for their ownwritings and music for their ownends.ends.
The Shift to Realism in the ArtsThe Shift to Realism in the ArtsRealism – art style attempting todepict life accuratelyPaintings and novels in this styleshow the working class
Photographers Capture Reality Daguerreotypes, earlyphotographs, aresurprisingly real They are named aftertheir French inventor,Louis Daguerre
Daguerreotype photosThe solar eclipse of July28, 1851 was the firstcorrectly exposedphotograph of a solareclipse, using thedaguerreotype process.The first authenticatedimage of AbrahamLincoln was thisdaguerreotype of him asU.S. Congressman-electin 1846, attributed toNicholas H. Shepard ofSpringfield, Ill.The best-knownimage of EdgarAllan Poe was adaguerreotype takenin 1848 by W.S.Hartshorn, shortlybefore Poes death.
Photographers Capture Reality William Talbot inventsnegative, allowscopies of photograph
Writers Study SocietyCharles Dickens and Honore de BalzacCharles Dickens and Honore de Balzacwrite about society and class.write about society and class.Some realist literature sparks reforms inSome realist literature sparks reforms inworking conditions.working conditions.
Honoré de Balzac French author who wrote a 100French author who wrote a 100novel series titlednovel series titled La ComédieLa Comédiehumaine,humaine, “The Human“The HumanComedy,” about life in FranceComedy,” about life in Franceafter the fall of Napoleonafter the fall of NapoleonBonaparte.Bonaparte.
Émile Zola French author who wroteFrench author who wrotea series of realistic novelsa series of realistic novelsdescribing the conditionsdescribing the conditionsof French life in his time.of French life in his time. One series of his novelsOne series of his novelswas a 21 novel serieswas a 21 novel seriestitledtitled Les Rougon-Les Rougon-MacquartMacquart about a familyabout a familybetween 1852 and 1870.between 1852 and 1870. One of his most famousOne of his most famousbooks,books, GerminalGerminal, was in, was inthis series and isthis series and isconsidered a classic inconsidered a classic inFrench literature.French literature.
Charles Dickens Dickens was in favor of liberalDickens was in favor of liberalreforms in British society, and usedreforms in British society, and usedhis realistic descriptions of the plighthis realistic descriptions of the plightof the poor to promote such reform.of the poor to promote such reform. His serialized works were popular inHis serialized works were popular inthe United States as well.the United States as well. Works include:Works include: A Christmas CarolA Christmas Carol Oliver TwistOliver Twist Nicholas NicklebyNicholas Nickleby Little DorritLittle Dorrit Hard TimesHard Times A Tale of Two CitiesA Tale of Two Cities David CopperfieldDavid Copperfield Bleak HouseBleak House
Impressionists React AgainstRealismA New MovementImpressionism – art style thattries to capture precisemoments in time
Life in the MomentImpressionists like Claude Monetportray life of rising middle classEdgar Degas and Pierre-AugusteRenoir also leading impressionists
Claude MonetClaude Monet 14 November 1840 – 514 November 1840 – 5December 1926December 1926 Founder of FrenchFounder of Frenchimpressionist painting, andimpressionist painting, andthe most consistent andthe most consistent andprolific practitioner of theprolific practitioner of themovements philosophy ofmovements philosophy ofexpressing ones perceptionsexpressing ones perceptionsbefore nature, especially asbefore nature, especially asapplied to plein-air landscapeapplied to plein-air landscapepainting. The termpainting. The termImpressionism is derivedImpressionism is derivedfrom the title of his paintingfrom the title of his paintingImpression, SunriseImpression, Sunrise
The Woman in the Green DressThe Woman in the Green Dress
Garden at Sainte-AdresseGarden at Sainte-Adresse
Edgar DegasEdgar Degas 19 July 1834 – 2719 July 1834 – 27September 1917September 1917 French artist famous forFrench artist famous forhis work in painting,his work in painting,sculpture, printmakingsculpture, printmakingand drawing.and drawing. He is regarded as one ofHe is regarded as one ofthe founders ofthe founders ofImpressionism althoughImpressionism althoughhe rejected the term, andhe rejected the term, andpreferred to be called apreferred to be called arealist.realist.
Pierre-Auguste RenoirPierre-Auguste Renoir February 25, 1841 –February 25, 1841 –December 3, 1919December 3, 1919 Leading painter in theLeading painter in thedevelopment of thedevelopment of theImpressionist style.Impressionist style.