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Project powerpoint

  1. 1. Harvesting Stem Cells Brian Shapiro, Morgan, Period 1
  2. 2. Basic Principles of Genetics <ul><li>When a dominant allele is present that trait appears on the organism. When a dominant allele is not present, recessive alleles take control and those traits show up. </li></ul><ul><li>When 2 dominant alleles are present, there is co-dominance and there is a mix of the 2 traits. </li></ul><ul><li>Each parent gives each offspring one allele, dominant or recessive, which determines what the offspring will look like. </li></ul>This punnett square shows the possible outcomes of a genetic cross.
  3. 3. Human Genome Project <ul><li>The Human Genome Project started in 1990 and was completed in 2003. The goals for the project were to: </li></ul><ul><li>identify all the approximately 20,000-25,000 genes in human DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>store this information in databases. </li></ul><ul><li>improve tools for data analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>transfer related technologies to the private sector. </li></ul><ul><li>address the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) that may arise from the project. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Human Genome Project (continued) <ul><li>This project implies that they want to know all they can about genetics. </li></ul><ul><li>They also want people to do the right things with their genetics like not selling their genetics. </li></ul><ul><li>They want to imply that you should treat people the same no matter what there genetics are. </li></ul><ul><li>The Human Genome Project helped pass a law that you can’t be discriminated against based upon your genetics. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Genetic Disorders <ul><li>The passing of traits, heredity, sometimes passes down disorders which could be caused by a mutation in the genes passed down. </li></ul><ul><li>Single Gene Disorder- is when only one gene is affected by the disorder. An example of this disease is cystic fibrosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosome Abnormalities- When a chromosome has an extra part or a missing part. An example of this disease is Down Syndrome. </li></ul><ul><li>Multifactorial Disorder- When a disorder is caused by many sources such as environment. An example of this disorder is Type 1 Diabetes. </li></ul>When you have Type 1 Diabetes, your pancreas doesn’t produce insulin.
  6. 6. Genetic Disorders <ul><li>Genetic counseling can help parents decide if they want children and the chances that there children might get that disease. Counseling can also help parents decide if they want to adopt a kid. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic counseling can help parents decide if they want children and the chances that there children might get that disease. Counseling can also help parents decide if they want to adopt a kid. </li></ul><ul><li>Karyotypes help predict genetic disorders because if you know that one parent has a disorder it is likely that the kid will get it. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Genetic Cloning <ul><li>Scientists have moved forward a lot in the field of cloning. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists have cloned a sheep, a dog, and many other animals. But they are trying to figure out if it’s safe and morally right to clone a human being. It’s also illegal to clone a human. Many people think it’s wrong anyway because they might hurt the person being tested on. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Genetic Engineering <ul><li>Genetic engineering has some good things and bad things. </li></ul><ul><li>If you could control what a humans genetics were, you could prevent disease. </li></ul><ul><li>It is unknown what potential harm could be done to a child. It could give the baby a new disorder or a negative effect. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Stem Cell Video
  10. 10. Argument 1 <ul><li>I think harvesting stem cells is great because it can help people who have diseases with no cure. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, if you have Type 1 Diabetes, you can use stem cells to help your pancreas create new cells that your immune system has destroyed. </li></ul><ul><li>I think rebuilding your body is better than cloning it because cloning might cause something bad like a mutation. </li></ul><ul><li>The NIH did research on the properties of stem cells and found out that they can give rise to specialized cell types. That means that stem cells can help make specialized cells like a pancreas or a kidney. They did an experiment in bone marrow and found out that stem cells from one tissue may give rise to cell types of a completely different tissue. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Argument 2 <ul><li>By curing disease there is a domino effect. If you cure disease you cure pain which in turn can cure their pain. People will call in sick less and become better workers and thinkers. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Prakash Satwani tried to cure my cousin. He works with pediatric patients who have the potential to become regular people if they are cured. He experimented on my cousin with stem cells to try to save him. It worked by curing the disease but he died of lung damage. That was only the first try for this rare disease and it almost worked. Luckily we only lost one life using stem cells but we could save more if we get it right. </li></ul>Dr. Prakash Satwani
  12. 12. Argument 3 <ul><li>Stem cells can be used to test and engineer new drugs for safety purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, scientists can take stem cells and turn them into cancer cells to try a new medicine on those cells instead of a human. The stem cells would be taken from an adult donor, not from an embryo. </li></ul><ul><li>The NIH did research on this and proved it was morally correct and that it worked great. They made stem cells form into cancer cells and proved that testing a new medicine was safer on those cells than a human because if something went wrong nobody would get hurt. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Argument 4 <ul><li>If you cure disease with stem cells healthcare cost will go down. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, if you have diabetes and you get cured by stem cells you don’t have to pay for pumps, testing kits, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists at Rutgers College did some research and found out that people with diseases that could be cured by stem cells could save from $4,500 to $122,000. If there was a graph showing that price, there would be a big pedigree. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Opposing Argument 1 <ul><li>If any group of people took over stem cell research, bad things could happen. </li></ul><ul><li>They could use stem cells to create a weapon for war, biochemical warfare. </li></ul><ul><li>They could spread a disease that could do anything like kill people or have terrible effects on people. </li></ul><ul><li>After 9/11 the government wanted to raise their BioDefense. They were thinking of taking stem cells and making biological weapons. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Opposing Argument 2 <ul><li>If God makes us the way he thinks we should be, should we mess with human life? Should we play God? </li></ul><ul><li>We shouldn’t because God made us how we are supposed to be and we should leave it that way. Tampering with human life is disrupting the balance that has been created. Especially when scientists kill embryos for stem cells. </li></ul><ul><li>The Catholic Church is against embryonic stem cell research because they feel it’s killing a life. Pope John Paul II said embryonic stem-cell research is related to abortion. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Opposing Argument 3 <ul><li>Sometimes stem cells don’t work and people pay a lot of money for them. That’s wasting their money and is not helping our countries economic situation. </li></ul><ul><li>A nine year old boy in Israel had a crippling disease and stem cells were injected into him. A few months later he got a tumor in his brain and it turned out it was formed by the stem cells. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Opposing Argument 4 <ul><li>Stem cells cause tumors in the people who have them injected in themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists have done experiments on rats and mice with stem cells and they figured out that spontaneous tumor growth is a persistent problem. </li></ul><ul><li>That proves that stem cells cause other diseases. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Conclusion <ul><li>I think the government should fund harvesting stem cells because it can help people with incurable diseases, make people better workers and thinkers, test new drugs for safety purposes, and lower healthcare costs. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Citation Page <ul><li>  Primary Sources: </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Prakash Satwani, Columbia Presbyterian, Pediatric/Oncology Specialist </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;What Are the Potential Uses of Human Stem Cells and the Obstacles That Must Be Overcome before These Potential Uses Will Be Realized? [Stem Cell Information].&quot; NIH Stem Cell Information Home Page . Web. 19 Mar. 2011. <http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/basics6.asp>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;What Are the Unique Properties of All Stem Cells? [Stem Cell Information].&quot; NIH Stem Cell Information Home Page . Web. 19 Mar. 2011. <http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/basics2.asp>. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Citation Page <ul><li>Secondary Sources: </li></ul><ul><li>O'Brien, Nancy Frazier. &quot;Stem-cell Research and the Catholic Church.&quot; American Catholic: Franciscan Media: Catholic News Magazine Books Videos . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.americancatholic.org/news/stemcell/>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Human Genome Project Information.&quot; Oak Ridge National Laboratory . Web. 15 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/home.shtml>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Mrs. G. Nau-Ritter - AP Biology.&quot; Latest News . Web. 15 Mar. 2011. <http://www.mtsinai.k12.ny.us/highschool/faculty/webpages/gnr/index_apbio.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;What Are Complex or Multifactorial Disorders? - Genetics Home Reference.&quot; Genetics Home Reference - Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions . Web. 19 Mar. 2011. <http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/complexdisorders>. </li></ul>

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