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eLearning and Open Educational Resources (OER)


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OER as educational resources in elearning systems

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eLearning and Open Educational Resources (OER)

  1. 1. E-Learning and OER (Open Education Resources) Mokhtar BEN HENDA Bordeaux Montaigne University 30 October 2019
  2. 2. Overview OER first issued by MIT OpenCourseWare project (2001)  Making the materials used in the teaching of MIT's available on the Web  Free and open digital publication of high quality college and university‐level educational materials.  Free and openly licensed, accessible to anyone, via the internet
  3. 3. OER, a filiation with Open access movement  2001: OERs are part of a philosophy of open and sustainable community of practice, transdisciplinary, organized in a network with reference frames, rules and objectives;  OERs have been adopted by many institutions and international UNESCO, OECD, WB, William Foundation and Flora Hewlett Sun Microsystems, etc.  2007: OER became an independent Movement:  Tens of official documents, conventions, agreements… are published to strcture the field of OER
  4. 4. Strong ties with the Open access movement  OERs are part of a worldwide Open Initiatives movement:  Open Source Movement (softwares),  Open Access (scientific production)  Open Content (content creation),  Open data (free data)  Open science (sharing any kind of output)  Open Publishing (online editing)  Open innovation (anti-patent)  … Open source initiative 1998 Open content Initiative 1998 Open Initiative 2001 Creative Commons 2001 (ccLearn 2007) Open educational resources 2002
  5. 5. OER: abundant officila litterature
  6. 6. Definitions: looking for coherence "Digital materials freely and openly offered to educators, students and self-learners for use and reuse for teaching, learning and research" (OECD, 2007, p.10) This definition does not distinguish between resources that have an associated license governing their use (usually Creative Commons) and resources that do not. It is therefore susceptible of ambiguity.  OECD Definition, 2007 OECD (2007). Giving Knowledge for Free: The Emergence of Open Educational Resources. Paris: Centre for Educational Research and Innovation, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
  7. 7. Definitions: looking for coherence Domains Media Licence Atkins, Brown & Hammond (2007). A Review of the Open Educational Resources (OER) Movement: Achievements, Challenges, and New Opportunities. Report to The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Typology "OERs are teaching, learning and research materials using any media, in the public domain and distributed under an open license allowing access to such resources and their use, adaptation, re-use and re- broadcasting by others without restrictions or with a minimum of restrictions "(Atkins, Brown & Hammond, 2007)Usages  Unesco definition: 2012
  8. 8. OER: Questionning the concept O.E.R.: a strong condensed of ambiguous values (pb of borders, porosity)  Open: what makes them « Open »?  Education: how are they educational?  Ressource : what is a ressource? Concept in search of coherence beyond the 5Rs by David Wiley (to Retain, to Reuse, to Revise, to Remix and to Redistribute):
  9. 9. How OER are Resources? First, they are independant training material (ressources)  Text, graphics, Audio, Video Then « Learning Objects » Now, « Educational Ressources »  OERs include whole course materials, modules, manuals, streaming videos, tests, software and other tools, materials or techniques used to support to knowledge,
  10. 10. How OER are Resources? Typology OECD, 2007 OECD (2007). Giving Knowledge for Free: The Emergence of Open Educational Resources. Paris: Centre for Educational Research and Innovation, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
  11. 11. How OER are Educational?  However, OER can be anything used as a teaching material (obtained from the web or from the real world):  A political Speech, a statue, a chair, a Youtube movie  A laboratory experience, a book of medicine,  The shoe of an emperor,  Anything … Clio CJS, 2009 CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 Pixabay, 2010, C0 Process Arts 2001 Youtube Satndard
  12. 12. How OER are Educational?  The shoe of Mary Antoinette, Queen of France the day when she was slaughtered  Could be an OER in a historical course or in a leather mnufacturing industry
  13. 13. How OER are Open?  OER are under Creative Commons licences: no strict legal reason not to divide the block content according to its parts;  Creative Commons are licenses that enable authors to authors to give away their work for free while protecting their rights  Copyright is generally considered an integrated set of several exclusive rights:  Reproduction,  Adaptation,  Distribution,  Translation,  Projection,  Reformatting, etc.
  14. 14. Creative Commons
  15. 15. How OER are Open? Other open licences  Free Art License (meeting Copyleft Attitude, Paris in 2000);  GNU Free Documentation License, 2002;  Common Documentation License (Apple, 2001);  Open Music Licenses (GPL en musique) : Green, Yellow, Red;  Design Science License (2001-2002) Copyleft pour les medias works;  The Open Content License, 1998;  Open Publication License, 1998 (lecture seule);  EFF Open Audio License, GNU GLP pour la musique.
  16. 16. OER genealogy
  17. 17. OER repositories to know  BCampus Open Textbooks : This site lists open textbooks organized by subject area, many of which have been peer reviewed for their suitability at community colleges.  Lumen Learning : This OER-focused company provides open courses with "zero textbook cost." Their curriculum comes with all the OER students will require.  MERLOT II: The California State University System's collection of slightly more than 45,000 resources is rated, peer-reviewed and tallied by how many "personal collections" each resides in. It lists more than 3,000 open textbooks, some of which have accessibility information for students with disabilities.  MIT Open Courseware Online Textbooks: MIT's library of online textbooks is one of the few sources for OER on aeronautics, civil engineering and material science, among many other disciplines.  OER Commons: This digital hub created by the Institute for the Study of Knowledge Management in Education offers 73,000 kinds of OER, along with tools for creating OER, training on how to use OER and the ability to create OER "Commons" — groups that share resources for a given purpose.  Open Course Library: Managed by the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, this content is organized by course.  Open Education Consortium: The Open Education Consortium is a community of 240-plus schools as well as organizations and people who want to advance the idea of "open education." It features an OER resource toolkit, webinars, in-person events and links open textbooks.  Open Learning Initiative: Carnegie Mellon's (PA) open courses (and associated content) denote a marked emphasis on STEM, including computing.  OpenStax CNX: This is Rice University's (TX) "open space," where educators have stashed thousands of learning objects that can be or are already organized into books. It is also the parent of OpenStax College.  Open Textbook Library: textbooks that have been funded, published, and licensed to be freely used, adapted, and distributed.  Orange Grove: Open Courseware, Open Textbooks, 3d object models, learning modules, and videos.  SUNY Open Textbooks: openly licensed textbooks and courses written and curated by SUNY Faculty.
  18. 18. Open Educational Resources (French)  BNEUF: offers access to all documentary, pedagogical, scientific and cultural resources offered by Francophonie actors around the world.  L’Université numérique: association (law 1901) composed of 8 French thematic digital universities (UNT)  FISCALITÉ Open Educational Resources of the Université du Québec à Trois- Rivières
  19. 19. OER in Vietnam  Ha Noi, 28 September 2016: second International Conference on Policy Advocacy on OER development in higher education in Viet Nam:  Organized by the University of Social Sciences and Humanities under the Vietnam National University Ha with support from UNESCO  Participants: – Viet Nam’s Open Educational Resources (OER) Community – Vietnamese universities, Union of Libraries, research research centers and Information Technology (IT) corporations – University of Social Sciences and Humanities, – Vietnam Open Educational Resources and the National National Center for Research and Development of Open Open Technologies (RDOT)  Recommendations – Need for political will from the highest level of the Government and active response from the grassroots grassroots levels. – Representatives of 26 organizations included educational educational institutions, research centers, library associations and IT corporations signed the Memorandum of Understanding to promote OER in Viet in Viet Nam. and-open-educational-resources-at-the-heart-of-national- debates-on-international
  20. 20. Barriers to Produce and Use  Survey findings from 9 Asian countries :  Lack of awareness  Lack of skills  Lack of time  Lack of hardware and software  Lack of access to computers  Lack of ability to locate specific, relevant , and quality OER for their specific teachings  No reward system for staff members devoting time and energy  Lack of interest in pedagogical innovation amongst staff members  No support from management level (Dhanarajan & Porters, 2013)
  21. 21. OER scenarios of use
  22. 22. OER In Online Courses  Teachers no longer have to provide their students with outdated information found in textbooks.  OER provide open licenses for the use, repurposing and dissemination of a myriad of education resources  OER is not synonymous with online learning or e-learning  e-learning courses may use OER, but this does not mean that OER are necessarily e- learning  OER are extensively used in MOOCs
  23. 23. OER in MOOCs  MOOCs are within the context of the open education movement  MOOCs serve hundreds & thousands of students worldwide:  MOOCs allow using OER content in open teaching and learning contexts  MOOCs & OER make knowledge publicly accessible at large scale  MOOCs helps opening content to students not on campus or not formally enrolled  MOOCs helps sharing and collaborating at distance on OER with other practitioners