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The Story of OERs


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This presentation narrates the emergence of OERs, what are OERs and how we can network and collaborate to create, share OERs.

Published in: Education, Technology
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The Story of OERs

  1. 1. The Story of OERs
  2. 2. What are…
  3. 3. Open Things… • Open Access • Open Content • Open Course ware • Open Source Software • Open Education / e-Learning • Open Educational Resources • …and many more things
  4. 4. Image source: What is an OER?
  5. 5. Beginning… The term was first used at a UNESCO conference in 2002, although OERs were being produced and used before that time. For instance, the MIT OpenCourseWare project, which began in 2001, was one of the first major initiatives of the OER movement.
  6. 6. Open Educational Resources (OER) are ‘materials offered freely and openly to use and adapt for teaching, learning, development and research’. - The Commonwealth of Learning (COL)
  7. 7. Open Educational Resources (OER) are teaching and learning materials that are freely available online for everyone to use, whether you are an instructor, student or self-learner. Examples of OER include: full courses, course modules, syllabi, lectures, homework assignments, quizzes, lab and classroom activities, pedagogical materials, games, simulations, and many more resources contained in digital media collections from around the world. - OER Commons
  8. 8. OER are teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use and re-purposing by others. Open educational resources include full courses, course materials, modules, textbooks, streaming videos, tests, software, and any other tools, materials, or techniques used to support access to knowledge. - The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation
  9. 9. Lets see how it all started… • In 1994 Wayne Hodgins coined the term “learning object,” and this term quickly entered the vernacular of educators and instructional designers. • One role of learning objects in the history of OER is its popularization of the idea that digital materials can be designed and produced in such a manner as to be reused easily in a variety of pedagogical situations. • Along with its emphasis on reuse, the learning object movement spawned several standards efforts aimed at detailing metadata, content exchange, and other standards necessary for users to find and reuse digital educational content (ARIADNE, IMS, IEEE LTSC / LOM, SCORM, &c.).
  10. 10. Open Content • In 1998 David Wiley coined the term “open content,” and while targeted at the educational community (and learning object creators specifically), the term quickly entered the vernacular of internet users.
  11. 11. Open Source…FOSS… • One role of open content in the history of OER is its popularization of the idea that the principles of the open source / free software movements can be productively applied to content, and the creation of the first widely adopted open license for content (the Open Publication License).
  12. 12. Creative Commons… • In 2001 Larry Lessig and others founded the Creative Commons and released a flexible set of licenses that were both a vast improvement on the Open Publication Licenses™ confusing license option structure and significantly stronger legal documents. • One role of Creative Commons in the history of OER is the increase in credibility and confidence their legally superior, much easier to use licenses brought to the open content community.
  13. 13. 2001 MIT announced its OpenCourseWare initiative • to publish nearly every university course for free public access for noncommercial use. MIT OpenCourseWare has played many roles in the history of OER, including being an example of commitment at an institutional level, working actively to encourage similar projects, and lending the MIT brand to the movement.
  14. 14. 2002: UNESCO • As the number of institutions offering free or open courseware increased, UNESCO organized the 1st Global OER Forum in 2002 where the term Open Educational Resources (OER) was adopted.
  15. 15. 2005: OER Community wiki • With the support of the Hewlett Foundation, UNESCO created a global OER Community wiki in 2005 to share information and work collaboratively on issues surrounding the production and use of Open Educational Resources.
  16. 16. Feb 2006: WikiEducator domain name registered
  17. 17. 2006 October: OpenLearn of UKOU
  18. 18. 2006 November • FLOSS4Edu launches for African OER • 2008: OER Africa launched
  19. 19. Open Educational Resources free and openly licensed educational materials that can be used for • teaching, • learning, • research, and • other purposes.
  20. 20. Image Source: “Open” in Open Content 4Rs Framework • Reuse • Revise • Remix • Redistribute "A door can be wide open, mostly open, cracked slightly open, or completely closed. So can your eyes, so can a window, etc.“ – David Wiley[
  21. 21. Types of Open Educational Resources • Courses • Course materials • Content modules • Learning objects • Collections, and • Journals
  22. 22. Wondering where to find Course Related OER Materials?
  23. 23. OER Initiatives…
  24. 24. OER Africa
  25. 25. POERUP
  26. 26. OER Based ODL Course Material
  27. 27. The OpenCourseWare Consortium, APIKOM, the Ministry of Communication and Informatics of Indonesia
  28. 28. OCWC Global Conference 2013
  29. 29. Japan Opencourseware Consortium (JOCW)
  30. 30. OER in Thailand
  31. 31. Thailand Cyber University Open Courseware
  32. 32. OER in Pakistan
  33. 33. Sri Lanka
  34. 34. OER Repository
  35. 35. OER in Thailand
  36. 36. Creative Commons Korea
  37. 37. KOCW
  38. 38. National Knowledge Commission Govt. of India
  39. 39. Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IITB)
  40. 40. Open Educational Resources for Schools (OER4S)
  41. 41. National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning (NPTEL)
  42. 42. The National Institute of Open Schooling
  43. 43. SAKSHAT
  44. 44. Vidyanidhi (Meaning 'Treasure of Knowledge' in Sanskrit)
  45. 45. Rai OpenCourseware (Rai Foundation)
  46. 46. Consortium for Educational Communication (University Grants Commission)
  47. 47. eGyanKosh
  48. 48. Strategies…
  49. 49. Open Educational Practice (OEP) A characteristic of Open Educational Practice, compared with conventional forms of professional practice, is that it changes the nature of relationships… - Allison Littlejohn, Lou McGill, Isobel Falconer, Jay Dempster
  50. 50. What this change is? • Between academics and support staff (as people work in multi-disciplinary teams, sharing areas of expertise); • Amongst academics (as teaching practice shifts from individual practice to cross-institutional and inter- institutional collaboration); • Between academics and students (as teachers and learners (who may not be registered with a university) interact in new ways); • Between academics and organisations {including the university where they are employed} (as university activities open up).
  51. 51. What further we can do?
  52. 52. Explore… find… search… Institute for the Study of Knowledge Management in Education
  53. 53. Collaborate for content creation… Institute for the Study of Knowledge Management in Education
  54. 54. Collaborate for content creation…
  55. 55. Author: Document, remix, license, and share OER
  56. 56. Curate… Create a specific collection of OER for easy access and sharing
  57. 57. Share…
  58. 58. Join OER Foundation…
  59. 59. Beome a proud member of WikiEducator
  60. 60.
  61. 61. WikiEducator - India
  62. 62. Free professional development opportunity from the OER Foundation
  63. 63. OER Project: Guide for newly enrolled distance learners
  64. 64. Thank You !