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Open education between the
specifications of Creative Commons
and Copyright
Mokhtar BEN HENDA
Bordeaux Montaigne University, FRance
A frame of reference
 Common belief:
 Weak concern/awareness about
Copyright when using online or
paper resources in research or
training,
 European concern:
 Provide concrete answers to the
legal questions facing the
researcher as a user and creator
of intellectual works (texts,
videos, photos, drawings, etc.):
what are the obligations that the
researcher must respect.
 FRANCE: Training PHD Students
on:
 Academic integrity,
 Copyright and intellectual
property,
Overview on the spectrum of rights
 Copyright belongs to a complex ecosystem of
extremes (opponent logics):
 From “All rights reserved” (Proprietary)
 To “No rights reserved” (Open)
 With “Some rights reserved” in between (CC)
Copyright Open license
 Absolute protection of
creators (intellectual
and financial incentive)
 Absolute sharing (Free
circulation of
knowledge)
 All rights are reserved
except those expressly
granted
 All rights are granted,
except those expressly
reserved
 One to One  One to many
Copyright exclusive rights
 A set of exclusive rights to authors of original and creative works:
Source: Understanding the Basics of Copyrights, By Shutterstock, April 29, 2015
 International Conventions (broad non-
consensual):
 Berne Convention (179 contracting parties:
1886)
 Universal Copyright Convention (Unesco:
1952)
 TRIPS Agreement (WTO: 1994)
 WIPO Copyright Treaty (UN: 1996)
 National copyright systems (different):
 No international consensus on one common
copyright law,
 A challenge for sharing content across
boundaries,
 E.g. Different definitions of the public domain,
[Different] Copyright exceptions and limitations
Copyright limitations & exceptions
 Exceptions and limitations create balance with
exclusive rights: no authors permission under
special conditions:
 Special domains,
 3 step-test,
 Exceptions fairly promote “Open access”!?
 Berne convention (1886) has readily acknowledged
copyright exceptions in “special cases” including
“Teaching” [1889 - Art. 8 / 1971 – Art. 10 (2)]
 National laws introduce local interpretations and
rules for exceptions:
 Fair Use (USA): case by case principle,
 Fair dealing (UK, Commonwealth): law prescription of
“special cases”,
 National Copyright laws in IPR (Europe, …)
3 Step
test
1 - Limited to
certain special
cases
2 - Does not
conflict with a
normal exploitation
of the original work
[substantiality]
3 - Does not
prejudice the
legitimate interests
of the author
[Market impact]
Fair use/fair dealing scope
 An open-ended list of acts may not be considered an
infringement of intellectual property rights:
 Ideas (Copyright protects the specific expression of a
work (the words) but not the underlying idea.
 NB: Reproducing ideas is more a matter of Ethics and
academic integrity than copyright,
 Research (citation): short extracts with citation,
 Teaching: restricted use in time, space & public,
 Libraries/archives: keep items in the collection,
 Facts (non-fictional): news are facts, not creative,
 …
 Are fair use/fair dealing paving way to open access
jurisdiction?
 Authors giving deliberately limited rights to others to make
specific use of their works
 Using certain copyrighted work without permission from
authors,
Exceptions, Copyright.org
Fair use, Fair dealing: limited use?
 Fair use/dealing allows students to use short excerpts (portions) of copyrighted works,
 These excerpts are changing from jurisdiction to another,
Lumen, Writing Skills Lab, OR, USA
Exceptions toolkit: Fair use checklist
 Fair use is determined on a case-by-case basis using a
checklist that turns around 4 factors (4 step-test):
 Purpose and Character of the Use (special cases),
 Nature of the Copyrighted Work (facts, fictional),
 Amount of the Work Used (substantiality),
 Effect on the Value of or Market for the Work (financial impact),
Purdue university
Checklisting? Quite familiar with CC!
 Choosing CC licenses using a checklist:
 To check CC licenses compatibility,
 To select appropriate license for a remix,
 To manage complicated scenarios of adapting two or more
CC licensed works into a new work,
Source: Freedonia, Reed Library. « Copyright v. Creative Commons »
MIT: Creative commons Compatibility Wizard
An exasperating questions: CC & Copyright Remix!
 Do Creative Commons licenses affect exceptions
and limitations to copyright?
 No. If reuse of a CC licensed work falls under the fair
use exception, then there is no obligations under the
CC license. This is a fundamental principle of CC
licensing.
 May I apply a CC license to my work if it includes
material used under copyright exception?
 Yes, but it is important to prominently mark any third
party material used so that reusers do not think the CC
license applies to that material.
 How to use materials from incompatible sources?
 Create a collection (no derivative work): differently
licensed materials are kept distinct and clearly
attributed,
 Link out or embed: pointing to resources in their
original place,
 Notice may be in any form but recommended to be in
TASL format (Title, Author, Source, Licence)
 OER remix with copyrighted
materials   
 OER using short excerpts of copyrighted
resources under fair use
Perspectives: reviewing copyright laws for open access
 Key recommendations:
 Making of fair use a more accessible defense against claims of copyright
infringement,
 Acting to largely expand Copyright exceptions & limitations into the digital
environment (EU Directives, 2019),
 Call for countries to tailor copyright exceptions and limitations systems to
their domestic legal culture and needs,
Creating a legal regime more favorable to promote
Open access to knowledge
DIRECTIVE (EU) 2019/790 OF
THE EUROPEAN
PARLIAMENT AND OF THE
COUNCIL
of 17 April 2019
on copyright and related
rights in the Digital Single
Market and amending
Directives 96/9/EC and
2001/29/EC
Follow in the footsteps of the embargo principle of
the Gold publication system of Open access journals

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Open education between the specifications of Creative Commons and Copyright

  • 1. Open education between the specifications of Creative Commons and Copyright Mokhtar BEN HENDA Bordeaux Montaigne University, FRance
  • 2. A frame of reference  Common belief:  Weak concern/awareness about Copyright when using online or paper resources in research or training,  European concern:  Provide concrete answers to the legal questions facing the researcher as a user and creator of intellectual works (texts, videos, photos, drawings, etc.): what are the obligations that the researcher must respect.  FRANCE: Training PHD Students on:  Academic integrity,  Copyright and intellectual property,
  • 3. Overview on the spectrum of rights  Copyright belongs to a complex ecosystem of extremes (opponent logics):  From “All rights reserved” (Proprietary)  To “No rights reserved” (Open)  With “Some rights reserved” in between (CC) Copyright Open license  Absolute protection of creators (intellectual and financial incentive)  Absolute sharing (Free circulation of knowledge)  All rights are reserved except those expressly granted  All rights are granted, except those expressly reserved  One to One  One to many
  • 4. Copyright exclusive rights  A set of exclusive rights to authors of original and creative works: Source: Understanding the Basics of Copyrights, By Shutterstock, April 29, 2015  International Conventions (broad non- consensual):  Berne Convention (179 contracting parties: 1886)  Universal Copyright Convention (Unesco: 1952)  TRIPS Agreement (WTO: 1994)  WIPO Copyright Treaty (UN: 1996)  National copyright systems (different):  No international consensus on one common copyright law,  A challenge for sharing content across boundaries,  E.g. Different definitions of the public domain, [Different] Copyright exceptions and limitations
  • 5. Copyright limitations & exceptions  Exceptions and limitations create balance with exclusive rights: no authors permission under special conditions:  Special domains,  3 step-test,  Exceptions fairly promote “Open access”!?  Berne convention (1886) has readily acknowledged copyright exceptions in “special cases” including “Teaching” [1889 - Art. 8 / 1971 – Art. 10 (2)]  National laws introduce local interpretations and rules for exceptions:  Fair Use (USA): case by case principle,  Fair dealing (UK, Commonwealth): law prescription of “special cases”,  National Copyright laws in IPR (Europe, …) 3 Step test 1 - Limited to certain special cases 2 - Does not conflict with a normal exploitation of the original work [substantiality] 3 - Does not prejudice the legitimate interests of the author [Market impact]
  • 6. Fair use/fair dealing scope  An open-ended list of acts may not be considered an infringement of intellectual property rights:  Ideas (Copyright protects the specific expression of a work (the words) but not the underlying idea.  NB: Reproducing ideas is more a matter of Ethics and academic integrity than copyright,  Research (citation): short extracts with citation,  Teaching: restricted use in time, space & public,  Libraries/archives: keep items in the collection,  Facts (non-fictional): news are facts, not creative,  …  Are fair use/fair dealing paving way to open access jurisdiction?  Authors giving deliberately limited rights to others to make specific use of their works  Using certain copyrighted work without permission from authors, Exceptions, Copyright.org
  • 7. Fair use, Fair dealing: limited use?  Fair use/dealing allows students to use short excerpts (portions) of copyrighted works,  These excerpts are changing from jurisdiction to another, Lumen, Writing Skills Lab, OR, USA
  • 8. Exceptions toolkit: Fair use checklist  Fair use is determined on a case-by-case basis using a checklist that turns around 4 factors (4 step-test):  Purpose and Character of the Use (special cases),  Nature of the Copyrighted Work (facts, fictional),  Amount of the Work Used (substantiality),  Effect on the Value of or Market for the Work (financial impact), Purdue university
  • 9. Checklisting? Quite familiar with CC!  Choosing CC licenses using a checklist:  To check CC licenses compatibility,  To select appropriate license for a remix,  To manage complicated scenarios of adapting two or more CC licensed works into a new work, Source: Freedonia, Reed Library. « Copyright v. Creative Commons » MIT: Creative commons Compatibility Wizard
  • 10. An exasperating questions: CC & Copyright Remix!  Do Creative Commons licenses affect exceptions and limitations to copyright?  No. If reuse of a CC licensed work falls under the fair use exception, then there is no obligations under the CC license. This is a fundamental principle of CC licensing.  May I apply a CC license to my work if it includes material used under copyright exception?  Yes, but it is important to prominently mark any third party material used so that reusers do not think the CC license applies to that material.  How to use materials from incompatible sources?  Create a collection (no derivative work): differently licensed materials are kept distinct and clearly attributed,  Link out or embed: pointing to resources in their original place,  Notice may be in any form but recommended to be in TASL format (Title, Author, Source, Licence)  OER remix with copyrighted materials     OER using short excerpts of copyrighted resources under fair use
  • 11. Perspectives: reviewing copyright laws for open access  Key recommendations:  Making of fair use a more accessible defense against claims of copyright infringement,  Acting to largely expand Copyright exceptions & limitations into the digital environment (EU Directives, 2019),  Call for countries to tailor copyright exceptions and limitations systems to their domestic legal culture and needs, Creating a legal regime more favorable to promote Open access to knowledge DIRECTIVE (EU) 2019/790 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 17 April 2019 on copyright and related rights in the Digital Single Market and amending Directives 96/9/EC and 2001/29/EC Follow in the footsteps of the embargo principle of the Gold publication system of Open access journals

Editor's Notes

  1. Copyright is part of a legal ecosystem characterized by extreme and contradictory logics
  2. However, to understand how Copyright exceptions can apply within an Open education context, let’s first have an overview on Copyright exclusive rights Various international conventions and treaties for the protection of related and neighboring rights were signed to develop international uniform rules for safeguarding the rights of owners of copyright. Remark, minimum rights were developed internationally through consensus (conventions), while specific exceptions and limitations remained the domain of the state. (meaning that states reserved their right to regulate copyright as they deemed fit within their own borders)
  3. Copyright become permissive when usage is within an enumerated set of exceptions and limitations. Then it does not constitute an infringement. Special conditions respond to this: Exceptions are limited to certain special cases; Exceptions do not conflict with a normal exploitation of the work, Exceptions do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the author. National application of exceptions is let to states: development of different regulations: e.g. Fair use (USA), Fair dealing (UK)
  4. Fair use is the US interpretation of Copyright Exceptions. Fair dealing is the one applied in UK and Commonwealth countries. Both fix a set of regulations that inject openness in the hermetic world of copyright and give permission to some acts to be conducted under philosophy of Open access.
  5. The Fair Use Checklist can be helpful in determining whether or not usage falls under fair use.