Minor project report on temple architectur


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Minor project report on temple architectur

  1. 1. MINOR PROJECT REPORT ON Temple Architecture of India Session: 2010-2013UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF: SUBMITTED BY:-Punam Ahlawat Megha AggarwalAsst. Professor Enrollment No.02514905010Dept. Of Business Administration Course: BBA (T&TM) 3rd Sem. MAHARAJA SURAJMAL INSTITUTE (Affiliated to Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University) (Recognized by UGC U/S2 (F)) C-4 JANAK PURI, NEW DELHI-58
  2. 2. CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that the research project initiated to certify that is the innovative effort of“MEGHA AGGARWAL” ROLL NO-02514905010 and it has been accomplishedunder my guidance.Certified that this project report “TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE OF INDIA”Is the bonafide work of "MEGHA AGGARWAL” who carried out the project workunder my supervision.SIGNATURE SIGNATURE Megha Aggarwal Punam Ahlawat SUPERVISOR
  3. 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTA project can never become a success with efforts of only one individual. It requires agroup of people to complete a project at its best. And it’s my friends, my teacher and myfamily member who have helped me to complete my project report.The present work is just an effort to throw some light on “the different architecturalstyles of temples of India”. The work would not have been possible to come to thepresent shape without the guidance, supervision and help of number of people.With deep sense of gratitude I acknowledge the encouragement and guidance receivedfrom Mrs. Punam Ahlawat, ASST.PROFESSOR, DEPT. OF BUSINESSADMINISTRATION and other staff members.I convey my heartfelt thanks to all those people who helped and supported me during thecourse, of completion of my Project Report. MEGHA AGGARWAL ENROLL. NO. 02514905010 Course: BBA (T&TM) 3rd Sem.
  4. 4. TABLE OF CONTENTSS.No. Chapters Particulars Page no.1. Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Indian temple architecture Objectives Limitations Research methodology Source of data collection2. Chapter 2 PROFILE History Hindu temple architecture o Nagara style o Dravida style o The vesara style Strategies to enhance religious tourism through corporate market responsibility Role of religious tourism in balanced economic growth in India Protecting temples
  5. 5. 3. Chapter 3 Analysis and interpretation of statistical data4 Chapter 4 Conclusions and Recommendations Conclusion Recommendations Bibliography
  7. 7. INDIAN TEMPLE ARCHITECTUREIndia “Land of Temples” - A land of intense spirituality and religious faith reflected inthe profusion of temples present in this subcontinent. Temples are found everywhere inIndia from large monumental structures to small stone buildings, each having certainsignificance and greatly influencing the lives of the people who regard the temple as aplace where they could be close to god. Fig 1. 1 (Indian map showing different religious places)
  8. 8. Almost all Indian art has been religious, and almost all forms of artistic tradition havebeen deeply conservative. The Hindu temple developed over two thousand years and itsarchitectural evolution took place within the boundaries of strict models derived solelyfrom religious considerations. Therefore the architect was obliged to keep to the ancientbasic proportions and rigid forms which remained unaltered over many centuries.On the other hand, the architect and sculptor were allowed a great deal of freedom in theembellishment and decoration of the prescribed underlying principles and formulae. Theresult was an overwhelming wealth of architectural elements, sculptural forms anddecorative exuberance that is so characteristic of Indian temple architecture and whichhas few parallels in the artistic expression of the entire world.A Mandir, Devalayam, Devasthanam, or a Hindu temple is a place of worship forfollowers of Hinduism. A characteristic of most temples is the presenceof murtis (statues) of the Hindu deity to whom the temple is dedicated. They are usuallydedicated to one primary deity, the presiding deity, and other deities associated with themain deity. However, some temples are dedicated to several deities, and others arededicated to murtis in an aniconic form.Nomenclature, orthography and etymologyFig 1. 2 (Jagannath Temple, Rathayatra Puri, Orissa, India)Many Hindu temples are known by different names around the world, depending uponthe language. The word mandir or mandiram is used in many languages, including Hindi,
  9. 9. and is derived from a Sanskrit word, mandira, for house (of a deity by implication).Temples are known as Mandir, Devasthanam, Kshetralayam, Punyakshetram,or Punyakshetralayam in Telugu,asDeula/Mandira in Oriya, Devastanam in Kannada andMondrian in Bengali, as Kshatriya or Jambalaya in Malayalam.HistoryFig 1.3 (The Subrahmanya temple at Saluvankuppam, near Mahabalipuram in Tamil Nadu. The brickshrine dates to the Sangam period and is one of the oldest Hindu temples to be unearthed .)The oldest temples that were built of brick and wood no longer exist. Stone later becamethe preferred material. Temples marked the transition of Hinduism from the Vedicreligion of ritual sacrifices to a religion of Bhakti or love and devotion to a personaldeity.Temple construction and mode of worship is governed by ancient Sanskrit scripturescalled agamas, of which there are several, which deal with individual deities. There aresubstantial differences in architecture, customs, rituals and traditions in temples indifferent parts of India.During the ritual consecration of a temple, the presence of the universal all-encompassing Brahman is invoked into the main stone deity of the temple, through ritual,thereby making the deity and the temple sacred and divine.
  10. 10. Architecture and AlignmentEarth has its energy centers that correspond to universal data centers of life andawareness. The temple, through which contacts or relations are established among thestates of being (humans, spirits, and gods), is thus a combination of the data of yoga,astrology, and sacred geography. In the temple structure, there are diagrams similar to theones described for chakras according to yoga experience, with proportions similar tothose deriving from the position of the stars, by which the influence can be explained.The characteristics of site and orientation are connected to the living structure of theEarth. The Hindu temple is thus not a place where the faithful may gather but a sacredbuilding constructed to receive subtle influences.Customs and EtiquetteFig 1.4(Chennakesava Temple of Vishnu at Belur, Karnataka, India)The customs and etiquette when visiting Hindu temples have a long history and are filledwith symbolism, solemn respect and veneration of Brahmas creation. Worshipers in
  11. 11. major temples typically bring in symbolic offerings for the prayer or puja. Thisincludes fruits, flowers, sweets and other symbols of the bounty of the natural world.Temples in India are usually surrounded by small stores called dukan (Hindi) whichoffer them typically wrapped in organic containers such as banana leaves.When inside the temple, it is typical to keep both hands folded together as a sign ofrespect. The inner sanctuary, where the murtis reside, is known as the garbhagruh. Itsymbolizes the birthplace of the universe, the meeting place of the gods and mankind,and "the threshold between the transcendental and the phenomenal worlds." It is in thisinner shrine that devotees offer prayers and salutations to the presiding deities. Devoteesmay or may not be able to personally present their offerings at the feet of the deity. Inmost South Indian temples, only the pujaris are allowed to enter into the garbhagruh. InNorth Indian temples, however, it is more common for devotees to be allowed entrance.The mantras spoken are typically "Om Namo Narayana" or "Om Namah Shivaya" whichmean "Obeisance to Narayana (Vishnu)" or "Salutations to Shiva". These are followed bya series of shlokas or verses from the holy texts such as the BhagavadGita, Upanishads or Vedas. Upon the conclusion of prayer, devotees get down on theirknees or even fall flat on their stomach and bow before the symbol of the deity. If a priestor Pujari is present, he is likely to provide sacred symbolically blessed food calledPrasad to the devotee. He may also apply a holy red mark called tilak to the forehead ofthe devotee symbolizing blessings.Finally the worshiper or visitor walks clockwise around the sanctum sanctorum, stoponce on each side, close their eyes and pray to the All Loving Being. The worshiper mayreceive a sprinkling of the water from the holy river Ganges while the Pujari states "OmShanti" which means "peace be unto all".During religious holidays, temples may be swarmed with devotees chanting and prayingloudly. There may be facilitators called paandaas who help visitors navigate through thecrowds and complete the puja or prayer rituals quickly.Temple management staff typically announce the hours of operation, including timingsfor special pujas. These timings, due to the vast diversity in Hinduism, vary from temple
  12. 12. to temple. For example, some temples may perform aarti once or twice per day, whileother temples, such as those part of Swaminarayan movement, may perform aarti fivetimes per day. Additionally, there may be specially allotted times for devotees to performcircumambulations (or pradakshina) around the outside of the temple. There are alsotimings for devotional songs or music called bhajans, which are accompanied bya dholak or tabla soloist and/or harmonium soloist. There are dates and times fordevotional dances such as the classical BharataNatyam dance performed byaccomplished performers.Visitors and worshipers to Hindu temples are required to remove shoes and otherfootwear before entering. Most temples have an area designated to store footwear.Additionally, it may be customary, particularly at South Indian temples, for men toremove shirts and to cover pants and shorts with a traditional cloth known asa Vasthiram.The Hindu religion teaches that all life-forms are created by Brahma and that humankindneeds to share the world with the animal kingdom. It is common to see straydogs, cows, monkeys, and birds congregated at temples.The concept of spirituality in the system of sacred architecture in India is something thatgoes beyond the mere static relations between inert objects and space as found in otherarchitectural traditions. The relationship of objects with one another and space in Indiassacred architecture extends to include higher entities said to be in charge of variousaspects of universal affairs, all of whom carry out their work in accordance with the willof God.Temple FinancesMost ancient stone temples were the result of royal patronage and built to benefit of thewhole community, they were expressions of the devotion and piety of the ruler and hispeople.
  13. 13. The temples were maintained through donations from royal patrons and privateindividuals. They were given money, gold, silver, livestock and income from grants ofland which sometimes included whole villages.Temple LocationThe temple should be built at a suitable place, like a Tirtha. The ideal location is a abeautiful place where rivers flow, on the banks of a lake or by the seashore; on hill tops,mountain slopes, or in a hidden valley. The site of the temple may be selected in a forest,a grove, or in a beautiful garden. Temples should also be built in villages, towns andcities or on an island, surrounded by water.The temple itself should always face east since that is the most auspicious direction.From the east appear the rising sun, the destroyer of darkness and the giver of life.Temple Management and erosion of Autonomy by control of states andLawFig 1.5The Archeological Survey of India has control of most ancient temples of archaeologicalimportance in India. In India theoretically, a temple is managed by a templeboard committee that administers its finances, management and events. However since
  14. 14. independence, the autonomy of individual Hindu religious denominations to manage theirown affairs with respect to temples of their own denomination has been severely eroded.State governments of many states in India (and especially all the states in South India)have gradually increased their control over all Hindu temples. Over decades, by enactingvarious laws which have been fought both successfully and unsuccessfully up to theSupreme court of India, politicians of the ruling parties especially in the southern statescontrol every aspect of temple management and functioning.
  15. 15. OBJECTIVESThe main aim of the project is- To study about the different architectural styles of temples of India. To study about the role of temple tourism/religious tourism in the balanced economic growth of India. To study about the different strategic plans to enhance the conditions of Indian marketers near sacred places. To study about the inflow and outflow of outbound and inbound tourists over the period of time To study about the different religious places or temples of India.
  16. 16. LIMITATIONSInspite of having the above advantages, this project report suffered withseveral disadvantages which are written as follows –(A). RESEARCH METHODOLOGY – the research methodology being used inmaking this project is secondary data, any leakages in data collected mayaffect the project report.(B). LIMITED SOURCES – the proper information about few destinations was noteasily available which caused a lots of inconvenience to me.(C). TIME CONSUMING –temple architecture is very broad in terms of touristdestinations and this sometimes cause a huge problem since we can’t get it asto what info. to pick and which not.(D). INACCURATE DATA – As the data has been collected from secondarysources, the information gathered may suffer with the problem of datainaccuracy.
  17. 17. RESEARCH METHODOLOGYResearch can be defined as systematized effort to gain knowledge. A research is carriedout by different methodology, which has their own pros and cons.Research methodology is a way to solve research problem along with the logic behindthem. Thus when we talk of the research methodology we not only take of researchmethod but also context of our research study and explain why we are using a particularmethod or techniques and why we are not using other so that research result are capableof being evaluated either by the researchers himself or by others. Research methodologymeans the method carried out to study the problem.Research methodology has following steps:Step: 1 to decide the objective of the study.Step: 2 to design research design.Step: 3 to determine the source of data.Step: 4 to design data collection form.Step: 5 to determine sample size and sample design.Step: 6 to organize and conduct fieldwork.Step: 7 to process and analyze the collected data.Step: 8 to prepare the research report.
  18. 18. SOURCE OF DATA COLLECTIONSecondary data:Secondary data is any data, which have been gathered earlier for some other purpose.Among the above mentioned types of data was used for the study and analysis of theobjective of this project, also the secondary to data proved to be helping hand in framingup the industry scenario and also the relevant topics in the entire project report.Advantages of Secondary data1. It is economical. It saves efforts and expenses.2. It is time saving.Disadvantages of Secondary Data1. Accuracy of secondary data is not known.2. Data may be outdated.
  20. 20. HistoryHistorians say HinduTemples did not exist duringthe Vedic period (1500 - 500BC). The remains of theearliest temple structure werediscovered in Surkh Kotal, aplace in Afghanistan by aFrench archeologist in 1951. Itwas not dedicated to a god butto the imperial cult of KingKanishka (127 - 151 AD). Theritual of idol worship whichbecame popular at the end ofthe Vedic age may have givenrise to the concept of temples Fig 2. 1as a place of worship.The Earliest Hindu TemplesThe earliest temple structures were not made of stones or bricks, which came much later.In ancient times, public or community temples were possibly made of clay with thatchedroofs made of straw or leaves. Cave-temples were prevalent in remote places andmountainous terrains.According to historian, Nirad C Chaudhuri, the earliest structures that indicate idolworship date back to the 4th or 5th century AD. There was a seminal development intemple architecture between the 6th and the 16th century. This growth phase of Hindutemples charts its rise and fall alongside the fate of the various dynasties that reignedIndia during the period majorly contributing and influencing the building of temples,especially in South India. Hindus consider the building of temples an extremely pious act,
  21. 21. bringing great religious merit. Hence kings and wealthy men were eager to sponsor theconstruction of temples, notes Swami Harshananda, and the various steps of building theshrines were performed as religious rites.Temples of South India (6th - 18th Century AD)The Pallavas (600 - 900 AD) sponsored the building of the rock-cut chariot-shapedtemples of Mahabalipuram, including the famous shore temple, the Kailashnath and Vaikuntha Perumal temples in Kanchipuram in southern India. The Pallavas style further flourished - with the structures growing in stature and sculptures becoming more ornate and intricate - during the rule of the dynasties that followed, particularly the Cholas (900 - 1200 AD), Fig 2. 2 (Kailashnath Temple, Kanchipuram)The Pandyas temples (1216 - 1345 AD), the Vijayanagar kings (1350 - 1565 AD) and theNayaks (1600 - 1750 AD).The Chalukyas (543 - 753 AD) and the Rastrakutas (753 - 982 AD) also made majorcontributions to the development of temple architecture in Southern India. The CaveTemples of Badami, the Virupaksha temple at Pattadakal, the Durga Temple at Aiholeand the Kailasanatha temple at Ellora are standing examples of the grandeur of this era.Other important architectural marvels of this period are the sculptures of Elephanta Cavesand the Kashivishvanatha temple.
  22. 22. During the Chola period the South Indian style of building temples reached its pinnacle,as exhibited by the imposing structures of the Tanjore temples. The Pandyas followed inthe footsteps the Cholas and further improved on their Dravidian style as evident in theelaborate temple complexes of Madurai and Srirangam. After the Pandyas, theVijayanagar kings continued the Dravidian tradition, as evident in the marvelous templesof Hampi. The Nayaks of Madurai, who followed the Vijayanagar kings, hugelycontributed to architectural style of their temples, bringing in elaborate hundred orthousand-pillared corridors, and tall and ornate gopurams or monumental structures thatformed the gateway to the temples as evident in the temples of Madurai andRameswaram.Temples of East, West and Central India (8th - 13th Century AD)In Eastern India, particularly in Orissa between 750-1250 AD and in Central Indiabetween 950-1050 AD many gorgeous temples were built. The temples of Lingaraja inBhubaneswar, the Jagannath temple in Puri and the Surya temple in Konarak bear thestamp of Orissas proud ancient heritage. The Khajuraho temples, known for its eroticsculptures, the temples of Modhera and Mt. Abu have their own style belonging toCentral India. The terracotta architectural style of Bengal also lent itself to its temples,also notable for its gabled roof and eight-sided pyramid structure called the aath-chala.Temples of Southeast Asia (7th - 14th century AD)Southeast Asian countries, many of which were ruled by Indian monarchs saw theconstruction of many marvelous temples in the region between 7th and 14th century ADthat are popular tourist attractions till his day, the most famous amongst them being theAngkor Vat temples built by King Surya Varman II in the 12th century. Some of themajor Hindu temples in Southeast Asia that are still extant include the Chen La templesof Cambodia (7th - 8th century), the Shiva temples at Dieng and Gdong Songo in Java(8th - 9th century), the Pranbanan temples of Java (9th - 10th century), the Banteay Sreitemple at Angkor (10th century), the Gunung Kawi temples of Tampaksiring in Bali
  23. 23. (11th century), and Panataran (Java) (14th century), and the Mother Temple of Besakih inBali (14th century).The temple is a representation of the macrocosm (the universe) as well as the Macrocosmand microcosm (the inner space).The Magadha Empire rose with the Shishunaga dynasty in around 650 BC. TheAshtadhyayi of Panini, the great grammarian of the 5th century BC, speaks of images thatwere used in Hindu temple worship. The ordinary images were called pratikriti and theimages for worship were called archa (see As. 5.3.96–100). Patanjali, the 2nd century BCauthor of the Mahabhashya commentary on the Ashtadhyayi, tells us more about theimages.Deity images for sale were called Shivaka etc., but an archa of Shiva was just calledShiva. Patanjali mentions Shiva and Skanda deities. There is also mention of the worshipof Vasudeva (Krishna). We are also told that some images could be moved and somewere immovable. Panini also says that an archa was not to be sold and that there werepeople (priests) who obtained their livelihood by taking care of it.Panini and Patanjali mention temples which were called prasadas. The earlier ShatapathaBrahmana of the period of the Vedas informs us of an image in the shape of Purushawhich was placed within the altar.The Vedic books describe the plan of the temple to be square. This plan is divided into 64or 81 smaller square, where each of these represents a specific divinity.For more than 4,000 years, India the land of the Vedas and the most ancient civilization isone of the most spiritually enriched places on this planet. India, its people, beliefs,cultural diversity and its very soil encourage and nurture spiritualism, allowing a numberof religions to thrive, flourish and prosper.Every major religion in the world, as well many of their off-shoots and facets, get supportand nourishment from India. Religions like Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism
  24. 24. were conceived in India, and others sought refuge in India after being persecuted in theirown countries.Apart from religions, numerous saints, philosophers, spiritual leaders and founders ofreligions also sought and received sanctuary enlightenment in India’s soil and spirit. Thistrend continues even today after hundreds of years, the reason being as the people acrossthe world veer towards the materialistic way of life, whereas in India people still givepreference to spiritual fulfillment .People across the globe travel to India to find thesolutions to their problems in materialistic world.Hindu Temples of TodayToday, Hindu temples across the globe form thecynosure of Indias cultural tradition and spiritualsuccor. There are Hindu temples in all almostcountries of the world, and contemporary India isbristled with beautiful temples, which hugelycontribute to her cultural heritage. In 2005,arguably the largest temple complex wasinaugurated in New Delhi on the banks of river Fig 2.3 (Akshardham Temple in Delhi)Yamuna. The mammoth effort of 11,000 artisans and volunteers made the majesticgrandeur of Akshardham temple a reality, an astounding feat which the proposed worldstallest Hindu temple of Mayapur in West Bengal is aiming accomplish.HINDU TEMPLE ARCHITECTUREThe Hindu temples developed over two thousand years depict excellent architecturalevolution which took place within the boundaries of strict models derived from religiousconsiderations.In Hindu tradition, the Temple architecture is a religious architecture which is connectedto astronomy and sacred geometry. Normally, the temple is referred as a place of sanctityrepresenting the macrocosm or the universe and the microcosm or the inner space.
  25. 25. The temple architecture has kept the ancient basic proportions and rigid forms unalteredover centuries.It is very conservative and a particular form of decorative details persisted for centurieseven though the original purpose and the context are lost. Even the architect and thesculptor were given a great deal of freedom in the embellishment and decoration of theprescribed underlying principles and formulae which resulted in an overwhelming wealthof architectural elements, sculptural forms and decorative exuberance.Indias temple architecture developed from the sthapathis and shilpis creativity. Ingeneral these are from the Vishwakarma (caste). A small Hindu temple consists of aninner sanctum, the garbha griha or womb-chamber, in which the image is housed, oftencircumambulation, a congregation hall, and possibly an antechamber and porch. Thesanctum is crowned by a tower-like shikara.The broad geographical, climatic, cultural, racial, historical and linguistic differencesbetween the northern plains and the southern peninsula of India resulted even in distincttemple architectural styles. The Shastras, or the ancient texts architecture, classify thetemple architectural styles into three different categories such as the Nagara or theNorthern style, the Dravida or the Southern style, and the Vesara or the Hybrid style.NAGARA OR THE NORTH INDIAN TEMPLE STYLEDeveloped around 5th century, the Nagara style is characterized by a beehive shapedtower called a shikhara, in northern terminology made up of layer upon layer ofarchitectural elements such as kapotas and gavaksas, all topped by a large round cushion-like element called an amalaka. Even though the plan is based on a square, the walls arebroken up so that the tower offers the impression of being circular. Later developmentsinvolved the central shaft being surrounded by many smaller reproductions which createda spectacular visual effect resembling a fountain. The best example for this is theChandella temples.
  26. 26. In the North Indian style, the shrine is a square at the centre, but there are projections onthe outside leading to cruciform shape. When there is one projection on each side, it iscalled triratha, 2 projections - pancharatha, 3 projections - saptharatha, 4 projections -navaratha. These projections occur throughout the height of the structure. This style isfound mostly in Orissa, Rajasthan and Gujarat.The temples of Orissa are the ones which can be described as the typical Nagara style.These temples escaped the destruction due to invasion. The temples as well as theliterature laying down the rules and mode of construction have been well preserved inOrissa.In this style, the structure consists of two buildings, the main shrine taller and anadjoining shorter mandapa. The main difference between the two is the shape of theShikhara. In the main shrine, a bell shaped structure ads to the height. As is usual in allHindu temples, there is the kalasa at the top and the ayudha or emblem of the presidingdeity.Some of the temples of this style are:  The Parasurameswara temple at Bhuvaneshwar  Brahmesvara temple in Bhuvaneshwar  Lingaraja temple  Anantha Vasudeva temple  Rajarani temple  Sun temple at Konarak  Jagannath temple at Puri
  27. 27. Sun temple at KonarakKonarak Sun Temple is located, in the stateof Orissa near the sacred city of Puri. Thesun Temple of Konarak isdedicated to the sun God or Surya. It is amasterpiece of Orissas medievalarchitecture. Sun temple has been declareda world heritage site by UNESCO.The Konarak temple is widely known not only for Fig 2. 4 (sun temple of Konarak)its architectural grandeur but also for the intricacy and profusion of sculptural work. Theentire temple has been conceived as a chariot of the sun god with 24 wheels, each about10 feet in diameter, with a set of spokes and elaborate carvings. Seven horses drag thetemple. Two lions guard the entrance, crushing elephants. A flight of steps lead to themain entrance. Arka is the Sun God.The Nata Mandir in front of the Jagamohana is also intricately carved. Around the base ofthe temple, and up the walls and roof, are carvings in the erotic style.Architecture of the TempleThe massive structure of the temple, now in ruins, sits in solitary splendor surrounded bythe drifting sands. The entire temple has been designed in the shape of a chariot carryingthe Sun God across the heavens. The huge intricate wheels of the chariot, which arecarved around the base of the temple, are the major attractions of the temple. The spokesof these wheels serve as sundials, and the shadows formed by these can give the precisetime of the day. The pyramidal roof of the temple, made of sandstone, soars over 30 m inheight. Like the temples at Khajuraho, the Sun Temple at Konarak is also covered witherotic sculptures.
  28. 28. Jagannath Temple at PuriThe architecture of the temple follows thepattern of many Orissa temples of theclassical period. The main shikhara, ortower, rises above the inner sanctumwhere the deities reside. Subsidiaryshikharas rise above ante-halls. Thetemple complex is surrounded by a wall, Fig 2. 5 (Jagannath temple)on each side of which is a gopura or gate, over which rises a pyramid-shaped roof. Beingthe largest temple in the state, it has a complex covering several square blocks withdozens of structures including a mammoth kitchen.The main temple structure of this architectural and cultural wonder is 65m (214 feet) highand is built on elevated ground, making it look more imposing. Comprising an area of10.7 acres, the temple complex is enclosed by two rectangular walls. The outer enclosureis called Meghanada Prachira, 200m (665 ft) by 192m (640 ft). The inner wall is calledKurmabedha, 126m (420 ft) by 95m (315 ft). There are thirty-six traditional communities(Chatisha Niyaga) who render a specific hereditary service to the deities. The temple hasas many as 6,000 priests.There is a wheel on top of the Jagannath Temple made of an alloy of eight metals (asta-dhatu). It is called the Nila Chakra (Blue Wheel), and is 3.5m (11 ft 8 in) high with acircumference of about 11m (36 ft). Every day, a different flag is tied to a mast attachedto the Nila Chakra. Every Ekadasi, a lamp is lit on top of the temple near the wheel.There are four gates: the eastern Singhadwara (Lion Gate), the southern Ashwadwara(Horse Gate), the western Vyaghradwara (Tiger Gate), and the northern Hastidwara(Elephant Gate). There is a carving of each form by the entrance of each gate. The LionGate, which is the main gate, is located on Grand Road. Thirty different smaller templessurround the main temple. The Narasimha Temple, adjacent to the western side of theMukti-mandapa, is said to have been constructed before this temple even.
  29. 29. Lingaraja Temple, OrissaSurrounded by high walls on four sides, theLingaraja temple is one of the most famoustemples in Orissa. It is one of the best and splendidexamples of the architectural excellence which theartists had attained during 11th century. Thistemple is also known as the Bhubaneswar temple.The outer walls of the temple exhibit exemplarycarvings. The beautifully sculpted images of various Fig 2. 6 (Lingaraja Temple Bhubaneswar)God and Goddess are unmatched. The temple tower can be seen from a long distance.The temple complex has three parts and each part has one temple each. Towards south ofthe entrance to main temple is image of Lord Ganesha, at the back is the image ofGoddess Parvati and to north is Lord Kartikya. There are about 600 temples in Orrisa, thebiggest and finest being the Lingaraj Temple. Lingaraj temple was built in 617-657 A.Dand its height is about 54 meters. It was Jajati Keshari who laid the foundation of theLingaraj temple and his great grandson completed the work. This temple was constructedin the 11th AD at the site of an old seventh century shrine. The nata mandapa (dancehall) and bhoga mandapa (offerings hall), were later added to the temple, that hasevolved over different historical periods.By the time, the Lingaraja temple was built, the Jagannath cult had become widespread,throughout Orissa. The temple is dedicated to Lord Siva the ‘Lingam’ here is unique inthat it is a ‘hari hara’ lingam-half Siva and half Vishnu. there are 150 shrines within theimmense Lingaraja complex ,many of them extremely interesting in their own right. Thisis exemplified by the fact, that the presiding deity, here, is the Svayambhu Linga - halfShiva, half Vishnu, a unique feature of the temple. Almost all the Hindu gods andgoddesses are represented in this temple, mirroring the inherent element of harmonywithin the religion.
  30. 30. HistoryLingaraja temple was built in 617-657 A.D and its height is about 54 meters. TheLingaraja temple is said to have been built first by the ruler Yayati Kesari in the 7thcentury who shifted his capital from Jaipur to Bhubaneswar. Bhubaneswar remained asthe Kesari capital, till Nripati Kesari founded Cuttck in the 10th century. Inscriptionsfrom the period of the Kalinga King Anangabhima III from the 13th century are seenhere. Structurally, the Parasurameswara temple at Bhubaneswar is the oldest, dating backto the middle of the 8th century, and the Lingaraja is temple is assigned to the 10thcentury. The nata Mandir and the bhog Mandir of the Lingaraja temple are of later origin.ArchitectureThe outer walls of the temple exhibit unparalled carvings. The beautifully carved andsculpted images of various God and Goddess are unrivalled. The temple complex hasthree compartments and each one has a temple each. Towards south of the entrance tomain temple is image of Lord Ganesha, at the back is the image of Goddess Parvati andto north is Lord Kartikya. The Lingaraja temple has got various pillars and halls whichadd to its beauty. The Lingaraja temple has got various pillars and halls which add to itsbeauty. At the main gate is the temple of Lord Ganesha followed by Nandi pillar. Itstowering spire-like beauty dominates the Bhubaneswar skyline. It represents the peak ofKalinga style of architecture spanning over 25 centuries of progressive history. This 11thcentury temple is the culmination of architectural beauty and sculpted elegance. Thetemple is dedicated to "Tri Bhubaneshwar", or Lord of the three worlds also known asBhubaneswar. The granite block representing "Tri Bhubaneshwar" is bathed daily withwater, milk and Bhang (Marijuana). It is enclosed and has four features - a sanctuary, adancing hall, an assembly hall and a hall of offerings. There are many smaller shrinesaround the temple in the enclosed area.
  31. 31. The LegendsLegend has it that Shiva revealed to Parvati that Bhubaneshwar - or Ekamra thirtha was aresort favoured by him over Benares. Parvati in the guise of a cowherd woman, decidedto look at the city herself. Two demons Kritti and Vasa desired to marry her. Sherequested them to carry her upon their shoulders, and crushed them under her weight.Shiva, then created the Bindu Saras lake to quench her thirty, and took abode here asKrittivasas or Lingaraja.DRAVIDA OR SOUTH INDIAN TEMPLE STYLEDeveloped around 7th century, the Dravida or theSouthern style has a pyramid shaped tower consistingof progressively smaller storey of small pavilions, anarrow throat, and a dome on the top called a shikhara.The horizontal visual thrust is given by the repeatedstorey.Less obvious differences between the two main templetypes can be seen in the ground plan, the selection andpositioning of stone carved deities on the outside wallsand the interior, and the range of decorative elements.The northern style dominated the vast areas of Indiafrom the Himalayas to the Deccan and varieddistinctly from region to region. But the southern styleoccupying a much smaller geographical area was veryconsistent in its development and more predictable in Fig 2. 7 A typical Dravidian gate pyramids called Gopuram-Thiruvannamalai temple-architectural features. Tamil NaduDravidian architecture was a style of architecture that emerged thousands of years agoin Southern part of the Indian subcontinent or South India. They consist primarily ofpyramid shaped temples called Koils which are dependent on intricate carved stone in
  32. 32. order to create a step design consisting of many statues of deities, warriors, kings, anddancers. The majority of the existing buildings are located in the Southern Indian statesof Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, and Karnataka. Various kingdoms and empiressuch as the Pallavas, Cholas, Pandyan, Chera, Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Hoysalas, andVijayanagara Empire amongst the many others have made a substantial contribution tothe evolution of Dravidian architecture through the ages. Dravidian styled architecturecan also be found in parts of Northeastern Sri Lanka, Maldives, and various parts ofSoutheast Asia.Composition and structure Fig 2. 8(The Annamalaiyar Temple in Thiruvannaamalai, India)Dravidian style temples consist almost invariably of the four following parts, arranged indiffering manners, but differing in themselves only according to the age in which theywere executed: 1. The principal part, the temple itself, is called the Vimanam. It is always square in plan and surmounted by a pyramidal roof of one or more stories; it contains the cell where the image of the god or his emblem is placed. 2. The porches or Mantapams, which always cover and precede the door leading to the cell.
  33. 33. 3. Gate-pyramids, Gopurams, which are the principal features in the quadrangular enclosures that surround the more notable temples. 4. Pillard halls (Chaultris or Chawadis) are used for many purposes and are the invariable accompaniments of these temples.Besides these, a temple always contains tanks or wells for water – to be used for sacredpurposes or the convenience of the priests – dwellings for all the grades of the priesthoodare attached to it, and other buildings for state or convenience.[1]Influence from different periodsIn Southern India seven kingdoms and empires stamped their influence on architectureduring different times:Sangam periodFig 2. 9 The Subrahmanya Murugan temple of Saluvankuppam, in Saluvankuppam near Mahabalipuram inTamil Nadu.The brick shrine dates to the Sangam period and is one of the oldest Hindu temples to beunearthed. From 1000BCE-300CE, the greatest accomplishments of the kingdoms of theearly Chola, Chera and the Pandyan kingdoms included brick shrines todeities Murugan, Shiva, Amman and Thirumal (Vishnu) of the Tamil pantheon. Somewere built Several of these have been unearthed near Adichanallur, Kaveripoompuharpattinam and Mahabalipuram, and the construction plans of these sites of
  34. 34. worship were shared to some detail in various poems of Sangam literature. One suchtemple, the Saluvankuppam Murukan temple, unearthed in 2005, consists of three layers.The lowest layer, consisting of a brick shrine, is one of the oldest of its kind in SouthIndia, and is the oldest shrine found dedicated to Murukan. It is one of only two brickshrine pre Pallava Hindu temples to be found in the state, the other beingthe Veetrirundha Perumal Temple at Veppathur dedicated to Vishnu. The dynasties ofearly medieval Tamilakkam expanded and erected structural additions to many of thesebrick shrines. Sculptures of erotic art, nature and deities from the Madurai MeenakshiAmman Temple, Chidambaram Thillai Nataraja Temple andthe Srirangam Ranganathaswamy Temple date from the Sangam period.PallavasFig 2. 10 The Rathas in Mahabalipuram-Tamil NaduThe Pallavas ruled from AD (600–900) and their greatest constructed accomplishmentsare the single rock temples in Mahabalipuram and their capital Kanchipuram, nowlocated in Tamil Nadu.Pallavas were pioneers of south Indian architecture. The earliest examples of temples inthe Dravidian style belong to the Pallava period. The earliest examples of Pallavaconstructions are rock-cut temples dating from 610 – 690 CE and structural templesbetween 690 – 900 CE. The greatest accomplishments of the Pallava architecture arethe rock-cut temples at Mahabalipuram. There are excavated pillared halls and monolithic
  35. 35. shrines known as Rathas in Mahabalipuram. Early temples were mostly dedicated toShiva. The Kailasanatha temple also called Rajasimha Pallaveswaramin Kanchipuram built by Narasimhavarman II also known as Rajasimha is a fine exampleof the Pallava style temple. Mention must be made here of the Shore Temple constructedby Narasimhavarman II near Mahabalipuram which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.Contrary to popular impression about the succeeding empire of the Cholas pioneering inbuilding large temple complexes, it was the Pallavas who actually pioneered not only inmaking large temples after starting construction of rock cut temples without using mortar,bricks etc. The shining examples of such temples are the Thiruppadagam andThiruooragam temples that have 28 and 35 feet (11 m) high images of Lord Vishnu in hismanifestation as Pandavadhoothar and Trivikraman forms of himself. In comparison theSiva Lingams in the Royal Temples of the Cholas at Thanjavur and GangaikondaCholapurams are 17 and 18 feet (5.5 m) high. Considering that the Kanchi KailasanathaTemple built by Rajasimha Pallava was the inspiration for Raja Cholas Brihadeeswara atThanjavur, it can be safely concluded that the Pallavas were among the first emperors inIndia to build both large temple complexes and very large deities and idols. Many Sivaand Vishnu temples at Kanchi built by the great Pallava emperors and indeed theirincomparable Rathas and the Arjunas penance Bas Relief (also called descent of theGanga) are proposed UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The continuous Chola, Pallava andPandiyan belt temples (along with those of the Adigaimans near Karur and Namakkal), aswell as the Sethupathy temple group between Pudukottai and Rameswaram uniformlyrepresent the pinnacle of the South Indian Style of Architecture that surpasses any otherform of architecture prevalent between the Deccan Plateau and Kanniyakumari. Needlessto add that in the Telugu country the style was more or less uniformly conforming to theSouth Indian or Dravidian idiom of architecture.
  36. 36. PandyaSrivilliputtur Andal Temple is the official symbol ofthe Government of Tamilnadu. It is said to have beenbuilt by Periyaazhvar, the father-in-law of the Lord,with a purse of gold that he won in debates held in thepalaceof Pandya KingVallabhadeva.The primary landmark of Srivilliputtur is 12-tiered Fig 2. 11 (Srivilliputtur Andal Temple)tower structure dedicated to the Lord of Srivilliputtur,known as Vatapatrasayee. The tower of this temple rises 192 feet (59 m) high and is theofficial symbol of the Government of Tamil Nadu. It is said to have been built byPeriyaazhvar, the father-in-law of the Lord, with a purse of gold that he won in debatesheld in the palace of Pandya King Vallabhadeva. The Government of Tamil Nadu usesthis temple tower as part of its symbol.Cholas The Chola kings ruled from AD (848– 1280) and included Rajaraja Chola I and his son Rajendra Chola who built temples such as the Brihadeshvara Temple of Thanjavur and Brihadeshvara Temple of Gangaikonda Cholapuram, the Airavatesvara Temple of Darasuram and the Sarabeswara (Shiva) Temple, also called the KampahareswararFig 2. 12 (Thanjavur Temple-Tamilnadu) Temple at Thirubhuvanam, the last two temples being located near Kumbakonam.
  37. 37. The first three among the above four temples are titled Great Living CholaTemples among the UNESCO World Heritage Sites.The Cholas were prolific temple builders right from the times of the first king VijayalayaChola after whom the eclectic chain of Vijayalaya Chozhisvaram temple nearNarttamalai exists. These are the earliest specimen of Dravidian temples under theCholas. His son Aditya I built several temples around the Kanchi and Kumbakonamregions.Temple building received great impetus from the conquests and the genius of AdityaI Parantaka I,Sundara Chola, Rajaraja Chola and his son Rajendra Chola I. The maturityand grandeur to which the Chola architecture had evolved found expression in the twotemples of Tanjavur and Gangaikondacholapuram. In a small portion of the Kaveri beltbetween Tiruchy-Tanjore-Kumbakonam, at the height of their power, the Cholas haveleft over 2300 temples, with the Tiruchy-Thanjavur belt itself boasting of more than 1500temples. The magnificent Siva temple of Thanjavur built by Raja Raja I in 1009 as wellas the Brihadeshvara of Gangaikonda Cholapuram, completed around 1030, is bothfitting memorials to the material and military achievements of the time of the two Cholaemperors. The largest and tallest of all Indian temples of its time, the TanjoreBrihadisvara is at the apex of South Indian architecture. In fact, two succeeding Cholakings Raja Raja II and Kulothunga III built the Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram andthe Kampahareswarar Siva Temple at Tribhuvanam respectively, both temples being onthe outskirts of Kumbakonam around AD 1160 and AD 1200. All the four temples werebuilt over a period of nearly 200 years reflecting the glory, prosperity and stability underthe Chola emperors.Contrary to popular impression, the Chola emperors patronized and promotedconstruction of a large number of temples that were spread over most parts of the Cholaempire. These include 40 of the 108 Vaishnava Divya Desams out of which 77 are foundspread most of South India and others in Andhra and North India. In fact, theSri Ranganatha swamy Temple in Srirangam, which is the biggest temple in India and theChidambaram Natarajar Temple (though originally built by the Pallavas but possibly
  38. 38. seized from the Cholas of the pre-Christian era when they ruled from Kanchi) were twoof the most important temples patronized and expanded by the Cholas and from the timesof the second Chola King Aditya I, these two temples have been hailed in inscriptions asthe tutelary deities of the Chola Kings. Of course, the two Brihadeshvara Temples atThanjavur and Gangaikonda Cholapurams as well as the other two Siva temples, namelythe Airavatesvara Temple of Darasuram and the Sarabeswara (Shiva )Temple which isalso popular as the Kampahareswarar Temple at Thirubhuvanam, both on the outskirtsof Kumbakonam were the royal temples of the Cholas to commemorate their innumerableconquests and subjugation of their rivals from other parts of South India, Deccan Ilangaior Sri Lanka and the Narmada-Mahanadi-Gangetic belts. But the Chola emperorsunderlined their non-partisan approach to religious iconography and faith by treating thepresiding deities of their other two peerless creations, namely the RanganathaswamyTemple dedicated to Lord Vishnu at Srirangam and the Nataraja Templeat Chidambaram which actually is home to the twin deities of Siva and Vishnu (as thereclining Govindarajar) to be their Kuladheivams or tutelary (or family) deities. TheCholas also preferred to call only these two temples which home their tutelary or familydeities as Koil or the Temple, which denotes the most important places of worship forthem, underlining their eq. The above-named temples are being proposed to be includedamong the UNESCO World Heritage Sites, which will elevate them to the exacting andexalting standards of the Great Living Chola Temples.The temple of Gangaikonda Cholapurams, the creation of Rajendra Chola I, was intendedto exceed its predecessor in every way. Completed around 1030, only two decades afterthe temple at Thanjavur and in much the same style, the greater elaboration in itsappearance attests the more affluent state of the Chola Empire under Rajendra. Thistemple has a larger Siva linga than the one at Thanjavur but the Vimana of this temple issmaller in height than the Thanjavur vimana.The Chola period is also remarkable for its sculptures and bronzes all over the world.Among the existing specimens in museums around the world and in the temples of SouthIndia may be seen many fine figures of Siva in various forms, such as Vishnu and hisconsort Lakshmi, and the Siva saints. Though conforming generally to the iconographic
  39. 39. conventions established by long tradition, the sculptors worked with great freedom in the11th and the 12th centuries to achieve a classic grace and grandeur. The best example ofthis can be seen in the form of Nataraja the Divine Dancer.Badami ChalukyasFig 2. 13 (Virupaksha temple, Pattadakal, Karnataka built in 740)The Badami Chalukyas also called the Early Chalukyas, ruled from Badami, Karnataka inthe period AD 543 – 753 and spawned the Vesara style called Badami ChalukyasArchitecture. The finest examples of their art are seenin Pattadakal, Aihole and Badami in northern Karnataka. Over 150 temples remain inthe Malaprabha basin.The most enduring legacy of the Chalukya dynasty is the architecture and art that theyleft behind. More than one hundred and fifty monuments attributed to the BadamiChalukya, and built between 450 and 700; remain in the Malaprabha basin in Karnataka.The rock-cut temples of Pattadakal, a UNESCO World HeritageSite, Badami and Aihole are their most celebrated monuments. Two of the famouspaintings at Ajanta cave no. 1, "The Temptation of the Buddha" and "The PersianEmbassy" are attributed to them. This is the beginning of Chalukya style of architectureand a consolidation of South Indian style.
  40. 40. RashtrakutasFig 2. 14 (Kailash Temple)The Rashtrakutas who ruled the deccan from Manyakheta, Gulbarga district, Karnatakain the period AD 753 – 973 built some of the finest Dravidian monumentsat Ellora (the Kailasanatha temple), in the rock cut architecture idiom. Some other finemonuments are the Jaina Narayana temple at Pattadakal and the Navalinga temples atKuknur in Karnataka.The Rashtrakutas contributed much to the culture of the Deccan. The Rashtrakutacontributions to art and architecture are reflected in the splendid rock-cut shrines at Elloraand Elephanta, situated in present day Maharashtra. It is said that they altogetherconstructed 34 rock-cut shrines, but most extensive and sumptuous of them all is theKailasanatha temple at Ellora. The temple is a splendid achievement of Dravidian art.The walls of the temple have marvellous sculptures from Hindumythology including Ravana, Shiva and Parvati while the ceilings have paintings.The project was commissioned by King Krishna I after the Rashtrakuta rule had spreadinto South India from the Deccan. The architectural style used was dravidian. It does notcontain any of the Shikharas common to the Nagara style and was built on the same linesas the Virupaksha temple at Pattadakal in Karnataka.
  41. 41. Western ChalukyasFig 2. 15 (Dodda Basappa temple, Dambal, Gadag district, Karnataka)The Western Chalukyas also called the Kalyani Chalukyas or Later Chalukyas ruled thedeccan from AD 973 – 1180 from their capital Kalyani in modern Karnataka and furtherrefined the Chalukyan style, called the Western Chalukya architecture. Over 50 templesexist in the Krishna River-Tungabhadra doab in central Karnataka. The KasiVishveshvara at Lakkundi, Mallikarjuna at Kuruvatii, Kalleshwara temple at Bagali andMahadeva at Itagi are the finest examples produced by the Later Chalukya architects.The reign of Western Chalukya dynasty was an important period in the development ofarchitecture in the deccan. Their architectural developments acted as a conceptual linkbetween the Badami Chalukyas Architecture of the 8th century and the Hoysalasarchitecture popularised in the 13th century. The art of Western Chalukyas is sometimescalled the "Gadag style" after the number of ornate temples they built inthe Tungabhadra – Krishna River doab region of present day Gadag district inKarnataka. Their temple building reached its maturity and culmination in the 12thcentury, with over a hundred temples built across the deccan, more than half of them inpresent day Karnataka. Apart from temples they are also well known for ornate steppedwells (Pushkarni) which served as ritual bathing places, many of which are wellpreserved in Lakkundi. Their stepped well designs were later incorporated by theHoysalas and the Vijayanagara Empire in the coming centuries.
  42. 42. HoysalasFig 2. 16 (Symmetrical architecture on Jagati, Somanathapura, Karnataka)The Hoysalas kings ruled southern India during the period AD (1100–1343) from theircapital Belur and later Halebidu in Karnataka and developed a unique idiom ofarchitecture called the Hoysala architecture in Karnataka state. The finest examples oftheir architecture are the Chennakesava Temple in Belur, Hoysaleswaratemple in Halebidu, and the Kesava Temple in Somanathapura.The modern interest in the Hoysalas is due to their patronage of art and architecturerather than their military conquests. The brisk temple building throughout the kingdomwas accomplished despite constant threats from the Pandyas to the south and the SeunasYadavas to the north. Their architectural style, an offshoot of the Western Chalukya style,shows distinct Dravidian influences. The Hoysala architecture style is describedas Karnata Dravida as distinguished from the traditional Dravida, and is considered anindependent architectural tradition with many unique features.
  43. 43. Vijayanagar The whole of South India was ruled by Vijayanagar Empire from AD (1343– 1565), who built a number of temples and monuments in their hybrid style in their capital Vijayanagar in Karnataka. Their style was a combination of the styles developed in South India in the previous centuries. In addition, the Yali columns (pillar with charging horse), balustrades (parapets) and ornate pillared manatapa are their unique contribution. King Krishna Deva Raya and others built many famous Fig 2. 17 (Virupaksha Temple at Hampi, temples all over South India in Vijayanagar Karnataka) Architecture style.Vijayanagara architecture is a vibrant combination ofthe Chalukya, Hoysala, Pandya and Chola styles, idioms that prospered in previouscenturies. Its legacy of sculpture, architecture and painting influenced the development ofthe arts long after the empire came to an end. Its stylistic hallmark is the ornate pillaredKalyanamantapa (marriage hall), Vasanthamantapa (open pillared halls) andthe Rayagopura (tower). Artisans used the locally available hard granite because of itsdurability since the kingdom was under constant threat of invasion. While the empiresmonuments are spread over the whole of Southern India, nothing surpasses the vast openair theatre of monuments at its capital at Vijayanagara, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.In the 14th century the kings continued to build Vesara or Deccan style monuments butlater incorporated Dravida-style gopurams to meet their ritualistic needs. The PrasannaVirupaksha temple (underground temple) of Bukka Raya I and the Hazare Rama templeof Deva Raya I are examples of Deccan architecture. The varied and intricate
  44. 44. ornamentation of the pillars is a mark of their work. At Hampi, thoughthe Vitthala temple is the best example of their pillared Kalyanamantapa style,the Hazara Ramaswamy temple is a modest but perfectly finished example. A visibleaspect of their style is their return to the simplistic and serene art developed by theChalukya dynasty. A grand specimen of Vijayanagara art, the Vitthala temple, tookseveral decades to complete during the reign of the Tuluva king.THE VESARA OR THE HYBRID OR THE DECCANTEMPLE STYLEThis is also in conformity with the prevalence of Vesara style of architecture inthe Deccan and central parts of South Asia vis-à-vis Nagara style prevalent in NorthIndia and Dravida style prevalent in South India The Western Indian and the Deccantemples, basically evolved from the North Indian style.Accordingly, the Vesara style contains elements of both Dravida and Nagara styles.The Vesara style is also described in some texts as the Central Indian temple architecturestyle or Deccan architecture. However many historian agree that the vesara styleoriginated in the what is today Karnataka. The trend was started by the Chalukyas ofBadami (500-753AD) who built temples in a style that was essentially a mixture ofthe Nagara and the Dravida styles, further refined by theRashtrakutas of Manyakheta (750-983AD) in Ellora, Chalukyas of Kalyani(983-1195AD) in Lakkundi, Dambal, Gadag etc. and epitomized by the Hoysalas (1000-1330 AD).The Hoysalas temples at Belur, Halebidu and Somanathapura are supreme examples ofthis style. These temples are now proposed as a UNESCO world heritage site. It isunderstaood that the Virupaksha temple at Aihole and Pattadakal in northern Karnatakaserved as an inspiration for the design of the famous Khajuraho temples at MadhyaPradesh. Early temples constructed in this style include templesat Sirpur, Baijnath, Baroli and Amarkantak. The temple complex at Khajuraho, a WorldHeritage Site, is a typical example of the Vesara style.
  45. 45. Early temples of this style are: Lakshmana temple at Sirpur Vaidyanatha Mahadeva temple at Baijnath Sikara temple at Baroli Kesavanarayana temple at Amarkantak Viratesvara temple at sohagpurThe temples at Kajuraho represent the typical Vesara style. The Chandellas used thecoloured sandstone (pink, buff colour or pale yellow) to construct these temples. Granitestone temples also exist. These temples dedicated to Saiva, Vaishnava and Jaina sects donot show great variation in style between one another.The prime temples of this style are: Lakshmana temple Parsvanatha temple Visvanatha temple Kandariya Mahadeva temple Charsath yogini temple (rough granite) Lalguan Mahadeva temple (Partly granite & sandstone) Brahma temple Matangesvara temple Vamana temple Jawari temple Devi Jagadambi temple Adinatha temple
  46. 46. Brahma TempleFig 2. 18 (Brahma Temple in Pushkar City)Jagatpita Brahma Mandir is a Hindu temple situated at Pushkar in the Indianstate of Rajasthan, close to the sacred Pushkar Lake to which its legend has an indeliblelink. The temple is one of very few existing temples dedicated to the Hindu creator-godBrahma in India and remains the most prominent among them.Although the present temple structure dates to the 14th century, the temple is believed tobe 2000 years old. The temple is mainly built of marble and stone stabs. It has a distinctred pinnacle (shikhara) and a hamsa bird motif. The temple sanctum sanctorum holds thecentral images of Brahma and his second consort Gayatri.This temple has very close connection with the famous Gurjar community.The priests inthis temple are from Gurjar (Gujar or Gujjar) community as the 2nd wife of Brahma,Gayatri, belonged to the Gurjar community.The temple is governed by the Sanyasi (ascetic) sect priesthood. On Kartik Poornima, afestival dedicated to Brahma is held when large number of pilgrims visit the temple, afterbathing in the sacred lake.
  47. 47. LegendAccording to the Hindu scripture Padma Purana, Brahma saw the demon Vajranabha(Vajranash in another version) trying to kill his children and harassing people. Heimmediately slew the demon with his weapon, the lotus-flower. In this process, the lotuspetals fell on the ground at three places, creating three lakes: the Pushkar Lake or JyeshtaPushkar (greatest or first Pushkar), the Madya Pushkar (middle Pushkar) Lake, andKanishta Pushkar (lowest or youngest Pushkar) lake. When Brahma came down to theearth, he named the place where the flower ("pushpa") fell from Brahmas hand ("kar") as"Pushkar".Brahma then decided to perform a yajna (fire-sacrifice) at the main Pushkar Lake. Toperform his yajna peacefully without being attacked by the demons, he created the hillsaround the Pushkar — Ratnagiri in the south, Nilgiri in the north, Sanchoora in the westand Suryagiri in the east — and positioned gods there to protect the yajna performance.However, while performing the yajna, his wife Savitri (or Sarasvatiin some versions)could not be present at the designated time to perform the essential part of the yajna asshe was waiting for her companion goddesses Lakshmi, Parvati and Indrani. Annoyed,Brahma requested god Indra (the king of heaven) to find a suitable girl for him to wed tocomplete the yajna.Indra could find only a Gujars daughter (in some legends, a milkmaid) who wassanctified by passing her through the body of a cow. Gods Vishnu, Shiva and the priestscertified her purity; it was her second birth and she was named Gayatri. Brahma thenmarried Gayatri and completed the yajna with his new consort sitting beside him, holdingthe pot of amrita (elixir of life) on her head and giving ahuti (offering to the sacrificialfire).When Savitri finally arrived at the venue she found Gayatri sitting next to Brahma whichwas her rightful place. Agitated, she cursed Brahma that he would be never worshiped,but then reduced the curse permitting his worship in Pushkar. Savitri also cursed Indra tobe easily defeated in battles, Vishnu to suffer the separation from his wife as a human, thefire-god Agni who was offered the yajna to be all-devouring and the priests officiating
  48. 48. the yajna to be poor. Endowed by the powers of yajna, Gayatri diluted Savitris curse,blessing Pushkar to be the king of pilgrimages, Indra would always retain his heaven,Vishnu would be born as the human Rama and finally unite with his consort and thepriests would become scholars and be venerated. Thus, the Pushkar temple is regardedthe only temple dedicated to Brahma. Savitri, thereafter, moved into the Ratnagiri hilland became a part of it by emerging as a spring known as the Savitri Jharna (stream); atemple in her honour exists here.HistoryPushkar is said to have over 500 temples (80 are large and the rest are small); of thesemany are old that were destroyed or desecrated by Muslim depredationsduring Mughal emperor Aurangzebs rule (1658–1707) but were re-built subsequently; ofthese the most important is the Brahma temple. Though the current structure dates to the14th century, the original temple is believed to be 2000 years old. The temple isdescribed to have been built by sage Vishwamitra after Brahmas yagna. It is alsobelieved that Brahma himself chose the location for his temple. The 8th century Hinduphilosopher Adi Shankara renovated this temple, while the current medieval structuredates to Maharaja Jawat Raj of Ratlam, who made additions and repairs, though theoriginal temple design is retained.Pushkar is often described in the scriptures as the only Brahma temple in the world,owing to the curse of Savitri, and as the "King of the sacred places of the Hindus".Although now the Pushkar temple does not remain the only Brahma temple, it is still oneof very few existing temples dedicated to Brahma in India and the most prominent onededicated to Brahma. International Business Times has identified Pushkar Lake and theBrahma temple as one of the ten most religious places in the world and one of the fivesacred pilgrimage places for the Hindus, in India.
  49. 49. ArchitectureFig 2. 19 Left: Front facade of Brahma temple in Pushkar. Right: Idol of Brahma inside the Brahma templeat PushkarThe temple, which is set on high plinth, is approached through a number of marble stepsleading to an entrance gate archway, decorated with pillared canopies. The entry from thegate leads to a pillared outdoor hall (Mandapa) and then the sanctum sanctorum(Garbhagriha). The temple is built with stone slabs and blocks, joined together withmolten lead. The red shikhara (spire) of the temple and symbol of a hamsa (a swan orgoose) - the mount of Brahma – are distinct features of the temple. The shikara is about700 feet (210 m) in height. The hamsa motif decorates the main entry gate. Marble floor(in black and white checks) and walls inside the temple have been inlaid with hundreds ofsilver coins by devotees (with their names inscribed), as mark of offering to Brahma.There is a silver turtle in the mandap that is displayed on the floor of the temple facingthe Garbhagriha, which is also built in marble. The marble flooring has been replacedfrom time-to-time.Brahmas central icon (murti) made of marble was deified in the garbhagriha in 718 ADby Adi Shankara. The icon depicts Brahma, seated in a crossed leg position in the aspectof creation of the universe (the Vishvakarma form). The central image is calledthe chaumurti ("four-faced idol"). It is of life size with four hands, four faces, eachoriented in a cardinal direction. The four arms hold the akshamala (rosary),the pustaka (book), the kurka (kusha grass) and the kamandalu (water pot). Brahma is
  50. 50. riding on his mount, the hamsa. The four symbols held by Brahma in his arms: the rosary,Kamandalu, book and the sacrificial implement kusha grass represent time, the causalwaters from which the universe emerged, knowledge and the system of sacrifices to beadopted for sustenance of various life-forms in the universe. Gayatris image sits alongwith Brahmas in centre to his left. Savatri alias Sarasvati sits to the right of Brahma,along with other deities of the Hindu pantheon. Images of the peacock, Sarasvatis mount,also decorate the temple walls. Images of the preserver-god Vishnu, life-sized dvarapalas(gate-keepers) and a gilded Garuda (eagle-man, mount of Vishnu) are also seen in thetemple.WorshipFig 2. 20 (Pushkar Lake)The temple is visited by pilgrims and also by the holy men and sages, after taking aceremonial sacred bath in the Pushkar Lake. It is also a practice that visits to the Brahmatemple is followed by worship of his consort Gayatri, followed by visits to other templesas convenient.The temple is open for worship between 6:30 am and 8:30 pm during winter and 6:00 amto 9:00 pm during summer, with an interval in afternoon between 1:30 pm to 3:00 pmwhen the temple is closed. Three aratis are held in the temple: Sandhya arati in theevening about 40 minutes after sunset, Ratri Shayan arati (night-sleep arati) about 5hours past sunset and Mangala arati in the morning, about 2 hours before sunrise.
  51. 51. The priests at the Brahma temple refer to a strictly followed religious practice. House-holders (married men) are not allowed to enter the sanctum sanctorum to worship thedeity. Only ascetics (sanyasis) can perform the puja to the deity. Hence, all offerings bypilgrims are given, from the outer hall of the temple, through a priest who is a sanyasi.The priests of the temple, in general in Puskkar, belong to the Parashar gotra (lineage).Once a year, on Kartik Poornima, the full moon night of the Hindu lunarmonth of Kartik (October – November), a religious festival is held in Brahmas honour.Thousands of pilgrims come to bathe in the holy Pushkar Lake adjacent to the temple.Various rites are also held at the temple during the fair. The day also marks thefamous Pushkar Camel Fair, held nearby. Special rights are performed on all Poornima(full moon days) and amavasyas (new moon days).Chennakesava Temple, Belur - KarnatakaIn the border areas between the two major styles, particularly in the modern states ofKarnataka and Andhra Pradesh, there was a good deal of stylistic overlap as well asseveral distinctive architectural features. A typical example is the Hoysala temple with itsmultiple shrines and remarkable ornate carving. In fact such features are sometimes sosignificant as to justify classifying distinct sub-regional groups.The type of raw materials available from region to region naturally had a significantimpact on construction techniques, carving possibilities and consequently the overallappearance of the temple. The soft soap-stone type material used by the Hoysalaarchitects of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries allowed sculptors working in thetradition of ivory and sandalwood carving to produce the most intricate and ornate of allIndian styles. Hard crystalline rocks like granite typical of the area aroundMamallapuram prevented detailed carving and resulted in the shallow reliefs associatedwith Pallava temples of the seventh and with centuries. In areas without stone, such asparts of Bengal, temples constructed of brick had quite different stylistic characteristics.
  52. 52. Royal patronage also had a very significant effect on the stylistic development oftemples, and as we have already seen, regional styles are often identified by the dynastythat produced them. For example we speak of Pallava, Chola, Hoysala, Gupta, Chalukyaand Chandella temples.It might be assumed that temple styles would be different for the various Hindu cults. Infact, this was never the case in India. Even Jain temples such as those at Khajuraho wereoften built in almost identical styles to the Hindu temples.From the eighth century onward with the development of ever more sophisticated ritualsand festivals, the Hindu temple especially in the south started to expand and becomemore elaborate. There were more mandapas for various purposes such as dancing,assembly, eating, or, for example. To house Nandi, Shiva’s sacred mount; moresubsidiary shrines and other structures; and more corridors and pillared halls such as the’thousand-pillared halls’.Bhaktavatsalar Temple, Tirukkalunkundram – Tamil NaduBut the most significant visual difference between the later northern and southern stylesare the gateways. In the north the shikhara remains the most prominent element of thetemple and the gateway is usually modest. In the south enclosure walls were built aroundthe whole complex and along these walls, ideally set along the east-west and north-southaxes, elaborate and often magnificent gateways called gopurams led the devotees into thesacred courtyard. These gopurams led the devotees into the superstructures and cappedwith barrel-shaped roofs were in fact to become the most striking feature of the southIndian temple. They become taller and taller, dwarfing the inner sanctum and its towerand dominating the whole temple site. From the Vijayanagara period (fourteenth tosixteenth century) onward, these highly embellished and often brightly painted structuresbecome extremely numerous. The width of the storeys of pavilions and otherarchitectural elements were carefully adjusted to create a concave contour which is a
  53. 53. distinctive characteristic of the Dravida temples seen throughout the south, particularly inTamil NaduSTRATEGIES TO ENHANCE RELIGIOUS TOURISMTHROUGH CORPORATE MARKET RESPONSIBILITY(CRP)Definitely, the marketers would get benefit out of the booming religious tourism as theycould find new territories to sell their products and services. They would also take part indeveloping these Places along with local development authorities.a) Marketers could participate in providing basic sanitary facilities along with they couldpromote their products viz. If X company sponsors the Free or Paid Rest room facilities,its products would only be sold.b) Marketers could also participate in constructing rooms for devotees to stay andpromote their productsc) Marketers could offer free/paid transportation facilities which will carry the promotionof their products/servicesd) Pharmaceutical companies could sponsor free medical camps in which their productscould be promotede) Food products companies could set up their outlets to sell products with subsidized/actual pricesf) Clothing/Garment companies could set up their stalls to promote their products andservices It clearly shows that there is enough room for marketers to participate inCorporate Market Responsibility which offers the dual benefit of offering services to thesociety as well to promote their products/services. This would definitely provide alucrative mind space in potential target group in which would not have done by spendingmillions on conventional promotion tools.
  54. 54. Hence, it is the marketers and the state and central government could join their hands toconcentrate on these locations in order to generate business and employmentopportunities as well to promote their products/services. If this done, the governmentwould not worry about offering minimum 100 days employment opportunities, they willtake care of themselves. The government could seek help from marketers to offernecessary infrastructure support viz. transportation, water and sanitation, power and otherbasic facilities which ensure the influx and pleasant stay of pilgrims.ROLE OF RELIGIOUS TOURISM IN BALANCEDECONOMIC GROWTH IN INDIAReligious tourism plays a vital role in narrowing economic imbalance. Most of theplaces, especially rural areas and the areas which have no core competence or business,survive due to religious tourism. It provides business and employment opportunities tolocal population helps to take care of their requirements. For instance, Sulli Karadu asmall dry rural area near Coimbatore, TamilNadu, India, well known for a rural deitywhich is very powerful, ought to be worshipped by offering Camphor in big quantitieswhich is available in nearby shops. Devotees stand in mile long queue to offer theirofferings. It provides livelihood to local population who sell camphor to the devoteeswhich is supplied by camphor manufacturers. Also, it was interpreted that the wholeexercise was orchestrated by the camphor manufacturers to sell their products which hasbeen banned by TamilNadu Endowment Board to camphor in temples, by quoting thereason that would spoil the environment. However, this is a classical example on thereligious tourism which fed the whole village. Also, a place called "Thadi Kombu" nearMadurai, well known for a deity viz. "Shorna Bairavar" which is very powerful to collectthe bad debts, it is the believe that if a pilgrim visit the place for 8 times in a particularday of the month, his/her prayers would be answered. This generates employmentopportunities in the sleeping semi-urban small town, also generated business for busowners who take devotees for charter trips on that particular day from far off places.These are all the examples of small places which generates business and employmentopportunities for the local population, let alone, many famous places like "Palani",
  55. 55. Madurai, Rameswaram, Kanyakumar, etc. in Tamil Nadu, and well known, "SabariMalai" in kerala, which generates millions and provides employment opportunities tomany. The whole kerala belt has been benefiting from lakhs for devotees visit sabarimalai during particular seasons.These provide tremendous opportunities for marketers tofocus on these locations to market their products and services. It is the dual benefit ofcatering location population as well to promote the products/services.PROTECTING TEMPLESIt must be understood that all objects, whether natural or manmade have their lifespan.But by doing proper, periodical maintenance & protecting them from vandals, thepossibility of providing extended lifespan to these inanimate structures always remain.When these places of interest are not maintained, the chances are that they’ll fail to liveup to their intended life span is dim. So, proper maintenance not only preserves them fortheir entire life period, but also gives them a "Bonus" lifetime.When a person thinks about India, he can either think about the well-built, well-maintained Delhi Metro, which is one of the best in Asia. The Delhi Metro has worldclass infrastructure, security & service & wears the look of a corporate major. But on theother end lies the poorly maintained, poorly equipped, sub-standard Indian Railways.Though the largest employer in the world & the most profitable government company,the railways leaves much to be desired when it comes to safety, standard, infrastructureetc., Though both are owned & operated by the govt., there is a contrasting differencebetween these two. The government is treating our ancient monuments too with the sameattention it gives to the railways! The Archaeological Survey of India, responsible for theexploration & maintenance of these monuments is dangerously under-staffed & poorlyfunded. So, the ASI devoted most of its manpower & money power to the high-endmonuments such as Taj Mahal, Red Fort etc., starving our antique Indian temples of anyfunds Though India is a Hindu dominated country, it doesnt mean that our templesshould be preserved well! In Tamilnadu for instance, temples are maintained by theHindu Aranilaya Thurai which is shredded by politics. Even the worlds most revenue-rich temple, in Tripathi does not offer any better prospects. People who pay a high some
  56. 56. of money to "see" the God are allowed a closer peep, whereas the freely serviced poorpeople are forced to wait in their queues for several hours, if not days! The housing &lodging facilities there are very poor. Transportation is bleak, but collection is great!Many temples in India refuse to receive any funding from the governments & solely relyon philanthropists. They do not want to rely on governments claiming to be secular! So,with very little funding, poor knowledge of history & its greatness from the part of thetemple boards, which priorities the religious aspect of the temple more than its cultural &historical value will do anything, but improve the status of these "iconic" symbols of theworlds oldest religion. There needs to be an effective co-ordination between thegovernment, a well-funded ASI, the temple authorities & of course the devotees. Thegovernment should rein in on "illegal" roadside temples & encourage historicallysignificant temples. The temple board should also allow non-Hindu & foreign visitors tocome in & visit the temple by charging them a fee & diverting it to welfare works. Byallowing tourists, the historical significance of the temple & its image will be defeated.So if these great monuments have to be maintained properly and if the Temples have toviewed by tourists and great tourist destinations it is up to the People and Government ofIndia to Protect these Architectural Masterpieces by Educating the general public abouttheir importance and Proper funding to maintain them.
  58. 58. India, a tourism hotspot in the world, has a large bouquet of visitor attractions to boastof. Its widespread diversity has always attracted both foreigners as well as its’ owncitizens alike, to explore its mirth and gaiety that it has to offer the world. Every nookand cranny of the country offers exquisite as well as exclusive tourism resource whichechoes heritage as well as tradition of that particular area. There is hardly any country inthe world which offers such wide variety of tourism.The total domestic and foreign visitors to the country for the year 2005 stood at 382 Mnand 3.92 Mn respectively. For the year 2004 the total domestic and foreign visitors to thecountry stood at 366 Mn and 3.46 Mn respectively However, India’s percentage share intotal world tourist visits still remains paltry at 0.39% and its share in the total worldtourism receipts stands at a miniscule 0.69% (2005 fig.)According to statistics from the Indian Ministry of Tourism, the state of Andhra Pradeshconsistently receives the highest number of domestic tourists in the country. Whats theattraction?They all visit the Lord Venkateswara temple (a form of Lord Vishnu) in Tirupati. In fact,more than 100,000 Indians visit the temple every day. Bollywood stars AbhishekBachchan andAishwarya Rai even prayed at temple after their marriage in 2007.The temple is a particularly important one for Hindus, as scriptures say that in these darktimes of the Kali Yuga, Lord Venkateswara is the god who can grant liberation. Thebenefits of pilgrimage to the hill that the temple is located on are also mentioned in thescriptures.
  59. 59. Foreign Tourist Arrivals (1997-2010)Fig 3.1Fig 3.2
  60. 60. From the above figures 3.1 and 3.2 we are able to known the inflow of foreign tourist inIndia during the year 1997 till 2010. The data shows a significant growth in the touristinflow in this period. This shows that the Foreign countries are so mesmerized in seeingIndia’s diversity that it has led to increase the number of visitors to India.Share of Top 10 States/UTs of India in Number of Foreign TouristVisits in 2010Fig 3.3
  61. 61. Fig 3.4The figures 3.3 and 3.4 show the number of foreign tourist visit in different states of Indiaduring the year 1997-2010. From the above data we can reveals that the mostPROMINENT TEMPLES of India are situated in central, north and west of India andvisitors tend to visit to those places to a great extent.
  62. 62. Number of Domestic Tourist Visits to TEMPLES OF INDIA, 1997-2010Fig 3.5Fig 3.6
  63. 63. The figures 3.5 and 3.6 shows the consistent and unbelievable rise in the inflow ofdomestic tourist visit between the year 1997-2010.the amount of tourist has increasedfrom 159.88 to 740.219(in millions). This shows that the domestic tourists are animportant source of promoting the TEMPLES of India since the numbers are increasingto a great extent.Number of Foreign Tourist Visits to TEMPLES OF INDIA 1997-2010Fig 3.7
  64. 64. Fig 3.8The figures 3.7 and 3.8 show the number of foreign tourist arrivals in India. NowadaysForeigners are becoming an important source of PROMOTING the temples of India. Thetravel experience of foreigners here is just too good, that it is increasing with everycoming year.
  65. 65. Share of Top 10 Countries of the World and India in InternationalTourist Arrivals in 2010Fig 3.9Fig 3.10
  66. 66. As we can see from the data above, foreign countries are the LEADING VISITORS toother countries as compared to India which clearly implies THE DOMINANCY of thefamous temple architectural designs of India, is one of the reasons to visit India.
  68. 68. CONCLUSIONWe as Indians have always had and will continue to have an obsession for Temples.Temples have been a part of the Indian tradition since times Immemorial. The Concept ofimproving the Tourism in India has always enthralled me and that’s the reason for me tochoose Temple Tourism as a Topic for my minor project. It is an absolute pleasure toknow about the cultural diversity of our country. Any other kind of tourism has to bedeveloped to increase the popularity among people but when it comes to temple tourismthe situation is totally different we’ve got the Temples with such an amazing architecturaldesigns with us, it’s just a question of preserving the temples and promoting the templetourism among the tourists. India is famous for its temples and its architecture and that isthe reason that among the different kinds of tourism in India, pilgrimage tourism isincreasing most rapidly.However there are spaces for improvement, it is possible to serve the domestic as well asthe foreign tourist in a better way say for example, by improving the safety and securityof tourists in India. Despite short- and medium-term setbacks such as shortage of hotelrooms, According to World Travel and Tourism Council, India will be a tourism hotspotfrom 2009–2018, because of Indias 5,000 years of history, its length, breadth and thevariety of geographic features make its tourism basket large and varied. India’s heritageand cultural is expected to significantly boost tourism in India.
  69. 69. RECOMMENDATIONIndia is a holy land inhabited by people of various faith and religions. The countryassociates itself with an affluent historical as well as religious backdrop of Hinduism andother religions. It is a country where people have immense faith in God and His powersto cure human beings of all their problems and ailments. The country boasts of a richcultural heritage, which is truly reflected in its well-preserved temples that reflect superbarchitectural skills and hold deep religious significance. Indian temples serve as thehaven of peace, solace and tranquility. It is a hub of many beautiful and sacred temples.Devotees visit to these temples from all over the world. From North to South and East toWest, you will get some big and famous temples of India. The list of big temples in Indiainclude about 400-500 temples and every temple has a story behind it.India temples have amazing architecture which attracts tourists a lot. Indian temples arebiggest tourist places. Temple tourism is growing at a very fast rate in India. Every year abig number of devotees visit to temples in India. But even though there are some loopholes and if Indian Government wants to develop the Temple Tourism in India and wantsto increase the inflow of tourists the government should take some steps to make thecountry more hospitable to foreign travelers.Below are some suggestions as to how to accomplish that- Government should establish a board which will protect and preserve temples of India & also put special efforts to promote temple tourism in other parts of the world. The ministry of tourism should work for the improvement of the infrastructure and hospitality services. Hotels aided with world class facilities i.e. with all the comforts and convenience should be develop thought the India. The markets which are near by the temples should be improved and made standardized, also the local people should me made educated so that they know that how they should behave with the tourist, and how they are benefited from their arrivals.
  70. 70. In order to develop temple tourism in India in a systematic manner new tourismpolicies should be developed by the ministry of tourism, the focus of which canbe o Setting up of guest houses o Rationalization in tax rates in hospitality sector o Tourist friendly visa regime o Procedural changes in making available land for construction of hotels, etcThe government should put their focus on the transportation system of India.There is a high requirement to enforce some new traffic laws in India, so that thecondition of Indian traffic should be improved. All this will help the visitingtourists to have an easier time traveling from place to place.There should be an improved safety and security system for the tourists in thecounty, so as to make them feel more secure in the country.Now a day, every customer desire to be treated as a special one and wantseverything according to their requirements. So it should to kept in mind thatwhenever a client will visit to a travel agency, a customer friendly approachshould be adopted to increase their level of satisfaction, and also it should be triedthat the tour packages should be made or designed according to the customersrequirement i.e. The option of Customized tours should be provided to thecustomers.Government should create awareness among people regarding temple tourismthrough different methods like making small documentary films on differenttemples showcasing their great architectural design, there history, or may bethrough internet like through publishing videos on the net.
  71. 71. BIBLIOGRAPHY http://www.templenet.com/temparc.html http://temples.newkerala.com/Temples-of-India/Temple-Architecture-of-India.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindu_temple http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dravidian_architecture http://www.hindupedia.com