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Lightweight Interactions for Reciprocal Cooperation in a Social Network Game

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2016 Nov. The 8th International Conference on Social Informatics (SocInfo)
Preprint: https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.02419

Published in: Science
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Lightweight Interactions for Reciprocal Cooperation in a Social Network Game

  1. 1. Lightweight Interactions for Reciprocal Cooperation in a Social Network Game 2016 Nov. The 8th International Conference on Social Informatics (SocInfo) CyberAgent, Inc. All Rights Reserved CyberAgent, Inc. Akihabara Laboratory Masanori Takano & Ichiro Fukuda 1
  2. 2. 2 Reciprocity One of the mechanisms for cooperation. •  This mechanism drives interaction between cooperators. Reciprocal individuals cooperate to others,  if the reciprocal individuals think that  these others also cooperate to the individuals. •  If reciprocal individuals think each other that  other individuals are also reciprocal → they construct stable reciprocal relationships.
  3. 3. 3 Cooperation in Initial Meeting: Evidences 3 How do reciprocal cooperators construct stable relationships? •  Cooperation in initial meetings •  Repaying cooperation from others (reciprocity) A B C D D D D D D D A B C C C C C C C C If the individuals don't cooperate → they don't construct reciprocal   relationships. If the individuals cooperate → they construct reciprocal   relationships. In initial meetings of reciprocal individuals, Actually, humans tend to cooperate each other in initial meetings without prior interaction on experimental studies. e.g., Rand et. al. [2011], Grujić et. al. [2012], Wang et. al. [2012], Peysakhovich and Rand [2013] [Axelrod, 2006] (Theoretical work) C: Cooperate D: Defect
  4. 4. 4 Risk of Initial Meeting 4 In the real world, we don't cooperate each other without prior interaction. Because, in initial meeting, we cannot know others' cooperativeness. → We have large risks in initial interactions. Others may be exploiters. Therefore, we do observing, greeting, and talking (i.e., doing lightweight interaction), and then we will construct social relationships.
  5. 5. 5 Purpose and Approach How do humans behave in initial meetings to construct reciprocal relationships? We analyzed players' behavior based on the data of a social network game (SNG).
  6. 6. 6 Why Social Networking Games (SNG) ? The data analysis of the game data catch up other approaches. •  We can observe detail behavior data of massive players like mathematical models and simulations. •  The data is more detail than observation studies. •  The game environment is more open-ended than others. •  We know players' benefits as their scores. Mathematical Model Simulation Experiments in Lab ✊ ✋ Data Analysis of SNGs Observation Study Partial and Biased Data Hard to Understand Clean and Detailed Data Easy to Understand
  7. 7. 7 Social Network Game URL: h$p://vcard.ameba.jp Lang: Japanese Since: 2012/10 Type: Raid Ba$le We analyzed this game data for 2 weeks (2013/3/25∼2013/4/8)
  8. 8. 8 Basic Specification of the SNG Players' Goal •  Getting points and rising a ranking based on the points Group and Migration •  Each player belonged to a group(The group size: 1〜50 players) •  A player can migrate from a group to another group at any time. Communication •  Players communicate by using simple messaging functions. •  Messaging almost doesn't generate benefits and costs of players. 1: Smith(12040pt) 2: Martin(11010pt) 3: Anderson(11005pt) 4: Ken(9015pt) ・・・ Migration Simple messaging Cooperation
  9. 9. 9 Cooperation We focus on a specific game situation like Leader game •  In the SNG, players behave variously. •  We cannot track all cooperative behavior.  a player's this cooperation frequency in the SNG   ≒ the player's cooperativeness •  Payoff Matrix of the situation like Snowdrift game Cooperate Defect Cooperate -, - 1, 3 Defect 3, 1 0, 0 Cooperator get 1 point. Defector get 3 point.
  10. 10. 10 Focus Initial Interactions between newcomers and existing group members  ・Newcomers: migrants within 48 hours •  Can newcomers construct reciprocal relationships with existing members? •  How do lightweight communication (messaging) affect to construct reciprocal relationships?
  11. 11. 11 Reciprocity: Newcomer vs. Existing Members Effect of players' cooperative behavior and messaging  for cooperation from others Number of Cooperation from others Number of Cooperation to Others Number of Messaging to Others Covariates for Control Response Variable Explanatory Variable Number of Cooperation to Others Number of Messaging to Others Newcomers' Existing Group Members' Cooperation Cooperation &Messaging Newcomer flag
  12. 12. 12 Reciprocity: Newcomer vs. Existing Members Players tended to cooperate with newcomers. Number of Cooperation from others Number of Cooperation to Others Number of Messaging to Others Covariates for Control Response Variable Explanatory Variable Number of Cooperation to Others Number of Messaging to Others Newcomers' Existing Group Members' Cooperation Cooperation &Messaging Newcomer flag > 0
  13. 13. 13 Results: Reciprocity Cooperation positively affected cooperation from others Newcomers' cooperation effects are larger than existing members Number of Cooperation from others Response Variable Cooperation Cooperation &Messaging Number of Cooperation to Others Number of Messaging to Others Covariates for Control Explanatory Variable Number of Cooperation to Others Number of Messaging to Others Existing Group Members' Newcomer flag > 0 > 0 Newcomers'
  14. 14. 14 Results: Lightweight Interaction Messaging also positively affected cooperation from others. Newcomers' messaging effects are larger than existing members. Number of Cooperation from others Response Variable Cooperation Cooperation &Messaging Number of Cooperation to Others Number of Messaging to Others Covariates for Control Explanatory Variable Number of Cooperation to Others Number of Messaging to Others Existing Group Members' Newcomer flag > 0 > 0 Newcomers'
  15. 15. 15 Results: Lightweight Interaction Messaging also positively affected cooperation from others. Newcomers' messaging effects are larger than existing members. Number of Cooperation from others Number of Cooperation to Others Number of Messaging to Others Covariates for Control Response Variable Explanatory Variable Number of Cooperation to Others Number of Messaging to Others Newcomers' Existing Group Members' > 0 > 0 This messaging doesn't have explicit meanings, benefits, and costs in the SNG. Nevertheless, it contributed to construct reciprocal relationships Hypothesis: Messaging may explain the senders' cooperativeness.
  16. 16. 16 Messaging as a Signal of Cooperativeness Did players' messaging explain their cooperativeness? Number of Cooperation to others Number of Messaging to Others Covariates for Control Response Variable Explanatory Variable Number of Messaging to Others Newcomers' Existing Group Members' Cooperation Messaging
  17. 17. 17 Results: Messaging as a Signal of Cooperativeness Messaging also positively explained cooperativeness . Newcomers' this tendency was stronger than existing members. Number of Cooperation to others Number of Messaging to Others Covariates for Control Response Variable Explanatory Variable Number of Messaging to Others Newcomers' Existing Group Members' > 0 > 0Cooperation Messaging
  18. 18. 18 Summary Newcomers and group members constructed reciprocal relationships.   → The players resolved initial interaction risks. Cooperation in Initial Meetings •  Players in new relationships tend to cooperate more than players in known relationships. Lightweight communications (messaging) •  It supported constructions of reciprocal relationships. •  It explained players' cooperativeness. •  Especially, it is important in initial meetings. → This may be employed to increase senders' likelihood of   cooperativeness in risky situations.

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