Precursor to the Renaissance


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  • Explain what you see: organic, expressions of are similar, both looking in the same direction, color well preserved The military governor and his wife, attached to columns and stand beneath architectural canopies as in the French doorjambs,
  • What is unique? marbled encrusted geometric design, matching the Marbled revetment, close to the ground, no aspirations toward height, campanile stands alone and was designed by Giotto de Bondone; circular windows, large dome that was said to “shade most of Tuscany;” designed to hold all of Florence’s population but held 30,000 people. Florence’s population at the time was 100,000
  • How is Christ distorted? Large head falling back, stiff arms and legs, small body and legsWhat is Mary’s expression? Over sized face, Overall grief, cradles him like a child, holds him and feels what all mother’s feel at a time like this.German painted wooden statuetteWhat is its iconic message? Agony, suffering, death, sorrow, humanizing of religious themes, There is no worse suffering than this How has art changed? More emotional, individual, feeling accompanied the human body in motion; figures relate more to their human audience with identifiable human emotionsWar, plague, famine, and social strife equaled an heightened awareness of suffering Christ and the Virgin Mother share humanities woesHuman sorrow was expressed in powerful, expressive exaggerationPainted wood, 2'10 1/2" high. RheinischesLandemuseum, Bonn.
  • What is unique? Pointed gables over the portals, windowed tympanum, Rose window and statues in niches to the left and right of the Rose windows, in the upper zone, four pinnacles divide the façade into three bays, painted façade represents an altar screen, behind it is nothing more than a two story basilica
  • Venice was a wealthy city, exempt from war due to its island location and strong navy, delicate cream pattern; rose colored marbles; pointed and ogee arches; quatrefoil medallions; distinctive design, little relation to Gothic or Romanesque or Renaissance.
  • Silver giltQueen Jeanne d’ Evreux donated this 2 foot sculpture to St. DenisNeither mother or child appear to have a care in the world. Child reaches playfully for his mother, intimate human characterizationS curve and drapery similar to the Virgin of ParisMary holds a scepter in the form of the fleur de’lis
  • Classical with a capital C refers to the Classical period of ancient Greece. Small ‘c’ refers to Greco-Roman art.What was Roman about the French statues in the doorjambs? naturalistic forms, drapery, emotion, movement,
  • Unlike contemporary names that are coupled with family names, Italians were known by the place of their birth, which is why art historians prefer to use the artists’ first names in reference instead of their last names
  • What is Roman? Large busy Corinthian like capitals, round arches not pointed (ogival), relief panels similar to Roman sarcophagus What is Medieval? Trefoil Arches, lions supporting the columns, ornate, Pisa became the center of political and economic power and pulled in artists due to the high price patrons paid for their workNicola was knows for carving ornate marble reliefs just for pulpits. (raised platforms from which priests lead church services).He applied some medieval elements like the trefoil arches (clover like ornament or symbol with stylized leaves in groups of three, the trinity)
  • If you didn’t already know what period might you place this in? Greek ClassicalWhy? Organic, no identifiable people, Faces, beards, coifed hair styles, drapery, naturalistic, feet of the rams once again don’t match, bulk and weight of the figures, stoic expressionsWhat is at the center of this relief? Reclining Madonna What does the reclining Madonna remind you of? The Ceverti sarcophagus from Etruscan style, relaxed, contentExplain how Christ’s life is documented: annunciation, nativity , adoration of the ShepherdsObserve Joseph in this register, what is his expression? Looking up at his wife, admiration,
  • Giovanni Pisano is Nicola’s son and was also in demand for pulpit sculpturesLook at Joseph, what is his reaction to all this and how does it differ from the father’s version of Joseph? bored, frustrated,How does the son’s version contrast with the father’s? figures are loosely arranged,, twist and bend in excited animation, movement as noted from the gaps between figures, swiftly turning, sinuous draperies, slender figures, emotional, Father worked in classical tradition and the son had a French Gothic style. Both styles contributed to the 14th century art.Annunciation: Virgin pulls away in shock at Gabriel’s appearanceHer reclining figure has a slight bewilderment as she touches Christ the childAll the animation and drama show their panic of the realization of their deep beliefs
  • Republican oligarchies: Florence; Venice; Lucca; Siena Kingdoms, Naples; duchies of Milan; Modena; Ferrara; SavoyBubonic Plague, late 1340’s originated in China, infected the entire European population killing at least 50%; especially in large cities where people lived closer to one another; Art was inspired by religious need for devotional images; also led to hospital construction that was previously limited to monasteries; Renaissance art was central to the “rebirth” by restoring the glorious path of Greece and Rome, which identified the Middle Ages as the very long gap between Classical antiquity and the Renaissance. It did not come about abruptly as we see in the art but increased with the increase of humanism. “Laurel Wreath Crown ancient symbol for victory and merit
  • habitual religious view of the world dominated medieval beliefs.Tale from the Decameron by Boccaccio
  • Where is the Gothic Sculpture influence? Pointed arch, geometric compound columns, nimbus, scrolls in the prophets hands, Byzantine? Gold background and embellishments What is different from medieval art? Not much, Naturalism, Madonna’s robe is laced with gold, three dimensionality of the drapery, Virgin's throne is massive and receding into space. Is there a sense of depth or perspective? Possibly with the overlapping angels and prophets looking up, like medieval artWhat is her expression?
  • Explain differences and similarities to Cimabue’s Madonna Enthroned: Virgin enthroned; Angels kneeling; more naturalistic; gold background; rests as an unshakable goddess; Colossal Mary on a overwhelms her slender Gothic throne, haloes overlap faces; replaced the fragile thin Virgin with a weighty queenly mother; 12 apostles instead of angels; looks her body is not lost under the drapery; breasts pressing through the white garment; no gold highlights; Giotto’s figure has substance, bulk, and all figure are three dimensional; Angels foreshortened postures project toward us; displays a sculpturesque figure, not a spiritual Byzantine figure; marks the end of Medieval painting in Italy and the beginning of a new naturalistic approach to art. Symmetrical (Cimabue’s convention)and spatial consistency, solid. YAY!!!!What is her expression? Giotto born c. 1266-1337; often regarded as the first Renaissance painter; student of Cimabue; painted the actual world he saw; abandoned the “crude maneiragreca” according to Visari. manieragreca- A formal Byzantinestyle that dominated Italian painting in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. It's characterized by shallow space and linearflatness. Father of Western pictorial art; his true teacher was nature; introduced the pictorial expression based on his observations; established paining as its own art form that is still viable; initiated an age that might be called “early scientific; stressed the domination of knowledge through site; “the visual world must be observed and examined before it can be analyzed and understood; because of Giotto western artists turned toward the visible world as their source of knowledge of nature
  • Siena and Florence were powerful due to banking and had merchants with international contacts and large sums for commissioning artworks. What is different here? Virgin enthroned; Queen of Heaven; angels and saints surround her; Angels faces are similar; revived the composition of symmetry and formality; no rigidness in the figures; they seem to turn to each other in quiet conversation; Individualized the four saints kneeling beside her, who perform their ceremonial gestures without stiffness; drapery falls and curves loosely; (loose drapery is familiar in northern Europe at the time so there must have been some communication before north and south);Duccio realized that the Maestà must be holy within itself; The viewer must want to worship it as well as the virgin; The color and texture display the distribution of silk from China, Middle East, Islam, Byzantine, Persia; after processing the silk they shipped it throughout Europe; Dante, Petrarch and other humanists condemned the rich luxurious clothing and though is was a “decline in civic and moral virtue. Duccio recreated the richness and color of the fabrics and the gilded wood frame (not lost) represents the Faithfull's nimbus.He did eliminate the gold patterning in favor of three dimensional volume.DucciodiBuoninsegna, most valued work; Sienese believed that the Virgin brought victory over Florence and was their focus in religious life; the entire Maestàtook four years. 13 feet high with pinnacles above and a predella (raised shelf) at the base; tempera painted on the front and back
  • The central panel was formal and symmetrical What is different for Duccio in this panel? Jesus is the central figure; narrative; retains the gold background; animated movements, violence; anger; Judas’s false kiss; disciples fleeing in terror (how can we tell they are the disciples?) nimbus; Peter cutting off the ear of the high priest’s servant;How has style of figures has changed? No frontal one dimensional shapes; range from light to dark, draperies are correctly secured; all figures are reacting to the same eventHow are they displaying their emotions and what are they? through poster, gesture and facial expression; anger of Peter, malice of Judas and his entourage; fear, timidity, and apprehension of the disciples as they flee. Identify ho Duccio interpreted this narrative? human story with human actions and reactions, SIDE NOTE: almost with the feet, so close.
  • In 1300, the wealthy Paduan merchant EnricoScrovegnibuilt on the site was a chapel dedicated to the Virgin of the Annunciation, Santa Maria Annunziata, and the Virgin of Charity, Santa Maria del Carità. Enrico is shown in the fresco of the Last Judgement presenting a model of the chapel to the Virgin:what do you see? No amazing architecture of exterior designs, Lancets inserts, arches, trefoil, buttresses as arcades and arches, weak idea of a portal, Tower over the choir or altar; barrel vaulted, Gi
  • Giotto Bondone, became an excellent imitator of nature that revived the art of paintingDrew live actual models, which had not been done for 200 yearsContributed to the St. Francis of Assisi worked for Franciscans in Florence and engaged their teachings. St Francis message: simple, humble, devotion, direct experience of God and love for all creatures. Gained popularity all over EuropeGiotto painted Buon Fresco, Who else used Buon? Italian Pompeii murals, Scrovegni’s family fortune came from usury: lending money with interest; a grave sin resulting in exclusion from communion; Enrico’s father was so egregious that he is a character in Dante’s Inferno (first part of the Comedies) Enrico built the chapel as atonement and was pardoned by Pope Benedict XI 1303-1304Giotto covered it with scenes of Christ’s life, Which are? Annunciation, birth, ministry; Judas receiving payment for betraying Jesus; visitation of the the Virgin, pregnant embraces her cousin Elizabeth who is pregnant with John the Baptist. These two scenes are to apologizelast for Judas’ payment and for Scoregni’s; supper, death, lamentation, Scrovegni hired both Giotto and Giovanni Pisano to decorate his chapel which was next to his large palace.
  • Palazzo Pubblico (city hall) Siena political and commercial rival of FlorenceCampo (field) almost as crucial as the cathedralConcave with a gigantic towerBuilding and tower inspired citizens to respect the government’s powerTower served as a lookout over the city and countryside and a campanile to ring signals of all sort to the populace.Siena a city state defended itself against kings and emperor. And internal upheavals of class struggle
  • Ambrogio Lorenzetti was the brother of Pietro Lorenzetti, the studies under Duccio.The are three frescoes: allegory of Good Government, Bad Government and the Effects of Bad government in both the city and countryParty struggles, overthrow and reinstatement of governments, needed to be demonstrated at the city hall. Peaceful City in in the Hall of Peace (Saladella Pace) and is an illusionistic panorama of the bustling city of SienaIt is an allegory for good government, clustering palaces, markets, towers,, churches, streets, walls, traffic moves peacefully, guild members ply their trades and crafts, radiant maidens perform graceful dances, which were a regular feature of festive springtime rituals demonstrating a peaceful commonwealthAn entourage is leaving through the city gate into the country side .
  • The Sienese countryside is one of the first landscapes in Western Art since when…? MinoansVillas, castles, plowed field, peasant going about their workAn allegorical figure of protection, the angel, floats over the scene with a scroll promising safety to all who live under the rule of the SieneseLorenzetti paints with a specific place and environmentAfter 1348 the Lorenzetti brothers disappeared from the art world, the Black Death that took 60 % of Italy’s population may have taken them as well.
  • The Adoration of the Magi from Gentile da Fabriano dating in 1423, presents the complete story of the adoration of the magi as described in the Bible; from the announcement of the birth of Christ, till the arrival of the magi with their suite to Jerusalem and their adoration to the new prophet.
  • Gozzoli's greatness derived from his ability to depict pious religious themes while retaining an expressive warmth in his art. Gozzoli made a conscious effort to create artworks that appealed to the uneducated peasant class as well as the clergy who looked for and found layers of meaning in his paintings. His paintings are overflowing with rich biblical symbolism and at the same time invite the viewer to uncover their own meaning and connection to the artwork. The ruling Church hierarchy and affluent merchants adored his sweet, lyrical style and the commissions rolled in.  He was also awarded land and villas by the state. Gozzoli's shrewd business practices allowed him to live high on the hog until his death at the age of 77 . He is considered one the greatest Early Renaissance painters of all time.   
  • Precursor to the Renaissance

    1. 1. Precursor to the Renaissance: International Gothic: Italian Art<br />1150-1450<br />Paintings <br />and Sculpture<br />
    2. 2.
    3. 3. Ekkehard and Uta, statues in the west choir, Naumburg Cathedral, Naumburg, Germany, ca. 1249-1255. <br />
    4. 4. ARNOLFO DI CAMBIO and others, Florence Cathedral (view from the south), Florence, Italy, begun 1296.<br />
    5. 5. Virgin with the Dead Christ (RöttgenPietà, pity or compassion in Italian), from the Rhineland, Germany, ca. 1300-1325. <br />
    6. 6. Orvietto Cathedral, Lorenzo Maitani, west façade , Orvietto, Italy, begun 1310<br />
    7. 7. Doge’s (Duke) Palace, Venice, Italy, begun c. 1340-1345<br />
    8. 8. Virgin of Jeanne d'Evreux, from the abbey church of Saint-Denis, France, 1339. <br />
    9. 9. Italian Classical Revival: 13th – 14thCentury<br />Contemporary art and the rise of humanists was a conscious revival of classical art in Italy.<br />Italians believed that medieval art was distorted and an insult to the noble art of the Greeks and Romans. <br />Classical revival remained in Italy for several Centuries and art periods.<br />Surfaced under Frederick II, King of Sicily (r. 1197-1250)<br />His longing for the Roman magnificence mirrored the neoclassical renovatio (renewal) of Charlemagne 400 years earlier.<br />
    10. 10. NOTE ON ITALIAN NAMES:<br />Nicola Pisano (Nicholas the Pisan)<br />Giulio Romano (Julius the Roman) <br />DomenicoVeneziano “The Venetian”<br />Leonardo da Vinci was from the small village of Vinci and is never referred to in art history as “da Vinci”<br />Nicknames:<br /> Giorgione meant “big George”<br />TommasodiCristoforoFini was Masolino “little Thomas”<br />His better known pupil, Masaccio or “Brutish Thomas”<br />
    11. 11. NICOLA PISANO, <br />pulpit of Pisa Cathedral baptistery,<br /> Pisa, Italy, 1259-1260. <br />
    12. 12. Adoration of the Shepherds <br />Annunciation<br />NICOLA PISANO, pulpit detail, Pisa, Italy, 1259-1260. <br />Nativity<br />
    13. 13. GIOVANNI PISANO, The Annunciation and the Nativity, detail of the pulpit of Sant'Andrea, Pistoia, Italy,1297-1301<br />
    14. 14. The 14th Century<br />Italy consisted of City States, republic oligarchies or kingdoms<br />All found wealth from maritime trade or banking and textiles<br />The Black death killed almost 60% of Italy’s population<br />Italian vernacular was created by Dante Alighieri in The Divine Comedies , Inferno;the poet Francesco Petrarch plus Giovanni Boccaccio’s DecameronLatin still used in church liturgy<br />Petrarch wrote about illustrious men while Boccaccio wrote about famous women. Petrarch received the “Laurel Wreath Crown”<br />
    15. 15. Renaissance or Rinascitàin Italian <br />Humanism:<br />Essential piece sof Renaissance are art and culture; <br />Code for civil conduct<br />Theory of education and scholarly discipline<br />Concerned with human values and interests with or without religion <br />Roman and Greek philosophy and literature<br />Human focus on reason not authoritarian or religious<br />Sought no material reward just fame similar to sainthood<br />Emphasized and recognized the virtue of creativity <br />
    16. 16. CIMABUE, Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets, ca. 1280-1290.<br />12’7” X 7’4”<br />
    17. 17. How are the faces similar?<br />
    18. 18. GIOTTO DI BONDONE, Madonna Enthroned, ca. 1310. Tempera on wood, <br />10' 8" x 6' 8". <br />
    19. 19. DUCCIO DI BUONINSEGNA, Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints, principal panel of the Maestà (altarpiece),<br /> from the Siena Cathedral, Siena, Italy, <br />1308-1311. Tempera on wood, panel 7' x 13'<br />
    20. 20. DUCCIO DI BUONINSEGNA, Betrayal of Jesus, detail from Maestà altarpiece, from the Siena Cathedral, Siena, Italy, 1309-1311. <br />
    21. 21. Arena Chapel (Cappella Scrovegni), Padua, Italy, 1305-1306<br />
    22. 22. EnricoScrovegni is shown in the fresco of the Last Judgment presenting a model to the Virgin<br />
    23. 23. Interior of the Arena Chapel (Cappella Scrovegni), Padua, Italy, 1305-1306<br />
    24. 24. Campo with the Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, Italy, 1288-1309.<br />
    25. 25. Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Peaceful City, detail from Effects of Good Government in the City and in the Country, Saladella Pace, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, Italy, 1338-1339. Fresco<br />
    26. 26. Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Peaceful Country, detail from Effects of Good Government in the City and in the Country, Saladella Pace, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, Italy, 1338-1339. Fresco.<br />
    27. 27. International Gothic<br />15th Century<br />
    28. 28. Gentile da FabrianoAdoration of the Magi1423Tempera on wood<br />
    29. 29. Journey of the Magi,BenozzoGozzoli, Journey of the Magi' (1459–61)<br />