Baroque Art

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  • Jesuits: This is what is meant by Jesuit obedience, the characteristic virtue of the order, such a sincere respect for authority as to accept its decisions and comply with them, not merely by outward performance but in all sincerity with the conviction that compliance is best, and that the command expresses for the time the will of God, as nearly as it can be ascertained.
  • Caravaggio, 1573-1610, 37 years old, northern Italy, unique style that influenced all of Europe, disdain for classical masters, criticized from painters and denounced him as the “anti-Christ of painting” troubled life gathered from arrest documents,, moved to Rome from Milan and started painting street life and young boys, First patron was a cardinal, many run-ins with the law, arrested on several occasions. In 1606 a bet over a game of tennis leads to an argument, at which point Caravaggio draws his sword and kills his opponent. He flees to Naples, intending to take the long way home to Rome - where friends are lobbying for his rehabilitation - via Malta and Sicily. On his wanderings he produces several masterpieces, such as The Beheading of St John the Baptist, which he creates in Malta. He dies before reaching Rome, probably of pneumonia, in Porto Ercole. Several days after his death word arrives of papal absolution.Which art techniques does he use? Perspective, chiaroscuro,, dramatic lighting that brings the viewer in this painting’s space and action, almost as if they are participating, low horizon line enhances the sense of inclusion, monumentalWhat is his position? flat on his back with hand reaching out and up7’6”x 5’9”What is the man behind the horse appearing to be occupied with? The horseWhat is the spiritual event in progress? Becoming a Christian and being overcome by a miracleWhat suggests that? Light represent divine revelation leading to Christianity What word from you key terms could be used to describe this piece? Tenebrism: shadowy manner,
  • Never before was a saint shown crying, a young boy, dressed in modern day garb, Christ is hidden and wrapped in draped cloth,
  • Does Caravaggio stick with Vatican’s requirements for painting Christ? Yes, Christ is emaciated, suffering, pale, Transubstantiation: the bread and wine becomes metaphorical for the body and blood of Christ.What are Caravaggio’s distinctive style? Plebeian (working class) figure types, particularly the scruffy face of Nicodemus who holds Christ’s legs, stark use of darks and light, invitation to the viewer to participate in the scene, action takes place in the foreground, stone slab that appears to extend into the viewer’s space suggesting that Christ will be laid directly in front of the viewer, theological,
  • Why might this be associated with Caravaggio? Light and dark, drama, low horizon line, used tenebrism, action is in the foreground Artemisia Gentileschi most renowned woman in early 17th century EuropeFirst women admitted to membership in Florence Accademia del Disegno.Learned her craft from her father, knew that patrons treated her differently, even when they commissioned her art. Wasn’t even well known in art history books until 1976Chose many themes of heroic females, Old Testament, Book of Judith charms the Assyrian general hologernes who invited her to his tent for the night, when he fell asleep Judith cut off his head. In this painting Judith and her maidservan behead hologernes, Blood spurts everywhere as the two heroines summon all their strength to wield the heavy sword,Where does the tension and strain show? Their faces and arms and body positions.
  • A Jesuit lay brother, master of perspective, wrote a treatise on perspective, Ignatius was the founding father of the Jesuit orderCreated the illusion of heaven opening above the congregation, Trompel'oeil, painted an extension of the church’s architecture into the vault so the roof seems to be lifted off. Heaven and earth commingle, Christ receives Saint Ignatius in the presence of figures personifying the four corners of the world, Baroque: theatrical, individual images, interaction and fusion of architecture, sculpture and painting, movement
  • Emphasized the structural qualities, developed along lateral planes, undulating motion, dynamic counterpoint of concave and convex element on two levels, three dimensional effect with deeply recessed niches, no traditional flat front, pulsating, engaging provides a fluid transition between interior and exterior, two facades, second is a narrow bay covered with its own small tower and turns away to the corner.
  • Borromini played concave against convex forms on the upper level of the chapels façade. The concave drum like structure supports the domes lower parts, the interior dome is an organic part that evolves out of and shares the qualities of the supporting walls and cannot be separated from them. Lantern not only letting in light but supporting the dome,
  • Bernini was a great architect and sculptorWhat is different than Michelangelo’s David? Bold, softness making the marble look flexible, movement, theatrical, expansive, Instead of displaying him right Before the demise of Goliath, like Michelangelo, he is in the conflict, muscular legs firmly planted, violent pivoting motion, ready to launch the stone, a bag of stones is on his hip, a dramatic implied sequence of poses and the viewer walks around the statue , energy, intense concentration. Where would you put such a sculpture?
  • Emotion, motion, no limit of of defined spatial setting, designed the chapel using knowledge of theatre, from writing plays, the entire area is charged with tension, St. Teresa, a great mystical saint, of the Spanish Counter Reformation, conversion occurred after her father’s death, she fell into trances, saw visions, heard voices, attributed her pain to a fire tipped arrow of divine love that an angel had thrust repeatedly into her heart. She described it as delightful anguish,
  • Baroque Art

    1. 1. Baroque Italy and SpainRococo<br />1600-1750<br />
    2. 2. Southern Baroque: 1600-1650<br /><ul><li>Absolutism
    3. 3. Carmelite Order (Saint Teresa) Union with God, by Humility, Prayer, Meditation, Quiet
    4. 4. Jesuit Order: Society of Jesus, missionary work
    5. 5. Thirty years war 1648-1648: religious conflict involving Europe in nation building and ending with freedom of religion.
    6. 6. Scientific investigation, microscope, telescope, and navigational advances
    7. 7. Time of expansiveness and exploration. New worlds were being discovered geographically,
    8. 8. World Wide Mercantilism: international trade networks with old and new world, slave trade, trade with far east, new ideas of diplomacy
    9. 9. Shakespeare, Mozart and Haydn
    10. 10. Catholic countries pursuing the Counter- Reformation.</li></li></ul><li>Baroque Style:<br /><ul><li>Energy
    11. 11. Diverse
    12. 12. Fascination with illuminationemotion
    13. 13. Theatrical
    14. 14. individual images
    15. 15. interaction fusion of architecture, sculpture and painting,
    16. 16. movement
    17. 17. Revitalization through massive commissions</li></ul>17th century Italy birth of Baroque Realism:<br /><ul><li>Caravaggio and Velazquez
    18. 18. Light represents divine illumination,as a dramatic device
    19. 19. Theatrical contrasts of deep shadow with bright highlights. The illumination has spotlight quality to it.
    20. 20. Strong diagonal lines.</li></li></ul><li>Caravaggio, Conversion of Saint Paul, <br />c. 1601, Rome<br />
    21. 21. Caravaggio, Calling of Saint Matthew, c.1600, Rome<br />
    22. 22. Caravaggio, Entombment,<br /> c. 1603, Rome,<br />9’10”x 6’ 8”<br />
    23. 23. Gentileschi, Judith Slaying the Holofernes,<br /> c. 1614-1620, Florence<br />
    24. 24. Pozzo, Glorification of Saint Ignatius, Rome, 1691-1694<br />
    25. 25. Borromini, Façade of San Carlo alle Quattro, Rome, 1665-1667<br />
    26. 26. Borromini, Chapel of St. Ivo, Rome, 1642<br />
    27. 27. Bernini, David, 1623, Rome, Marble<br />
    28. 28. Bernini, Ecstasy of Saint Teresa, Cornaro Chapel, Rome, c. 1645-1652<br />
    29. 29. 30 minute Essay Question: <br />Choose one sculpture from Bernini and one painting from Caravaggio and discuss each artist’s individual style and why it is considered to be Baroque. <br />

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