Surrealist painter and author who fleed war- torn Europe to America, and finally Mexico, where she produced most of her works. The war era had an important impact on her work, which shows struggle or conflict, but it is also very magical and mystical . She was very close to Max Ernst, and is the last survivor of the Surrealist group founded in the early 1920's In The Temptation of Saint Anthony , 1947, Carrington combines her interests in the power of pre-Christian feminine spiritual practices with her lifelong fascination with saints and miracles. Inspired by a work of the same title by Hieronymous Bosch, Carrington infused the tale of the hermit saint with mysterious feminine figures who perform obscure ritual acts that bear no relation to the original story of the saint. A pale, withered and inexplicably three-headed Anthony is flanked on one side by an androgynous cloaked woman, a priestess of sorts, tending to a bubbling concoction in a large cauldron, itself a symbol of fertility and abundance (76). On his other side, a queen and her attendants perform an enigmatic ritual dance. Her tent-like circular cape, held in the hands of her maidens, becomes an inverted (and thus rejected) umbrella. Rushing past him is a life-giving river that has poured miraculously from a ceramic vessel held by another witch-like feminine form. Anthony, dressed in rags and pale from his self-deprivations, would benefit from the gifts of protection and nourishment offered by these powerful women, but in his righteousness, he is determined to abstain. Here, Carrington mocks Saint Anthony’s self imposed impoverishment as a commentary on Catholic ascetic practices The name Anthony does not appear in the Bible, however it is notable as a Christian name because of its historical significance. St. Anthony the Great was a man commonly referred to as “the Father of monks”, or the father of Christian monasticism. While he didn’t invent monasticism (it was already being practiced by Christians of his time), a biography of Anthony’s life written by a fellow Christian named Athanasius helped to popularize the ascetic and isolated life of monks. The only son of wealthy landowners in Egypt, Anthony took care of his sister when his parents died. Taking literally Jesus’ admonishment to the rich young ruler, he sold the family property and possessions and gave the money to the poor. He found a group of Christian virgins for his sister to live with and became the disciple of a local hermit. St. Anthony’s story includes overcoming the temptations of the devil through the power of prayer and receiving angelic visitation and instructions. After unsuccessful attempts at martyrdom (apparently the leaders of the time weren’t interested in putting him to death), he taught other Christians and prophesied about coming events.
Lempicka is best known for her Art Deco-styled portraits. Sexy, bedroom-eyed women in stylish dress are rendered in haunting poses. Perhaps it was her own dramatic life mirrored in her art. Married twice to wealthy, she moved from her native Poland to Russia, and then to Paris. In 1918, she studied painting at the Academe de la Grand Chaumiere, and was privately tutored by Maurice Denis. In 1925 she exhibited her works at the first Art Deco show in Paris. She moved to America in 1939 with her second husband, Baron Raoul Kuffner. Her works appeared exclusively at many galleries and museums, but her artistic output decreased. In 1960 she changed her style to abstract art and began creating works with a spatula. After her husband died in 1962 she ceased painting and moved to Mexico.
At first there was only that one picture, a self-portrait. It was a modest canvas by present-day standards. But it filled my New York studio, the apartment’s back room, as if it had always been there. For one thing, it was the room; I had been struck, one day, by a fascinating array of doors—hall, kitchen, bathroom, studio—crowded together, soliciting my attention with their antic planes, light, shadows, imminent openings and shuttings. From there it was an easy leap to a dream of countless doors. Perhaps in a way it was a talisman for the things that were happening, an iteration of quiet event, line densities wrought in a crystal paperweight of time where nothing was expected to appear except the finished canvas and, later, a few snowflakes, for the season was Christmas, 1942, and Max was my Christmas present. It was snowing hard when he rang the doorbell. Choosing pictures for a show to be called Thirty Women (later Thirty-One Women ), he was a willing emissary to the studios of a bouquet of pretty young painters who, besides being pretty, which they couldn’t help, were also very serious about being artists. “ Please come in,” I smiled, trying to say it as if to just anyone. He hesitated, stamping his feet on the doormat. “Oh, don’t mind the wet,” I added. “There are no rugs here.” There wasn’t much furniture either, or anything to justify the six rooms, front to back. We moved to the studio, a livelier place in any case, and there on an easel was the portrait, not quite finished. He looked while I tried not to. At last, “What do you call it?” he asked. “I really haven’t a title.” “Then you can call it Birthday .” Just like that.
He put me down gently as he talked with our composer, Vittorio Rieti. The ballet, The Night Shadow , was presented by Les Ballets Russes de Monte Carlo in the old Metropolitan Opera House in March 1946, under the leadership of George Denham (I’ve forgotten his real Russian name). The Night Shadow had the distinction of participating in the last season ever of the company and of the old opera house….
Late in 1942 Max Ernst visited her studio, saw a painting, ( Birthday ), and stayed to play chess. They would have 34 years together, at first in Sedona, Arizona (a mere outpost at the time). Here she would continue to paint her enigmatic versions of life on the inside, looking outBy 1956 Max and Dorothea had chosen to live and work thenceforth in France. Though Paris was headquarters, they preferred the country quiet lure in Touraine and Provence. These years included, for Dorothea Tanning, an intense five‐year adventure in soft sculpture:Max Ernst died on April 1, 1976 and Dorothea faced a solitary future. “Go home,” said the paint tubes, the canvases, the brushes. Returning to the United States in the late 1970s, and still paintingUnshakable, removed. As he lay there it was stunningly clear that he would die. And that there would be no compromise, no revelation, nothing for me anywhere…. Tonight, gray is the end color, the end result. Ash is the color of the sky, the lid of the town, the fur in the mouth. Time lives with space, unperturbed; Father Time, Mother Space. They are king and queen of the world and the universe and the whole bit. Invincible. They are the only ones. There is no sound, his breath is feather-silent. A private event is taking place. Not to be disturbed by sorrowing faces, Loplop, Bird Superior, prepares in solitude, in the graceful space of his lofty aerie, his diminishing and his departure. He is like a lake with an echo: I say Max, everyone says Max, the lake says Max, the echo says Max (far away), and Max is everywhere and part of my throat and the mote in the air. I hold my screaming ears that no one but me can hear.
Late in 1942 Max Ernst visited her studio, saw a painting, ( Birthday ), and stayed to play chess. They would have 34 years together, at first in Sedona, Arizona (a mere outpost at the time). Here she would continue to paint her enigmatic versions of life on the inside, looking outBy 1956 Max and Dorothea had chosen to live and work thenceforth in France. Though Paris was headquarters, they preferred the country quiet lure in Touraine and Provence. These years included, for Dorothea Tanning, an intense five‐year adventure in soft sculpture:
This painting was first originally gifted to Guillaume Apollinaire in 1918. Natalia Goncharova was thirty-two years old when a major retrospective of her work was held in Moscow, in 1913. Comprising more than seven hundred items, the exhibition was a huge success with the public - even if the critics remained sharply divided over it. Goncharova was at the height of her career as a member of the Russian avant-garde. She had already exhibited her work in western Europe: in Paris in 1907, in Munich with the 'Blaue Reiter' (Blue Rider) in 1912 and in Berlin at Herwarth Walden's celebrated 'First German Salon d'Automne' in 1913-alongside the work of such artists as Wassily Kandinsky, Gabriele Munter and Paul Klee. Goncharova's life and work were shaped by two extremes: her Russian origins and Western influenced modernism. She was born into the educated and liberal aristocracy and grew up on her family's country estates. Around 1900, she met the painter and designer Mikhail Larionov at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, and the two of them began a lifelong love affair and working relationship. Both were key figures in Moscow's avant-garde, who shocked the bourgeoisie with their unconventional behavior. They exhibited with the 'Knave of Diamonds' group and held heated debates about the latest avant-garde trends in Paris. Goncharova immediately embraced ideas from the West and combined them with Russian traditions. She first painted in an Impressionistic style, but soon discovered the work of Paul Gauguin and Paul Cezanne. From her examination of Cubism, she eventually developed a Neo-primitive style characterized by block-like forms, strong colors and motifs taken from peasant life Her models were Russian peasant art, with its crude woodcuts and decorative patterns, as well as Byzantine icon paintings. Her 1913 Portrait of Larionov is in the Rayonist style and thus marks a new phase in her development as an artist. Rayonism was based on a theory that Larionov expounded in the Rayonist manifesto of the same year and which Goncharova signed. It held that all objects emit rays that are intercepted by other objects nearby. The task of artists was to make these rays visible in their paintings. Goncharova's portrait of Larionov reveals a typically fragmented use of color, especially around the edges. His flat-looking face appears to have been unfolded to reveal various facets. There are obvious similarities both with Cubism and the way it deconstructs its subjects, as seen in the work of Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, and the dynamic rhythms of Italian Futurism - even if Rayonism was intended by Goncharova and Larionov to be an original Russian avant-garde style. Goncharova soon took up new challenges, however. The renowned impresario Sergei Diaghilev, the founder of the Ballets Russes in Paris, invited her to design sets for his production of The Golden Cockerel after the opera by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. From then on, the theatre became the focus of her work as an artist. For the music of Claude Debussy and Stravinsky, she designed colorful, ultramodern costumes and sets influenced by Eastern folklore, and accompanied the Ballets Russes on tours through France, Italy and Spain. Natalia Goncharova returned to Russia only once more, in 1915, eventually becoming a French citizen. In 1962 - two years before her companion, Larionov - she died in Paris.
55 of which are self-portraits. When asked why she painted so many self-portraits, Frida replied: &quot; Because I am so often alone....because I am the subject I know best.&quot; In 1953, when Frida Kahlo had her first solo exhibition in Mexico (the only one held in her native country during her lifetime), a local critic wrote: &quot; It is impossible to separate the life and work of this extraordinary person. Her paintings are her biography .&quot; While in recovery, Frida learns that she will never be able to have children. She creates a birth certificate for an imaginary son that she gave birth to after suffering her accident. She writes that her son, &quot; Leonardo &quot;, was born in September of 1925 at the Red Cross Hospital [where Frida was treated after the accident]. She claims that he was baptized the following year and that his mother was Frida Kahlo and his Godparents were Isabel Campos and Alejandro Gómez Arias. (View birth certificate) During her months of convalescence from the bus accident she begins to take painting seriously. She experiments first with watercolors and then oil. In September Frida paints &quot; Self-Portrait in a Velvet Dress &quot;, her first serious work and the first of many self-portraits to come. She paints it as a gift for her boyfriend, Alejandro Gómez Arias, who has left her suspecting she had been unfaithful prior to the accident. Frida hopes the painting will win him back.
1934 Due to &quot;infantilism of the ovaries&quot;, Frida's third pregnancy is again in trouble. Frida undergoes an appendectomy, an abortion, and an operation on her right foot to remove the ends of her toes. Kahlo and Rivera live in the adjoining studio-houses in San Angel. During the summer, the couple separate after Frida discovers that Diego is having an affair with her younger sister Cristina.
1938 In April, French poet and surrealist André Breton and his wife, the painter Jacqueline Lamba, visit Mexico in order to meet Trotsky. They stay with Guadalupe Marin, Diego Rivera's previous wife, and meet the Kahlo-Riveras. When Breton sees Kahlo's unfinished &quot; What the Water Gave Me &quot;, the metaphorical self-portrait of what life had given her - floating on the water of her bathtub - he immediately labels her an innate &quot;surrealist&quot;, and offers to show her work in Paris. Frida meets Hungarian born Nickolas Muray, a well known photographer, and they engage in an affair that would last, on and off, for nearly 10 years.
1951 Following her discharge from the hospital, she is confined to her bed for much of the time. Full-time nurses are hired to care for her and give her injections of pain killers. June 10th, Fernando Benitez writes a tribute to the life and art of Kahlo in the newspaper &quot; Novedades &quot;.
10. From the Lake by Georgia O’Keeffe This painting was drawn by Georgia O’Keefe when She spent her days at Lake George, New York in the early 1900s, which has inspired many of her works. This painting describe the gentle waves and ripples of Lake George.
Faith Ringgold, began her artistic career more than 35 years ago as a painter. Today, she is best known for her painted story quilts -- art that combines painting, quilted fabric and storytelling. She has exhibited in major museums in the USA, Europe, South America, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. She is in the permanent collection of many museums including the Studio Museum in Harlem, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum , The Metropolitan Museum of Art , and The Museum of Modern Art . Her first book, Tar Beach was a Caldecott Honor Book and winner of the Coretta Scott King Award for Illustration, among numerous other honors. She has written and illustrated eleven children's books. She has received more than 75 awards, fellowships, citations and honors, including the Solomon R. Guggenheim Fellowship for painting, two National Endowment for the Arts Awards and seventeen honorary doctorates, one of which is from her alma mater The City College of New York . Faith Ringgold is married to Burdette Ringgold and has two daughters, Michele and Barbara Wallace; and three granddaughters, Faith, Theodora and Martha. She is a professor of art at the University of California in San Diego, California
20th century women artists [not fully completed]
20 th Century Women Artists
Leonora Carrington-1917-, in Lancashire, England. Exhibited with artists Rene Magritte, Salvador Dali, Max Ernst and Yves Tanguey at the International Surrealist Exhibition in London. She has written a many novels, essays, and poems. The Temptation of St. Anthony , 1647, oil on fabric
Tamara De Lempicka- 1898-1980 Work represents modernism and art deco. Erotic, organic, and mechanical Represents life in decadent Paris. Tamara de Lempicka The Musician 1929 oil on canvas
Dorothea Tanning-1910, Illinois Learned to paint by visiting art museums. She attended Knox College in Galesburg, studied art in Chicago. A commercial artist in New York Met a group of French surrealist painters that included Max Ernst, whom she married in 1946. Her Hotel du Pavot, an installation in cloth sculpture, is in the permanent collection of the Beaubourg Museum in Paris. Birthday , 1942
Cover Design for the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo Souvenir Program 1945 Watercolor on board
Natalia Sergeevna Goncharova- 1881-1961 Russian painter Theatrical designer. Studied in Moscow Met Mikhail Larionov, her lifetime companion, and major influence on her work. The highest price paid at this event was about $4.5 million “Nature Morte Aux Fruits”.
Frida Kahlo- Mexican (1911-1954) She surrealistically depicts death, female nudity, pain and suffering. She is often known primarily as Diego Rivera's wife Kahlo, Frida Self-Portrait in a Velvet Dress 1926 Oil on canvas
Kahlo, Frida Portrait of Diego Rivera 1937 Oil on wood
Kahlo, Frida What the Water Gave Me 1938 Oil on canvas
Kahlo, Frida Self-Portrait with the Portrait of Doctor Farill 1951 Oil on Masonite
-Georgia O'Keeffe 1887, Sun Prairie, Wisconsin. Art Institute of Chicago (1905–1906) Art Students League, New York (1907–1908). 1908 won the League's William Merritt Chase still-life prize for Dead Rabbit with Copper Pot . American Modernism, Emphasized the essential beauty of all of her subjects by magnifying shapes and simplifying details. She settled in New Mexico in 1949 and lived until her death at age of 98. Alfred Stieglitz, Georgia O’Keeffe , 1918 photograph