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Ammonia Mitigation and Capture as a LiquidFertilizer from Manure Using Gas-PermeableMembraneSaqib MukhtarProfessor and Ext...
IntroductionAnimal Manure NH3 Loss into the air• Loss of a Valuable Nutrient for Plants• Environmental Issue• Capturing an...
NH3 and NH4+• NH3• NH+4
pH Influences Forms of Ammoniacal NAmmonium (NH4)Ammonia (NH3)
Ammonia Mitigation Approaches &Technologies• Acidic solution-sprayed scrubbers Studies underway in our laboratory• Bio-fi...
Gas-permeable Membrane• ePTFE: expanded Polytetrafluoroethylene(AKA Dental Floss)
Methods and MaterialsGPM PropertiesType of membrane Used ePTFEInside Diameter (cm) 0.672Outside Diameter (cm) 0.80Flat Wid...
TANMechanismNH3 (Gas)(NH4)2SO4CaptureAcid-filled GPMLiquidmanureAmmonia(NH4)2SO4
Experimental Set-upGlass wool filled OrificeSampling OrificeAcidicSolution(Jar)AcidicSolution(Jar)PeristalticPumpLM Chambe...
LM Chambers
Liquid Manure ChambersExperimentChamber Inside DimensionsDepth of LMin chamber(cm)Manurevolume(L)Headspacevolume(L)Length(...
Raw Manure, Collection, Sampling &Measurements
Experimental Set-upTreatment chamberControl chamberAcidic flasksPeristaltic pump
Results and Discussion: FeasibilityConcentration of NH3-N in acid and LM4X Control Chamber1X Chamber2X ChamberpH of LMpH o...
Results and Discussion : FeasibilityConcentration of NH3–N in acid and LM4X Control Chamber4X Chamber8X ChamberpH of LMNH3...
Part 2: Diluted H2SO4 solutions• It is safer for handling and operation• Lesser contamination of LM if the tube isruptured...
Experiments (All 4X chambers)Nominal pH Time(days)Initial pH of the acids (H2SO4 )Submerged GPM Suspended GPMLow pH* 18 0....
Quick pH increasepH 5 Experiment
NH3 concentrations in differentdiluted acidic solutions
• Feasibility: The tubular GPM system filledwith acidic solution did extract NH3from LM.• Efficiency: The 4X experiment wa...
Conclusions• As compared to low pH acidic solution, NH3removal efficiency was reduced considerably dueto a quick increase ...
Submerged GPM systempH controller anddosing systemCirculation pumpPressure gauge andpressure controllerSolar panels for po...
Ammonia Concentration in Acidic Solution after 24 Hours of Extraction
Average Hourly NH3 Conc. (mg/l) in acidic solution40 85 190 280Flow Rate(ml/min)
AcknowledgementFunding for this study was provided through agrant 2009-34466-20025 by the United StatesDepartment of Agric...
Thanks for your attention.Questions
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Ammonia Mitigation and Capture as a Liquid Fertilizer from Manure Using Gas-Permeable Membrane

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Proceedings available at: http://www.extension.org/67655

Excessive emissions of ammonia (NH3 ) from animal manure negatively impact the environment with potential to pollute air, soil and water, and produce malodors. The objective of this study was to assess NH3 mitigation from liquid dairy manure (LM) using tubular acid-filled gas-permeable membranes (GPM) in laboratory experiments; and, to evaluate the possibility of scaling up the NH3 mitigation system for use on AFOs.

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Ammonia Mitigation and Capture as a Liquid Fertilizer from Manure Using Gas-Permeable Membrane

  1. 1. Ammonia Mitigation and Capture as a LiquidFertilizer from Manure Using Gas-PermeableMembraneSaqib MukhtarProfessor and Extension Ag. EngineerAmir M. Samani MajdPhD Candidate,Biological & Agricultural Engineering Department, Texas A & MUniversity System Waste to Worth Conference, Hyatt Hotel, Denver, CO. April 1-5, 2013
  2. 2. IntroductionAnimal Manure NH3 Loss into the air• Loss of a Valuable Nutrient for Plants• Environmental Issue• Capturing and Recovery???????2NH3 + H2SO4  (NH4)2SO2
  3. 3. NH3 and NH4+• NH3• NH+4
  4. 4. pH Influences Forms of Ammoniacal NAmmonium (NH4)Ammonia (NH3)
  5. 5. Ammonia Mitigation Approaches &Technologies• Acidic solution-sprayed scrubbers Studies underway in our laboratory• Bio-filters (compost, straw etc.)• Chemicals like acidified clays andsodium hydrogen sulfate• Gas-permeable membrane (GPM)
  6. 6. Gas-permeable Membrane• ePTFE: expanded Polytetrafluoroethylene(AKA Dental Floss)
  7. 7. Methods and MaterialsGPM PropertiesType of membrane Used ePTFEInside Diameter (cm) 0.672Outside Diameter (cm) 0.80Flat Width (cm) 1.25Wall Thickness (cm) 0.066Porosity (%) 83Mean Pore Diameter(μm) 2.401±0.142Pore size 100Xmagnification
  8. 8. TANMechanismNH3 (Gas)(NH4)2SO4CaptureAcid-filled GPMLiquidmanureAmmonia(NH4)2SO4
  9. 9. Experimental Set-upGlass wool filled OrificeSampling OrificeAcidicSolution(Jar)AcidicSolution(Jar)PeristalticPumpLM ChamberGPMSamplingOrifice
  10. 10. LM Chambers
  11. 11. Liquid Manure ChambersExperimentChamber Inside DimensionsDepth of LMin chamber(cm)Manurevolume(L)Headspacevolume(L)Length(cm)Width(cm)Height(cm)Surface area(cm2)1X - 7.7* 23 186 16.2 3 1.32 X 19.1 19.1 29 365 16.2 5.9 4.74 X 29.2 25.4 29 742 16.2 12 9.58X 40.6 35.6 30 1445 16.2 23.4 19.9*This entry is radius (cm) of the 1X cylindrical jar.
  12. 12. Raw Manure, Collection, Sampling &Measurements
  13. 13. Experimental Set-upTreatment chamberControl chamberAcidic flasksPeristaltic pump
  14. 14. Results and Discussion: FeasibilityConcentration of NH3-N in acid and LM4X Control Chamber1X Chamber2X ChamberpH of LMpH of LMNH3-N in AcidNH3-N in LMpH of acidpH of LMNH3-N in AcidNH3-N in LMpH of acid
  15. 15. Results and Discussion : FeasibilityConcentration of NH3–N in acid and LM4X Control Chamber4X Chamber8X ChamberpH of LMNH3-N in AcidNH3-N in LMpH of acidpH of LMNH3-N in AcidNH3-N in LMpH of acidpH of LMNH3-N in LM
  16. 16. Part 2: Diluted H2SO4 solutions• It is safer for handling and operation• Lesser contamination of LM if the tube isruptured• Acid solution pH rises faster-Closer to the pH ofcommon Ammonium Sulfate fertilizer (between5.5 and 6)• Diluted acid means less cost
  17. 17. Experiments (All 4X chambers)Nominal pH Time(days)Initial pH of the acids (H2SO4 )Submerged GPM Suspended GPMLow pH* 18 0.32 0.36pH 2 7 2.12 2.14pH 3 7 3.08 3.07pH4 7 4.11 4.14pH 5 7 5.42 5.36*Previous experiment
  18. 18. Quick pH increasepH 5 Experiment
  19. 19. NH3 concentrations in differentdiluted acidic solutions
  20. 20. • Feasibility: The tubular GPM system filledwith acidic solution did extract NH3from LM.• Efficiency: The 4X experiment was the mosteffective, with greatest removal and captureefficiency.• Practical Finding: One cm2surface area ofGPM was needed to treat nearly three cm2surface area of liquid dairy manure.Conclusions
  21. 21. Conclusions• As compared to low pH acidic solution, NH3removal efficiency was reduced considerably dueto a quick increase in pH of all diluted acids.• Should maintain acid solution at pH 2 or lessduring experiments for an efficient and higherrate of ammonia removal.
  22. 22. Submerged GPM systempH controller anddosing systemCirculation pumpPressure gauge andpressure controllerSolar panels for power supplyto pump and acid dosing systemAcidic solution circulating throughthe GPM systemScaled-Up GPM System
  23. 23. Ammonia Concentration in Acidic Solution after 24 Hours of Extraction
  24. 24. Average Hourly NH3 Conc. (mg/l) in acidic solution40 85 190 280Flow Rate(ml/min)
  25. 25. AcknowledgementFunding for this study was provided through agrant 2009-34466-20025 by the United StatesDepartment of Agriculture: National Institute forFood and Agriculture (UDSA- NIFA)
  26. 26. Thanks for your attention.Questions

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