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Background
Livestock production in concentrated animal feeding
operations (CAFO) = Accumulation of excreted phosphorus
(P)...
Therefore…
Manure is often repeatedly applied to a limited land base
Increases both total and soluble P in soil and may
in...
Surface Water
Livestock Manure
Or Other Organic Residues
Organic P
Microbial biomass
Organic matter
Soluble organic P
Sorb...
Organic P in Soil
Organic P (Po) content can vary widely
3 to 90% of total P
Usually 10 to 40%
Most common forms: % organi...
General Project Overview
“Riesel Watersheds”: Established as “Blacklands Experimental
Watershed” near Riesel, Texas in 193...
4-year corn-corn-wheat-fallow with conservation tillage
0, 4.5, 6.7, 9.0, 11.2, or 13.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1 litter (WW);
incorpor...
Native rangeland and improved pasture (grazed or hayed)
0, 6.7, or 13.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1 litter; surface applied
0 to 257 kg h...
Soil Characteristics
Houston Black Soil (fine, smectitic, thermic,
Udic Haplusterts)…classic Vertisol
State soil of Texas:...
What we did……
Soil samples from 2002 to 2012 (15 cm, one core/0.4 ha).
Sequential fractionation with H2O, NaHCO3, NaOH, an...
Objective
Evaluate effects of long-term (10 years) poultry litter
application on total extractable soil P, Pi, and Po in
w...
H2O
0.5 M NaHCO3
0.1 M NaOH
1.0 M HCl
soluble or sorbed on
crystalline surfaces
associated with Al/Fe oxides
or carbonates...
H2O
Organic
C
Total
N
Total
P
NO3
--N NH4
+-N
----%---- -------------% DM------------- ----------mg kg-1-----------
10-yea...
0
500
1000
1500
Totalextractable
P(mgkg-1)
Control, cultivated
0
500
1000
1500
6.7 Mg ha-1 litter, cultivated
0
500
1000
1...
0
500
1000
1500
Totalextractable
P(mgkg-1)
Control, cultivated
0
500
1000
1500
6.7 Mg ha-1 litter, cultivated
0
500
1000
1...
Changes in Soil Test Phosphorus (2000 to 2012)
0
50
100
150
200
Mehlich-3P(mg/kg)
Land use type and litter application rat...
Organic P
Microbial biomass
Organic matter
Soluble organic P
Sorbed P
Clays
Al, Fe Oxides
Primary P
Minerals
Apatites
Seco...
Extracted P vs. Mehlich-3 STP in 2012
0
600
1200
1800
Phosphorus(mgkg-1)
H2O-Pt NaHCO3-Pt NaOH-Pt HCl-Pt M3P
0
50
100H2O-P(mgkg-1)
Cultivated Pasture
0
250
500
NaHCO3-P(mgkg-1)
Litter rate (Mg ha-1)
Inorganic Monoester-like DNA-lik...
0
100
200NaOH-P(mgkg-1)
Cultivated Pasture
0
400
800
1200
HCl-P(mgkg-1)
Litter rate (Mg ha-1)
Inorganic Monoester-like DNA...
Control
6.7 Mg ha-1
litter
13.4 Mg ha-1
litter
Labile-P ---------------------------P (mg kg-1)----------------------------...
Pasture Watersheds
Native
rangeland
Grazed
pasture
6.7 Mg ha-1
litter
13.4 Mg ha-1
litter
Labile-P -----------------------...
Legacy phosphorus in calcareous soils effects of long term poultry litter application on phosphorus distribution in texas ...
Legacy phosphorus in calcareous soils effects of long term poultry litter application on phosphorus distribution in texas ...
Legacy phosphorus in calcareous soils effects of long term poultry litter application on phosphorus distribution in texas ...
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Legacy phosphorus in calcareous soils effects of long term poultry litter application on phosphorus distribution in texas blackland vertisol

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Full proceedings available at: http://www.extension.org/72864

Livestock manures, including poultry litter, are often applied to soil as crop fertilizer or as a disposal mechanism near livestock housing. Manures can improve soil quality and fertility; however, over-application can result in negative environmental consequences, such as eutrophication of surface waters following runoff of soluble or particulate-associate phosphorus (P). In soil, P exists in many forms (inorganic/organic, labile/stable) and the fate of manure P is highly dependent upon soil properties, including soil texture and microbial activity. The Houston Black series is a calcareous (~17% calcium carbonate), high-clay soil that occupies roughly 12.6 million acres in east-central Texas. These Blackland vertizols are agronomically important for the production of cotton, corn, hay, and other crops, but their high calcium and clay content could lead to accumulation of P in forms that are not readily available for plant utilization. Accumulated P could serve as a source of legacy P if mineralized or otherwise transformed in situ or transported with soil particles in runoff.

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Legacy phosphorus in calcareous soils effects of long term poultry litter application on phosphorus distribution in texas blackland vertisol

  1. 1. Background Livestock production in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) = Accumulation of excreted phosphorus (P) near animal housing In United States, ~ 1.03 x 107 Mg of poultry litter produced in 2007 Expensive to transport manure/litter from CAFO to croplands
  2. 2. Therefore… Manure is often repeatedly applied to a limited land base Increases both total and soluble P in soil and may influence P cycling and availability: worldwide rate of annual STP accumulation = 8 to 40 kg P/ha (Parham et al., 2002) Concern over phytate-loading of soils and issues with accumulated legacy P Creates environmental risk of eutrophication following runoff or leaching
  3. 3. Surface Water Livestock Manure Or Other Organic Residues Organic P Microbial biomass Organic matter Soluble organic P Sorbed P Clays Al, Fe Oxides Primary P Minerals Apatites Secondary P Minerals Ca, Fe, Al Phosphates Erosion and Runoff (Particulate-associated and Soluble P) Soluble Inorganic P (H2PO4 -, HPO4 2-) Immobilization Mineralization Precipitation-Dissolution Plant Uptake and Crop Removal Leaching Tile Flow to Surface Water Inorganic Fertilizers Plant Residues Inputs Outputs Internal cycling
  4. 4. Organic P in Soil Organic P (Po) content can vary widely 3 to 90% of total P Usually 10 to 40% Most common forms: % organic P inositol phosphates 10 to 80 phospholipids 0.5 to 7.0 nucleic acids 0.2 to 2.5 unidentified ~50 Require breakdown to inorganic P (Pi) by plant- or microbe-produced phosphohydrolases to be plant- available Associated with solid phase materials similar to Pi
  5. 5. General Project Overview “Riesel Watersheds”: Established as “Blacklands Experimental Watershed” near Riesel, Texas in 1930s by USDA to evaluate land management effects on soil erosion and floods. 2001: First litter application (turkey or broiler litter annually since then) (Harmel et al., 2004). Management: Native tallgrass prairie, improved pasture, various crops in rotation, grazing cow-calf herd.
  6. 6. 4-year corn-corn-wheat-fallow with conservation tillage 0, 4.5, 6.7, 9.0, 11.2, or 13.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1 litter (WW); incorporated with tillage 15 to 254 kg ha-1 yr-1 phosphorus Six Cultivated Fields 4.0 to 8.4 hectares
  7. 7. Native rangeland and improved pasture (grazed or hayed) 0, 6.7, or 13.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1 litter; surface applied 0 to 257 kg ha-1 year-1 phosphorus Four Pasture Fields 1.2 to 8.0 hectares
  8. 8. Soil Characteristics Houston Black Soil (fine, smectitic, thermic, Udic Haplusterts)…classic Vertisol State soil of Texas: ~ 12.6 million acres Typically 55% clay, 28% silt, 17% sand Highly expansive ~17% CaCO3 pH ~ 7.8
  9. 9. What we did…… Soil samples from 2002 to 2012 (15 cm, one core/0.4 ha). Sequential fractionation with H2O, NaHCO3, NaOH, and HCl. Extracts diluted and adjusted to pH 5.0 (Waldrip-Dail et al., 2009). Total extracted P (Pt) by ICP-OES, Pi by molybdenum blue method (Dick and Tabatabai, 1977; He and Honeycutt, 2005). Po=Pt – Pi Incubation with acid phosphomonoesterases type IV-S (potato) and type I (wheat germ) and nuclease P1 from Penicillium citrinum to identify forms of Po (He and Honeycutt, 2001). • Monoester-like, Phytate-like, DNA-like • Non-hydrolyzable Po
  10. 10. Objective Evaluate effects of long-term (10 years) poultry litter application on total extractable soil P, Pi, and Po in watershed-scale cultivated and pasture lands on calcareous, high-clay soil. Do phytate and metal-P complexes accumulate in soils fertilized with poultry litter? What is the effect of litter application rate? How do effects of litter application differ between cropland and pasture?
  11. 11. H2O 0.5 M NaHCO3 0.1 M NaOH 1.0 M HCl soluble or sorbed on crystalline surfaces associated with Al/Fe oxides or carbonates associated with Ca/Mg Soil Residue Residue Residue Residue NaHCO3-P H2O-P NaOH-P HCl-P Labile-P Incubation with acid phosphatases and nuclease-P1
  12. 12. H2O Organic C Total N Total P NO3 --N NH4 +-N ----%---- -------------% DM------------- ----------mg kg-1----------- 10-year Average (SD) 26 (12) 43 (8) 3.5 (0.7) 2.4 (1.0) 483 (368) 3772 (1424) Selected Properties of Poultry Litter Litter (manure + bedding) and/or inorganic fertilizer applied to reach a target N rate of 170 kg ha-1 for corn Applied using “real world” practices: desired rate met according to truck speed, gear, and rear gate settings
  13. 13. 0 500 1000 1500 Totalextractable P(mgkg-1) Control, cultivated 0 500 1000 1500 6.7 Mg ha-1 litter, cultivated 0 500 1000 1500 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 13.4 Mg ha-1 litter, cultivated 0 500 1000 1500 Control, ungrazed rangeland 0 500 1000 1500 6.7 Mg ha-1 litter, pasture 0 500 1000 1500 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 H2O NaHCO3 NaOH HCl 13.4 Mg ha-1 litter, pasture Total Extractable Phosphorus 233% 262 mg/kg 640 mg/kg
  14. 14. 0 500 1000 1500 Totalextractable P(mgkg-1) Control, cultivated 0 500 1000 1500 6.7 Mg ha-1 litter, cultivated 0 500 1000 1500 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 13.4 Mg ha-1 litter, cultivated 0 500 1000 1500 Control, ungrazed rangeland 0 500 1000 1500 6.7 Mg ha-1 litter, pasture 0 500 1000 1500 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 H2O NaHCO3 NaOH HCl 13.4 Mg ha-1 litter, pasture Total Extractable Phosphorus
  15. 15. Changes in Soil Test Phosphorus (2000 to 2012) 0 50 100 150 200 Mehlich-3P(mg/kg) Land use type and litter application rate 2000 2012 -1.0 1.3 4.7 10.9 PastureCultivated 0.3 5.6 11.5 9.9 12.7 13.2 Average annual change (mg kg-1) Mehlich-3 data provided by Daren Harmel, USDA-ARS, Temple, TX. East Texas P threshold
  16. 16. Organic P Microbial biomass Organic matter Soluble organic P Sorbed P Clays Al, Fe Oxides Primary P Minerals Apatites Secondary P Minerals Ca, Fe, Al Phosphates Soluble Inorganic P (H2PO4 -, HPO4 2-) Phosphorus Forms Extracted with Mehlich-3 Source: Mabry et al., 2012, SSAJ, 177:31
  17. 17. Extracted P vs. Mehlich-3 STP in 2012 0 600 1200 1800 Phosphorus(mgkg-1) H2O-Pt NaHCO3-Pt NaOH-Pt HCl-Pt M3P
  18. 18. 0 50 100H2O-P(mgkg-1) Cultivated Pasture 0 250 500 NaHCO3-P(mgkg-1) Litter rate (Mg ha-1) Inorganic Monoester-like DNA-like Phytate-like Non-hydrolyzable organic Cultivated Pasture Composition of Labile Phosphorus in 2012
  19. 19. 0 100 200NaOH-P(mgkg-1) Cultivated Pasture 0 400 800 1200 HCl-P(mgkg-1) Litter rate (Mg ha-1) Inorganic Monoester-like DNA-like Phytate-like Non-hydrolyzable organic Cultivated Pasture Composition of More Stable Phosphorus in 2012 217% increase
  20. 20. Control 6.7 Mg ha-1 litter 13.4 Mg ha-1 litter Labile-P ---------------------------P (mg kg-1)----------------------------- Inorganic 42c 152b 272a Monoester 28c 94b 182a DNA 21c 53bc 90ab Phytate 18c 43bc 80ab Non-hydrolyzable 16 ns ns HCl-P Inorganic 16c 28b 33ab Non-hydrolyzable 312c 655b 989a Changes in P Distribution in Cultivated Fields
  21. 21. Pasture Watersheds Native rangeland Grazed pasture 6.7 Mg ha-1 litter 13.4 Mg ha-1 litter Labile-P ------------------------------P (mg kg-1)------------------------------ Inorganic 124ab 56c 63c 165a Monoester 51b 38c 55b 128a DNA 100a 20c 25c 55bc Phytate 89a 19c 16c 41bc Non-hydrolyzable 3b ns ns 15a HCl-P Inorganic 22cd 19d 18d 39ab Phytate - 0.4b - 14a Non-hydrolyzable 253bc 173c 339b 588a Changes in P Distribution in Pasture

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