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Phosphorus indices what is the water quality goal

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Full proceedings available at: http://www.extension.org/72818

Phosphorus indices provide relative loss ratings that then have a corresponding management response. Because most state Phosphorus Indices are qualitative it is not clear how the relative loss rating corresponds to actual phosphorus inputs into the receiving water and how the receiving water would react to these additions. Even with qualitative Phosphorus Indices, unless the water resource has a specific Total Maximum Daily Load, it is not clear how losses correspond to water quality outcomes. These issues will be discussed in the context of the 590 Natural Resources Conservation Standard for nutrient management.

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Phosphorus indices what is the water quality goal

  1. 1. DEPARTMENT ofDEPARTMENT of SOIL SCIENCESOIL SCIENCENC STATENC STATE UNIVERSITYUNIVERSITY Phosphorus Indicies: What Is The Water Quality Goal? (or How Do We Match P Loss Assessments with Water Quality Outcomes) Deanna Osmond Waste to Worth Conference Seattle, WA March 30 – April 2, 2015
  2. 2. DEPARTMENT ofDEPARTMENT of SOIL SCIENCESOIL SCIENCENC STATENC STATE UNIVERSITYUNIVERSITY Comparing Ratings of the Southern P Indices: Prior Work
  3. 3. DEPARTMENT ofDEPARTMENT of SOIL SCIENCESOIL SCIENCENC STATENC STATE UNIVERSITYUNIVERSITY TX OK FL AL GA AR LA NC MS TN KY SC ²0 250 500125 Miles Albers Equal-Area Conic Southern States and Types of Phosphorus Indices IR IR IR IR IR IR N IR IR N N N
  4. 4. DEPARTMENT ofDEPARTMENT of SOIL SCIENCESOIL SCIENCENC STATENC STATE UNIVERSITYUNIVERSITY Southern Phosphorus Indices CIG: Objectives 1. Determine pre-existing watershed or plot-scale (11) sites where accuracy of P Indices to estimate site P loss potential can be evaluated. 2. Compare predictions of P-Indices to water quality data from benchmark sites. 3. Compare fate and transport models against water quality data. Use water quality data (monitored or predicted by model) to guide refinement of P Indices. 4. Compare predictions of P Indices against fate and transport water quality models (APEX, TBET, APLE) for calibrated and uncalibrated models. 5. Refine P Indices to ensure better consistency in ratings across state boundaries and within physiographic provinces.
  5. 5. DEPARTMENT ofDEPARTMENT of SOIL SCIENCESOIL SCIENCENC STATENC STATE UNIVERSITYUNIVERSITY Locations of Data Sets TX OK FL AL GA AR LA NC MS TN KY SC ²0 250 500125 Miles Albers Equal-Area Conic
  6. 6. DEPARTMENT ofDEPARTMENT of SOIL SCIENCESOIL SCIENCENC STATENC STATE UNIVERSITYUNIVERSITY Southern Field Sites State # Plots Date range Site-years Crop STP range (ppm) 1 2 3 4 AR 7 2009 – 2011 21 Pasture 81 - 183 Captina (C) GA 6 1995 – 1998 24 Pasture 14 - 142 Cecil (B) Altavista (C) Sedgefield (C) Helena (C) NC 5 2011-2013 15 Corn with wheat cover 44-121 Delanco (C) MS 2 1996-1999 8 Cotton or soybens with wheat cover 37-79 Dubbs (B) Tensas (D) Alligator (D) Dundee (C) OK 1 1972-1976 4 Cotton 20 McLain (C) Reinach (C) OK 1 2006-2007 1.17 Pasture 50 Clarksville (B) OK 1 1977-1992 16 Native grass 15 Bethany (C) OK 1 1980-1985 6 Wheat 35 Norge (B) TX 1 1998-2001 4 Hay 435 Duffau (B) TX 1 2005-2008 4 Sorghum/Oats 34 Topsey (C) Brackett (C) Krum (D) TX 1 2005-2008 4 Native grass 10 Nuff (C) TX 1 2001-2008 7 Corn with wheat cover 51 Houston Black (D) Soil Series (hydro group)
  7. 7. DEPARTMENT ofDEPARTMENT of SOIL SCIENCESOIL SCIENCENC STATENC STATE UNIVERSITYUNIVERSITY Arkansas Data: Southern State P-Index Ratings Fields Total P kg/ha NRCS Rating State P-Index Rating AL AR FL GA KY LA MS NC OK SC TN TX Check 0.26 Low -- Low Low Low Low Low Low Low High Low Med Low Broadcast+ Litter 1.52 Low Low Med Low Low Low Low Med Low High High Med Med Inject+litter 0.63 Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low High Med Med Med Inject Litterx2 0.86 Low Low Med Low Low Low Low Low Low Severe High Med Med RotGraz+ Litter 1.03 Low Low Med Med Low Med Low Med Med High High Med Med ContGraz+ Litter 2.09 Low Low Med Med Low Med Low Med Med Severe High Med Med Hay+Litter 1.43 Low Low Med Med Low Low Low Med Low High High Med Med NRCS P Loss Ratings 0 to 2.2 kg/ha/yr = Low 2.2 to 5.6 kg/ha/yr = Medium > 5.6 kg/ha/yr = High
  8. 8. DEPARTMENT ofDEPARTMENT of SOIL SCIENCESOIL SCIENCENC STATENC STATE UNIVERSITYUNIVERSITY North Carolina Data: Southern State P-Index Ratings Fields Total P kg/ha NRCS Rating State P-Index Rating AL FL GA KY LA MS NC OK SC TN TX CTConv2011 7.55 High Low Low Low Med Low -- Low Low Low Low Med CTConv2012 1.43 Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Med Low Low Med NTConv2011 0.60 Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Med Low Low Med NTConv2012 0.22 Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Med Low Low Med CTOrg2011 3.09 Med Low Med V. High Med Low Low Low Med High High Med CTOrg2012 1.68 Low Low Med High Low Low Low Low Med Med High Med NTOrg2011 1.20 Low Med Med V. High Low Low Low High Med V. High High V. Low NTOrg2012 0.40 Low Low Med Med Low Low Low Med Med High High V. Low • Arkansas Soluble P/Total P Range = 77 to 96% • North Carolina Soluble P/Total P Range = 2 to 29%
  9. 9. DEPARTMENT ofDEPARTMENT of SOIL SCIENCESOIL SCIENCENC STATENC STATE UNIVERSITYUNIVERSITY USEPA Ecoregions of the United States
  10. 10. DEPARTMENT ofDEPARTMENT of SOIL SCIENCESOIL SCIENCENC STATENC STATE UNIVERSITYUNIVERSITY USEPA Nutrient (P) Criteria by Ecoregion Ecoregions - Lakes and Reservoirs II III IV V VI VII VIII IX XI XII XIII XIV TP mg/L 0.009 0.017 0.02 0.033 0.038 0.015 0.008 0.02 0.008 0.01 0.018 0.008 Ecoregions - Rivers and Streams II III IV V VI VII VIII IX XI XII XIII XIV TP mg/L 0.047 0.01 0.022 0.023 0.067 0.076 0.033 0.01 0.037 0.01 0.04 0.031
  11. 11. DEPARTMENT ofDEPARTMENT of SOIL SCIENCESOIL SCIENCENC STATENC STATE UNIVERSITYUNIVERSITY USEPA Nutrient Criteria Information
  12. 12. DEPARTMENT ofDEPARTMENT of SOIL SCIENCESOIL SCIENCENC STATENC STATE UNIVERSITYUNIVERSITY Nutrient (P) Criteria by State and Water Resource: Wisconsin Lakes & Reservoirs Type of Lake and Reservoir TP (mg/L) Both seepage and stratified lakes 0.02 Drainage lakes, not stratified 0.04 Open and nearshore waters of Lake Michigan 0.007 Open and nearshore waters of Lake Superior 0.005 Seepage lakes, not stratified 0.04 Stratified reservoirs 0.03 Stratified two-story fishery lakes 0.015
  13. 13. DEPARTMENT ofDEPARTMENT of SOIL SCIENCESOIL SCIENCENC STATENC STATE UNIVERSITYUNIVERSITY Nutrient (P) Criteria by State and Water Resource: Wisconsin Rivers and Streams River or Stream TP (mg/L) Rock River from outlet of Sinissippi Lake downstream to the state line, excl0.1 Sheboygan River from outlet of Sheboygan Marsh to the opening at the end0.1 South Fork of Flambeau River from state highway 13 near Fifield to Flambe0.1 St. Croix River from confluence with Namekagon River downstream to Miss0.1 St. Louis River from state line to the opening between Minnesota Point and0.1 Streams not listed above 0.075
  14. 14. DEPARTMENT ofDEPARTMENT of SOIL SCIENCESOIL SCIENCENC STATENC STATE UNIVERSITYUNIVERSITY Nutrient (P) Criteria by State and Water Resource: Florida Estuaries Estuary Total P (mg/L) Backshelf 0.011 Blackburn Bay 0.21 Card Sound 0.008 Central Florida Bay 0.019 Charlotte Harbor Proper 0.19 Inner Waterway 0.033 Lower Keys 0.008
  15. 15. DEPARTMENT ofDEPARTMENT of SOIL SCIENCESOIL SCIENCENC STATENC STATE UNIVERSITYUNIVERSITY Yields per unit area (Ib/ac.y): TN = 2.86 TP = 2.93 NO3 = 1.01 Total Yields (Ib/y): TN = 130,887 TP = 130,579 NO3 = 47,267 Total Reductions Available (Ib/y): TN = 45,541 TP = 69,398 NO3 = 4,475 Yields per unit area (Ib/ac.y): TN = 2.90 TP = 3.02 NO3 = 0.98 Total Yields (Ib/y): TN = 51,746 TP = 51,579 NO3 = 17,896 Total Reductions Available (Ib/y): TN = 18,308 TP = 27,551 NO3 = 1718 Yields per unit area (Ib/ac.y): TN = 2.87 TP = 3.06 NO3 = 0.91 Total Yields (Ib/y): TN = 23,125 TP = 22,217 NO3 = 7,725 Total Reductions Available (Ib/y): TN = 8,321 TP = 12,020 NO3 = 717 Where Do You Measure to Meet the Criteria? • Where do you measure? • What do you measure? TP or SP? • What do you report? Concentration or Load? Figure compliments of M. Arabi and A. Tasdighi
  16. 16. DEPARTMENT ofDEPARTMENT of SOIL SCIENCESOIL SCIENCENC STATENC STATE UNIVERSITYUNIVERSITY Slide courtesy of Andrew Sharpley Mean total P, mg/L Mean dissolved P, mg/L
  17. 17. DEPARTMENT ofDEPARTMENT of SOIL SCIENCESOIL SCIENCENC STATENC STATE UNIVERSITYUNIVERSITY But after 2002, greater dissolved P loads generated relative to flow than before Relationship between total PRelationship between total P loads and flow was the sameloads and flow was the same before and after 2002before and after 2002 Total P, tons/d Flow, m3 /second 200 600 20 60 120 0 400 800 0 2002-2012 1988-1999 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2 6 12 Flow, m3 /second 0 200 400 600 800 0 Dissolved P, tons/d 2002-2012 1988-1999 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Slide courtesy of Andrew Sharpley
  18. 18. DEPARTMENT ofDEPARTMENT of SOIL SCIENCESOIL SCIENCENC STATENC STATE UNIVERSITYUNIVERSITY Tile Losses: Phosphorous K.W. King et al.,2014 JEQ Phosphorus Losses (~50% tile and ~50 overland flow) •Dissolved/soluble P (49%) •Total P (48%) Hydrology •Peak tile discharge occurred concurrently or even before peak discharge in surface runoff •Water and P moving via macropores Slide compliments of L. Duriancick, USDA-NRCS as interpreted from With permission, Douglas R. Smith, et al., JEQ, October 10, 2014
  19. 19. DEPARTMENT ofDEPARTMENT of SOIL SCIENCESOIL SCIENCENC STATENC STATE UNIVERSITYUNIVERSITY Oklahoma Data: Southern State P-Index Ratings Fields Total P kg/ha NRCS Rating State P-Index Rating AL AR FL GA KY LA MS NC OK SC TN TX Demo N 0.02 Low Low High Med Low Low Low Med Low Med Low Med High Chickasha 5.80 High Low -- Med Med Med Low Low Low Low Low High Med Cyril 0.18 Low Low -- Low Low Low Low Low Low Low High Low Med El Reno 0.02 Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Med Low Low V Low NRCS P Loss Ratings 0 to 2.2 kg/ha/yr = Low 2.2 to 5.6 kg/ha/yr = Medium > 5.6 kg/ha/yr = High Soluble P/Total P Range = 3 to 100%
  20. 20. DEPARTMENT ofDEPARTMENT of SOIL SCIENCESOIL SCIENCENC STATENC STATE UNIVERSITYUNIVERSITY How to Match Nutrient (P) Criteria with USDA-NRCS P Loss Tools? It’s going to be a challenge – Most states have yet to develop nutrient criteria and it may take years if not decades – Many water resources have unique nutrient (P) criteria – Where do you measure? Edge of field? Small watershed? Larger watershed? Receiving water resource? – What do you measure? TP or DP? – Concentration is not the entire story – Small losses can have large consequences
  21. 21. DEPARTMENT ofDEPARTMENT of SOIL SCIENCESOIL SCIENCENC STATENC STATE UNIVERSITYUNIVERSITY Questions Thanks to our sponsor, 69-3A75-12-182

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