NEED FOR CYBER SECURITY FOR SMART
The ability to deliver electric
power to customers reliably.
To prevent from threats.
STEPS INVOLVED BY CYBER
The cyber attack can be decomposed into
1.Intruder intends to have control over the
2.The intruder should identify the system to
launch an intelligent and effective attack.
3.The attacker initiates the control of
Firewall Enhancement Protocol,
Application server, Systems database, and
even controllers directly.
HUMAN - AUTOMATION
Human – Automation interaction
• Determining limits of automation.
• Start or stop of automatic process.
• Providing information to the automatic
Level of Automation
Ten levels were adapted to control the
automatic accessing of the system.
Performance Shifting Characters
The Environmental conditions which affects the
performance of human automation system are termed as
Based on the vulnerabilities of power grid at he time of
cyber attack, there are 5 kinds of PSFs.
PSF 1: Number of weak points in the power grid
PSF 2:Power grid complexity
PSF 3:Number of entry points
PSF 4: Data flow in the IT infrastructure.
PSF 5: Anomalies and Signatures.
An approach for human – automation
framework based on adaptive
automation using expert judgments
has been presented.
The paper outlines five environmental
conditions and their impact on cyber
The environmental conditions are
ranked based on their effect on the
 Power Infrastructure Security: Fundamental Insights of
Potential Cyber Attacks and Their Impacts on the Power Grid
 The SMART GRID: an introduction, U.S. Department of
Energy by Litos Strategic Communication
 A.Fereidunian, M. Lehtonen, H.Lesani, C.Lucas,
M.M.Nordman" Adaptive Autonomy: Smart Cooperative
Systems and Cybernetics for More Human Automation
Solutions" Proceeding of IEEE-SMC'07 Conference, October
2007, Montreal, Canada, pp 202-207
 M.R. Endsley and D.B. Kaber, "Level of automation effects
on performance, situation awareness and workload in dynamic
control task," Ergonomics, Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 462-492, 1999
 National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Smart grid
Cyber Security Strategy and Requirements", September 2009.