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Nomenclature Bonding Part 2


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Nomenclature Bonding Part 2

  1. 1. Nomenclature Naming Compounds Chemical Bonding Part 2
  2. 2. Rules for Formulas <ul><li>All atoms must achieve stable electron configuration (full valence) </li></ul><ul><li>The formula must be electrically neutral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The sum of the positive and negative charges must equal zero </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Why do we write the metal first? <ul><li>Usually the least electronegative element is written first, followed by the more electronegative element </li></ul><ul><li>Both in binary covalent and in binary ionic </li></ul>
  4. 5. Electronegativity
  5. 6. Metals First <ul><li>Metals go first because they are less electronegative than non-metals </li></ul>
  6. 7. How do we name our formulas? <ul><li>Name the cation first, then the anion </li></ul><ul><li>Do not include the numbers in the name </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>BaCl 2 = Barium Chloride </li></ul>
  7. 9. Transition Metals <ul><li>Form more than one type of cation </li></ul><ul><li>Must use Roman Numerals to distinguish which cation is in the formula </li></ul><ul><li>Roman Numerals are ONLY used in the NAME, not in the formula </li></ul><ul><li>The Roman Numeral stands for the charge on the cation, NOT THE SUBSCRIPT in the formula </li></ul>
  8. 11. Formula vs. Name <ul><li>FeN = Iron III Nitride </li></ul><ul><li>Cu 2 O = Copper I Oxide </li></ul><ul><li>SnO = Tin II Oxide </li></ul><ul><li>SnO 2 = Tin IV Oxide </li></ul>
  9. 12. How do I figure out what to name it?
  10. 13. Polyatomic Ions <ul><li>Ions that are made up of more than one element </li></ul><ul><li>The elements stay together and act as one unit in chemical reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Together the elements still carry a charge </li></ul>
  11. 15. How does that work? <ul><li>Na + + PO 4 3- = Na 3 PO 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Mg 2+ + PO 4 3- = Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 </li></ul>
  12. 16. How do I figure out what to name it?
  13. 17. What do Ionic Compounds look like? <ul><li>Ionic compounds form salts </li></ul><ul><li>Think of table salt </li></ul><ul><li>Cations are smaller than the parent atom </li></ul><ul><li>Anions are bigger than the parent atom </li></ul><ul><li>The compounds formed become tightly packed spheres of atoms </li></ul>
  14. 18. Sizes of Ions
  15. 20. The Positions of the Centers of the atoms (form a matrix)
  16. 21. Review <ul><li>Simple Binary Ionic Compounds use the simple names of the ions </li></ul><ul><li>Transition Metals with more than one charge use Roman Numerals in the name, not in the formula </li></ul><ul><li>Polyatomic ions use the name of the ion </li></ul><ul><li>Names and formulas are cation first, then the name of the anion </li></ul>