2011 2012 Chapter 5 Review


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Brief review of most chapter 5 concepts

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  • 2011 2012 Chapter 5 Review

    1. 1. Ionic and Metallic BONDING Chapters 5 (and a little of 4)
    2. 2. Simple Ions <ul><li>Ion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ions with a positive charge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have more protons than electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ions with a negative charge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have more electrons than protons </li></ul></ul>Ex. Mg 2+ Ex. Cl -
    3. 3. Ions <ul><li>Ions </li></ul><ul><li>typically have a Noble Gas Configuration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups 1,2 and 3 have configurations with noble gases in the previous period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups 15-17 have configurations with noble gases in the same period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms gain or lose electrons to become isoelectronic with a noble gas. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Octet Rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons until they have eight valence electrons. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. + + + + + 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 3 - 3 - 3 - 2 - 2 - 2 - 2 - - - - - Some Ions w/ Noble Gas Configurations Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 13 Group 15 Group 16 Group 17 Li Be N O F Na Mg Al P S Cl K Ca Sc As Se Br Rb Sr Y Te I Cs Ba La Group 18 Noble Gases Helium He Neon Ne Argon Ar Krypton Kr Xenon Xe
    5. 5. Lewis Symbols <ul><li>Lewis symbols show the valence electrons as dots arranged around the atomic symbol. </li></ul><ul><li>hydrogen: </li></ul><ul><li> sodium: </li></ul><ul><li> chlorine: </li></ul>Na  H  Cl    
    6. 6. Valence electrons for Elements <ul><li>Recall how to determine the valence electron for the elements based on the elements position on the periodic table. </li></ul><ul><li>Lewis Dot Symbol </li></ul>1 2 13 14 15 16 17 18
    7. 7. Chemical Bonding <ul><li>Compounds are formed from chemically bound atoms or ions. </li></ul><ul><li>Bonding involves ONLY the valence electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>There are three main types of chemical bonding: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metallic bonding (Chapter 4) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ionic bonding (Chapter 5) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covalent (or molecular) bonding (Chapter 6) </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Chemical Bonding cont… <ul><li>What is an Ionic Bond? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An ionic bond is a chemical bond resulting from the TRANSFER of electrons from one bonding atom to another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An ionic bond is the coulombic force of attraction between ions of opposite charge. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When is an Ionic bond formed? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An ionic bond is formed when a cation (positive ion) transfers electrons to an anion (negative ion). </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Chemical Bonding cont… <ul><li>What is a Metallic Bond? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A metallic bond occurs in metals (both pure metals and alloys). A metal consists of positive ions surrounded by a “sea” of mobile electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outermost electrons wander freely through metal. </li></ul></ul>Metallic Bonding
    10. 10. Ionic Vs. Metallic Metallic Compounds Ionic Compounds Origin of bonding Free floating valence electrons Electron transfer Forces between particles The metal is held together by the strong forces of attraction between the positive nuclei and the delocalised electrons . <ul><li>Strong attractions between anions and cations </li></ul><ul><li>Strong repulsions between ions of like charge </li></ul>Elements present Close on the periodic table (all metals typically) Widely separated on the periodic table (a metal and a nonmetal) metallic elements present always usually Electrical conductivity Good (solid and liquid) Good, when melted (liquid/molten) or dissolved State at room temperature Solid (except Hg) Solid Melting and boiling points High High Other properties Malleable, Ductile Soft to Hard Brittle Hard
    11. 11. Naming Ionic Compounds <ul><li>A nonmetal and a metal will typically combine to form an ionic compound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where are the metals on the periodic table ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where are the nonmetals on the periodic table? </li></ul></ul>To the Left To the Right
    12. 12. Naming Ionic Compounds <ul><li>Metals are also equal to </li></ul><ul><li>Nonmetals are also equal to </li></ul><ul><li>The ion with the positive charge (cation) is always written before the ion with the negative charge (anion) </li></ul>Cations Anions Ex. Sodium Chloride NaCl Anion (Nonmetal) Cation (Metal)
    13. 13. Naming Ionic Compounds <ul><li>How do we name the Cations and Anions? </li></ul><ul><li>Cations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cations from the main-group metals are typically named using the element name followed by the word ion </li></ul></ul>Metal symbol Element name Ion symbol Cation name Na sodium Na 1+ sodium ion Al aluminum Al 3+ aluminum ion Ca calcium Ca 2+ calcium ion
    14. 14. Naming Ionic Compounds <ul><li>Anions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anions from the main-group non-metals are named using the stem/root of the element name followed by the ending - ide </li></ul></ul>  Metal element symbol Element name Ion symbol Anion name Cl chlor ine Cl 1- chloride ion Br brom ine Br 1- bromide ion O ox ygen O 2- oxide ion
    15. 15. Naming Ionic Compounds <ul><li>Ionic substances exist with separate anions and cations arrayed in a regular pattern (crystal lattice) so the negative and positive charges cancel. </li></ul><ul><li>The formula (unit cell) can be predicted using the charges on the respective ions as subscripts. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Naming Ionic Compounds Here is the formula unit – this formula states that the 2+ charge of the calcium ion can be cancelled out by 1- charges of the two chloride ions .
    17. 17. Naming Ionic Compounds Here is the formula unit – this formula states that the 3+ charges of the two aluminum ions can be cancelled out by 2- charges of the three oxide ions .
    18. 18. Naming Ionic Compounds <ul><li>Transition elements form stable ions too </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to this point, only metals and non-metals have formed ions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not all ions however have a noble-gas configuration </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Naming Ionic Compounds <ul><li>Transition elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If an element can form more than one (1) positive ion, the charge is indicated by Roman numeral in parentheses followed by the word &quot;ion&quot; </li></ul></ul>Metal symbol Element name Ion symbol Cation name (new system) Fe iron Fe 2+ iron (II) ion Fe iron Fe 3+ iron (III) ion Sn tin Sn 2+ tin (II) ion Sn tin Sn 4+ tin (IV) ion Cu copper Cu 1+ copper (I) ion Cu copper Cu 2+ copper (II) ion
    20. 20. Naming Ionic Compounds <ul><li>Many atoms can form one ion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>So far we have learned about monatomic ions with the prefix mono- meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Just as the prefix mono means one, the prefix poly- means </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The term POLYATOMIC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>means an ion made up of more than one atom </li></ul></ul>“ one ” “ many”
    21. 21. Naming Ionic Compounds <ul><li>Polyatomic Ions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms are covalently bonded, but as a whole forms ionic bonds with other ions in the same way simple ions do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subscripts never change in a polyatomic ion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If more than one polyatomic ion is needed, parentheses are put around the polyatomic ion and subscripts are added outside the parentheses </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Naming Ionic Compounds <ul><li>Writing Polyatomic Ions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The trick that works for single atom ions also works for polyatomic ions </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Naming Ionic Compounds What is the predicted formula for the combination of … What about the combination of … Magnesium Ion Mg 2+ Carbonate Ion CO 3 2- Ammonium Ion NH 4 1+ Phosphate Ion PO 4 3-
    24. 24. Quick Review: In an IONIC bond, electrons are lost or gained, resulting in the formation of IONS in ionic compounds. The compound potassium fluoride consists of potassium (K + ) ions and fluoride (F - ) ions. The ionic bond is the coulombic force of attraction between the positive K + ion and the negative F - ion. F K F K + _