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Acid and Ionic Nomenclature


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Everything you ever want to know about Nomenclature

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Acid and Ionic Nomenclature

  1. 1. CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE Originally by tnewberry –
  2. 2. Chemical Nomenclature <ul><li>System of names used to distinguish compounds from each other and the rules needed to devise these names </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of cations and anions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cation = a positively charged ion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anion = a negatively charged ion </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. How to Name Cations and Anions <ul><li>Cation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>name of element+ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the word ion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Na+ Sodium ion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Name of element </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suffix –ide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The word ion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Cl - Chloride ion </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Ionic vs. Molecular compounds <ul><li>Separate system for each, so the first step is to identify whether the compounds are ionic, molecular, or an acid </li></ul><ul><li>Here are two general rules: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ionic= metal + non-metal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covalent Molecular= only non-metals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acid = has H+ as its cation </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Binary ionic compounds <ul><li>Binary=two </li></ul><ul><li>A binary compound is a compound in which only two elements are present </li></ul><ul><li>A binary ionic compound is an ionic compound in which one element present is a metal and the other is a non-metal, such as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NaCl </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Rules for naming binary ionic compounds <ul><li>First word=name of metal </li></ul><ul><li>Second word=stem name of nonmetal + ide </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s try a few: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NaCl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium chloride </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MgF 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Magnesium flouride </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Na 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium oxide </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Binary molecular compounds <ul><li>A molecular compound in which only two non-metallic elements are present </li></ul><ul><li>Rule: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First word: numerical prefix + full name of nonmetal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second word: numerical prefix + stem name of second nonmetal + ide </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Binary molecular compounds <ul><li>Common numerical prefixes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mono=1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Di=2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tri=3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tetra=4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penta=5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hexa=6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hepta= 7 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Octa = 8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nona = 9 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deca = 10 </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Binary Molecular Compounds <ul><li>Let’s try a few: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N 2 0 5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dinitrogenpentoxide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PF 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorous trifluoride </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SiCl 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Silicon tetrachloride </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remember! if a numerical prefix ends with an “o” and the combining element begins with an “a,” the “o” remains” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: As2O5 = Diarsenic Pentoxide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If a numerical prefix ends with an “o” and the combining element begins with an “o,” only one “o” is needed. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: P4O10 = Tetraphosphorous Decoxide </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Binary Molecular Compounds that have Common Names <ul><li>Common name: not based on IUPAC* rules and has no information about composition of compound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 O=water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 O 2 =hydrogen peroxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NH 3 =ammonia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CH 4 =methane </li></ul></ul><ul><li>*IUPAC=International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry </li></ul>
  11. 11. Acids <ul><li>Distinct kind of molecular compounds that must have H+ as the cation. </li></ul><ul><li>2 Types of Acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Binary Acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consist of Hydrogen cation and monatomic nonmetal canion Ex: HCl, HF, HBr </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxyacids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consist of Hydrogen cation, and polyatomic anion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: H 2 SO 4 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Nomenclature of Binary Acids <ul><li>Binary Acids </li></ul><ul><li>Begin with prefix “hydro” </li></ul><ul><li>Add the root of the name of the second element (the nonmetal) </li></ul><ul><li>Add the suffix “ic” </li></ul><ul><li>Add the word “acid” </li></ul><ul><li>Example: HBr = Hydrobromic Acid </li></ul>
  13. 13. Nomenclature of Oxyacids <ul><li>Oxyacids </li></ul><ul><li>NO PREFIX! </li></ul><ul><li>Use the Root of the name of the polyatomic anion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the name of the polyatomic ion ends in –ate, change it to –ic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the name of the polyatomic ion ends in –ite, change it to –ous </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Add the word “acid” </li></ul><ul><li>Example: H 2 PO 3 = phosphorous acid </li></ul>