Chemical Bonding Part 1

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Chemical Bonding Part 1

  1. 1. Chemical Bonding Monday November 3rd, 2008
  2. 2. What is a chemical bond? <ul><li>A bond is a force that holds two or more atoms together and makes them function as a unit or a group. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why are bonds important in chemistry? <ul><li>Atoms that are bonded together function as one particle in nature/mixtures </li></ul><ul><li>It is the bonds that are broken and reformed in a chemical reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Not all bonds in a molecule are broken in a chemical reaction. </li></ul>
  4. 4. How do bonds form? <ul><li>Atoms must be close enough to each other for their electrons to interact </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms that are close enough together must WANT to form bonds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms form bonds to achieve stable electron configuration in their valence shells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember “Eight is Great” </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Bonds <ul><li>Three types of bonding </li></ul><ul><li>The names describe the relationship of the electrons in the atoms to each other, and between the two nuclei </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ionic bonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polar Covalent bonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covalent Bonds </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Covalent Bonds (Two nonmetals) <ul><li>Electrons are equally shared between the two atoms (nonmetals) </li></ul><ul><li>The shared electrons are found between the nuclei of the two atoms </li></ul>
  7. 7. Polar Covalent Bond (Two nonmetals) <ul><li>Electrons are shared UNEQUALLY between atoms (nonmetals) </li></ul><ul><li>The shared electrons are found between the nuclei, but they are attracted to one nucleus (atom) more than the other nucleus (atom) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ionic Bonds (metal and nonmetal) <ul><li>The electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another </li></ul><ul><li>The atoms in the bonds become IONS </li></ul><ul><li>One atom becomes a positive ion, while the other atom becomes a negative ion </li></ul><ul><li>In ionic bonds, all atoms will lose or gain electrons to complete their valence shells </li></ul><ul><li>8 is great! </li></ul>
  9. 9. Binary Ionic Compounds <ul><li>Binary = two </li></ul><ul><li>Binary compounds have two elements in them </li></ul><ul><li>Binary Ionic Compounds have two elements that are bonded by an ionic bond </li></ul><ul><li>One element MUST be a metal, and the other MUST be a non-metal </li></ul>
  10. 10. Metals <ul><li>Lose their valence electrons to form ions </li></ul><ul><li>Form positive ions </li></ul><ul><li>Attain “Noble Gas” configuration of the Noble Gas in the preceding row (row above the element) </li></ul><ul><li>The name of the ion is the same as the element </li></ul>
  11. 11. Non-Metals <ul><li>Gain electrons to form ions </li></ul><ul><li>Form negative ions </li></ul><ul><li>Attain Noble Gas configuration (stable) of the Noble Gas following (the same period) </li></ul><ul><li>The ion is named by dropping the ending and adding the suffix -ide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e chlorine becomes chloride </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Ionic Compounds <ul><li>All compounds are NEUTRAL </li></ul><ul><li>The sum of the charges of all of the ions in an ionic compound must be electrically neutral (no charge) </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, the sum of the positive and negative charges must be equal </li></ul><ul><li>The numbers of atoms might not be equal </li></ul>
  13. 13. Binary Ionic Compound Examples <ul><li>NaCl </li></ul><ul><li>Na + + Cl - </li></ul><ul><li>CaCl 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Ca +2 + 2Cl - </li></ul>
  14. 14. What do the numbers mean? <ul><li>CaCl 2 </li></ul><ul><li>The 2 represents that there are 2 chloride atoms (ions) for every Calcium ion in the compound </li></ul><ul><li>Ca +2 + 2Cl - </li></ul>
  15. 15. Why is that? <ul><li>Ca +2 + 2Cl - </li></ul><ul><li>_____________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Total Charge: +2 -2 </li></ul><ul><li>The charge on the compound must equal zero </li></ul>

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