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Molecular Compounds


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Molecular Compounds

  1. 1. Compounds part 2: molecular compounds
  2. 2. Molecular Elements <ul><li>A molecule is a combination of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds </li></ul><ul><li>A covalent bond occurs between the atoms of non-metals in which the two atoms share a pair of electrons </li></ul>
  3. 3. Molecular Elements <ul><li>A molecular element is when two or more atoms of the same element are joined by covalent bonds </li></ul><ul><li>A diatomic molecule is a molecule that is made from two atoms </li></ul><ul><li>ex.) the element chlorine is a diatomic molecule (Cl 2 ) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Diatomic Molecules
  5. 5. Molecular Compounds <ul><li>When atoms of two or more different non-metals combine, a pure substance known as a molecular compound is formed </li></ul>
  6. 6. Molecular Compounds <ul><li>As with molecular elements, the atoms in molecular compounds are joined together by covalent bonds </li></ul><ul><li>In each bond, the atoms share a single pair of electrons. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Molecular Compounds <ul><li>For example, water is a molecular compound with two covalent bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Each hydrogen atom shares one pair of electrons with an oxygen atom </li></ul>
  8. 8. Properties <ul><li>soft </li></ul><ul><li>low melting point </li></ul><ul><li>solutions do not conduct electricity </li></ul>
  9. 9. Naming Molecular Compounds <ul><li>For compounds that do not contain hydrogen: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Name the first element </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name the second element and change the ending to “-ide” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>add prefixes to indicate the number of each atom </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>The prefix “ mono ” is not used when the first element is only one atom </li></ul><ul><li>When “mono” is being added to oxygen , the last “o” is dropped </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. it is “ monoxide ” not “ monooxide ” </li></ul></ul>Naming Molecular Compounds
  11. 12. <ul><li>Example 1 : N 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>Name the first element: nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Name the second element using “-ide”: oxide </li></ul><ul><li>Add prefixes: dinitrogen monixide </li></ul>Naming Molecular Compounds
  12. 13. <ul><li>Example 2 : PBr 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Name the first element: phosphorous </li></ul><ul><li>Name the second element using “-ide”: bromide </li></ul><ul><li>Add prefixes: phosphorous tribromide </li></ul>Naming Molecular Compounds
  13. 14. <ul><li>Hydrogen is unique in many ways, and this is reflected in the naming systems </li></ul><ul><li>Many compounds containing hydrogen have been given simpler names </li></ul><ul><li>For example, dihydrogen monoxide (H 2 O) is simply called “water” </li></ul>Naming Molecular Compounds
  14. 15. Naming Molecular Compounds