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4-1: Ions & Ionic Bonding


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4-1: Ions & Ionic Bonding

  1. 1. Warm-Up <ul><li>Which metals are the most reactive? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alkali metals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which non metals are the most reactive? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Halogens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why don’t metals in group 1A have identical properties? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elements in group 1A don’t have identical properties because their valence electrons are in different energy levels. </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. 4-1 Ions & Ionic Bonding <ul><li>Recognize stable electron configurations. </li></ul><ul><li>Predict an element’s chemical properties using number of valence electrons and electron dot diagrams. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Stable Electron Configuration <ul><li>The highest occupied energy level of an atom is filled with electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Nobel gases have 8 valance electrons (He-2). </li></ul><ul><li>The highest energy level is completely full. </li></ul><ul><li>Noble gases are colorless, odorless, and un-reactive . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very few compounds form with Nobel gases. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Electron-Dot Diagram <ul><li>A model of the atom to represent the valence or outer shell electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>The number of dots = number of valence electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>The symbol in the center represents the nucleus and all other electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Electron dot diagram helps to determine stability. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Formation of Ions <ul><li>Atoms that lose or gain electrons are called ions . </li></ul><ul><li>Ions are charged atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Ions have unequal numbers of protons and electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Charge can be positive or negative. </li></ul><ul><li>Ions are formed because atoms want to have a stable electron configuration. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Types of Ions <ul><li>Positive ions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lose electrons or lose negative charge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subtracting negatives = positives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms that have lost electrons are called cations (“cat-ions”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative Ions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gain electrons or gain negative charge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms that have gained electrons are called anion (“ant-ion”). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonmetals </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Na + Al 3+ K + Mg 2+ Ca 2+
  8. 9. N 3- F - P 3- O 2- S 2- Cl -
  9. 10. Ionic Bonds <ul><li>Chemical bonds is a force that holds atoms together as a unit. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ionic bonds are the cations being attracted to the anions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Particles with opposite charges are attracted. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ionic bonds are formed when atoms transfer electrons from one atom to another. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Ionic Compounds <ul><li>Compounds are substances that contain more than one atom in chemical ratios. </li></ul><ul><li>The ratio is known as the chemical formula. </li></ul><ul><li>Ions don’t bond in random ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Ion will bond with the number of atoms to give a full shell of electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Ions also bond to balance charges. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Summary <ul><li>What happens to atoms when they form ionic bonds? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One atom in the compound had to loose an electron and one atom in the compound had to gain an electron. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What type of elements form ionic bonds? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metal and nonmetal </li></ul></ul>