Ch 2 Biochemistry Ap


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Ch 2 Biochemistry Ap

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Basic Chemistry
  2. 2. <ul><li>Matter and Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Matter – anything that occupies space and has mass (weight) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical vs Chemical changes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Energy – the ability to do work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinetic • Potential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical • Electrical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical • Radiant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Law of Conservation of Energy - change forms </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Composition of Matter </li></ul><ul><li>Elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundamental units of matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>96% of the body is made from four elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon (C) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen (O) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen (H) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen (N) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Atoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building blocks of elements </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Atomic Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Inside nucleus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protons (p + ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutrons (n 0 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outside nucleus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons (e - ) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Identifying Elements </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic number </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal to the number of protons that the atoms contain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Atomic mass number </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sum of the protons and neutrons </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Atomic Weight and Isotopes </li></ul><ul><li>Isotopes – Carbon-12 and Carbon-14 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have the same number of protons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary in number of neutrons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Atomic weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Close to mass number of most abundant isotope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atomic weight reflects natural isotope variation </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Radioactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Radioisotope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy isotope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tends to be unstable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decomposes to more stable isotope </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Radioactivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of spontaneous atomic decay </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Molecules and Compounds </li></ul>Molecule – two or more like atoms combined chemically Compound – two or more different atoms combined chemically Carbon dioxide CO 2
  9. 9. <ul><li>Chemical Reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms are united by chemical bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms dissociate from other atoms when chemical bonds are broken </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Electrons and Bonding </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons occupy energy levels called electron shells </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons closest to the nucleus are most strongly attracted </li></ul><ul><li>Each shell has distinct properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of electrons has an upper limit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shells closest to nucleus fill first </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Electrons and Bonding </li></ul><ul><li>Bonding involves interactions between electrons in the outer shell (valence shell) </li></ul><ul><li>Full valence shells do not form bonds </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Inert Elements </li></ul><ul><li>Have complete valence shells and are stable </li></ul><ul><li>Rule of 8s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shell 1 has 2 electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shell 2 has 10 electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 = 2 + 8 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shell 3 has 18 electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>18 = 2 + 8 + 8 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Reactive Elements </li></ul><ul><li>Valence shells are not full and are unstable </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to gain, lose, or share electrons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for bond formation, which produces stable valence </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Chemical Bonds </li></ul><ul><li>1. Ionic Bonds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form when electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charged particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anions are negative (Cl-) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cations are positive (Na+) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Either donate or accept electrons </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Chemical Bonds </li></ul><ul><li>2. Covalent Bonds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms become stable through shared electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single covalent bonds share one electron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double covalent bonds share two electrons </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Examples of Covalent Bonds </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Polarity </li></ul><ul><li>Covalent bonded molecules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some are non-polar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electrically neutral as a molecule </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some are polar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have a positive and negative side </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Chemical Bonds </li></ul><ul><li>3. Hydrogen bonds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak chemical bonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen is attracted to negative portion of polar molecule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides attraction between molecules </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Patterns of Chemical Reactions </li></ul><ul><li>1. Synthesis reaction (A+B  AB) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms or molecules combine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy is absorbed for bond formation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Decomposition reaction (AB  A+B) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecule is broken down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical energy is released </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Synthesis and Decomposition Reactions </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Patterns of Chemical Reactions </li></ul><ul><li>3. Exchange reaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(AB + C  AC+B) single </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(AB+CD  AD+CB) double </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves both synthesis and decomposition reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Switch is made between molecule parts and different molecules are made </li></ul></ul>