Formation of Compounds and Molecules
Chemical Bonds <ul><li>The process of gaining, losing or sharing electrons that hold the atoms together </li></ul>
Ions <ul><li>Atoms with a + or – charge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cations:  positive charge (protons > electrons) </li></ul></...
Ionic Bonds <ul><li>Created by the chemical attraction between atoms that have gained or lost electrons and thus carry and...
Three steps in an ionic bond <ul><li>Step 1:  Formation of ions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One atoms loses an electron to anoth...
Three steps in an ionic bond <ul><li>Step 2:  Attraction of opposites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Na+ is attracted to Cl- becaus...
Covalent Bond <ul><li>Covalent bond:  a bond created by sharing of electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Molecule:  two or more atom...
Single Covalent Bond <ul><li>One shared electron </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen molecule: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only form that...
Double Covalent Bond <ul><li>Sharing two pairs of electrons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Space filling model shows picture of mol...
Review <ul><li>What is the difference between ionic bonds and covalents bonds? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ionic bonding:  atoms...
Polar Covalent Bonds <ul><li>Polar covalent bond:  unequal sharing of electrons </li></ul>
Polar Covalent Bonds <ul><li>Water: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen atom forms covalent bond with two hydrogen atoms </li></u...
Polar covalent bonds <ul><li>Because it has two extra electrons part of the time, the oxygen atom develops a slight negati...
Hydrogen Bond <ul><li>Attraction between a hydrogen atom and an atom such as oxygen or nitrogen that is either part of ano...
Molecular View of Solution Formation <ul><li>Why does salt dissolve in water? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolving salt in wat...
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Chemical Bonds

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Compound and Molecule Formation

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Chemical Bonds

  1. 1. Formation of Compounds and Molecules
  2. 2. Chemical Bonds <ul><li>The process of gaining, losing or sharing electrons that hold the atoms together </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ions <ul><li>Atoms with a + or – charge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cations: positive charge (protons > electrons) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Na loses electron  Na + </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anions negative charge (electrons > protons) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cl gains electron  Cl - </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Ionic Bonds <ul><li>Created by the chemical attraction between atoms that have gained or lost electrons and thus carry and electric charge </li></ul>+ = Sodium metal (Na) Chlorine gas (Cl) + = Table Salt (NaCl)
  5. 5. Three steps in an ionic bond <ul><li>Step 1: Formation of ions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One atoms loses an electron to another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of cation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Na atom loses an electron to a Cl atom </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If fewer than four electrons in outer shell, more likely to lose an electron (positive charge, Na+) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of anion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If more than four electrons in outer shell, less likely to lose electron and more likely to gain one (negative charge, Cl-) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Three steps in an ionic bond <ul><li>Step 2: Attraction of opposites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Na+ is attracted to Cl- because of opposite charges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Step 3: Formation of ionic bond </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The association of Na and Cl ions form the ionic compound NaCl (sodium chloride) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Let’s take another look at ionic bonds </li></ul>
  7. 7. Covalent Bond <ul><li>Covalent bond: a bond created by sharing of electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Molecule: two or more atoms held together by a covalent bond that behave as a single unit </li></ul>
  8. 8. Single Covalent Bond <ul><li>One shared electron </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen molecule: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only form that hydrogen is found as in nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two hydrogen atoms share their electrons with each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to tossing a baseball back and forth between two people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each person shares equal amount of time with the ball </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Double Covalent Bond <ul><li>Sharing two pairs of electrons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Space filling model shows picture of molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural formula uses lines to show bonds: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen: H-H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen: O=O </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide O=C=O </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Let’s take another look at covalent bonding </li></ul>
  10. 10. Review <ul><li>What is the difference between ionic bonds and covalents bonds? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ionic bonding: atoms lose or gain electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covalent bonding: atoms share electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the difference between compounds and molecules? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compounds: formed through ionic bonding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecules: formed through covalent bonding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From Atoms to Molecules </li></ul>
  11. 11. Polar Covalent Bonds <ul><li>Polar covalent bond: unequal sharing of electrons </li></ul>
  12. 12. Polar Covalent Bonds <ul><li>Water: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen atom forms covalent bond with two hydrogen atoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The oxygen atom has a much stronger attraction for the shared electrons than the hydrogen atoms do (electrons spend most of their time orbiting around the oxygen nucleus) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Polar covalent bonds <ul><li>Because it has two extra electrons part of the time, the oxygen atom develops a slight negative charge and the hydrogen atoms become weakly positive </li></ul>
  14. 14. Hydrogen Bond <ul><li>Attraction between a hydrogen atom and an atom such as oxygen or nitrogen that is either part of another molecule or located at a distant site on the same molecule. </li></ul><ul><li>Both the hydrogen atom and the other atom must be involved in a polar covalent bond </li></ul>
  15. 15. Molecular View of Solution Formation <ul><li>Why does salt dissolve in water? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolving salt in water </li></ul></ul>

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