Broadcast Communication Module 1 History of Broadcasting
Module Objectives• Upon completion of this module, you should be able to: – Arrange the order of events in the history of broadcasting – Identify the main inventors of the technologies that contributed to the development of today’s modern broadcasting system – Realize the important role of broadcast communication in history.
If you would understandanything, observe its beginning and its development. Aristotle
• To look at the history of Broadcasting, or any industry for that matter, is to study the beginnings of both the technology and it’s impact to people’s lives and eventually to society.• As Communication scholars, we should be more concerned about how communication is possible using a particular medium and how what is being communicated impacts society.• We will look at the history in this context: the development of broadcasting technology and its impact to society.
• According to Prof. Irving Fang (The Six Information Revolutions): – “…for an information revolution to succeed, media that will provide new means for communication must be disseminated within societies already undergoing change. Communication technologiesby themselves are not enough. The media both aid and are aided by whatever has shaken the existing order…” – Bold words are conditions for an information revolution
• Take the case of the RADIO, it had to go through many thinkers and inventors before people enjoyed “the radio” we enjoy (or perhaps take for granted?) today.• It all started with a theory: Theory of invisible waves In 1855, James Clerk Maxwell published his Theory of Invisible Waves which became the basis for the invention of radio.
• That Heinrich Hertz proved 31 years later in 1886. Electromagneti c waves do exist!• Which later became Guglielmo Marconi’s basis for his “wireless telegraphy”.
Signals in the Air• Guglielmo Marconi• 1901 founded the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America which later became Radio Corporation of America But Marconi’s messages were (RCA) still not voice messages, they were like morse-code tappings• He sent his first wireless sent over the air. radio broadcast in 1902.
• Note that there was no sole credit for the invention of radio. Same goes for the development of Television, which built up on the technology of radio. They wanted a radio with pictures.• Following are slides that briefly outline the inventions that preceded Television and their inventors.
Television Technology: Beginnings • Literally means “seeing at a distance” • First appeared on the journal, Scientific American in June 1907 • Other names considered for TV: Visual wireless, visual radio, electric vision
Television Technology: Beginnings 1884 Paul Gottlieb Nipkow “Nipkow Disk” 1st major technological discovery to suggest that pictures could travel
Television Technology: Beginnings 1923 Vladimir Zworykin Developed an all-electronic system to transform a visual image into an electrical signal that could travel through air.
Television Technology: Beginnings 1930 Philo Farnsworth Improved Nipkow’s Mechanical scanning device: Cathode ray, reproduces electronic images more clearly.
• Note that these are the only developments in the technology and we haven’t tackled their effects on society yet.• Over the years, inventors and brave men would step out and come up with something brilliant that either 1) improved the existing technology or 2) used the technology in a different way and affected society.• Go to http://www.greatachievements.org/?id=3659 for a comprehensive timeline on the invention of radio and television.
• More than the development of the technology, as Communication Arts scholars, we should focus more on how this medium has been used and how it affected lives, this is what we’ll pay attention to in the next slides.
Radio Broadcasting• In Christmas of 1906, Reginald Fessenden’s voice was the 1st listeners heard as he did the his public transmission of human voice – Also the first radio broadcast of entertainment and music
Radio Broadcasting • In 1916, Frank Conrad started broadcasting songs and his voice via 8XK • On November 2, 1920, he started the 1st commercial radio station.
Growth of Radio •1923 •Audience of 2M •500 stations •500k sets •1926 •One house •1925 in six had a •2million sets radio
Early Radio • Technology – brought the radio into the parlor • Gave multitudes of people a new, inexpensive source of information & entertainment • Commercialization of radio gave advertisers access to this audience at home • Radio programming: comedy, music, serials, dram a & news.
Television Technology: Beginnings April 30, 1939NBC’s Commercial TV debut 1939 World’s Fair, NY Pres. Franklin Roosevelt –1st president to appear on TV
Early Television Programming• Like radio with pictures: variety shows, sitcoms, dram a, Westerns, detectiv e stories, soap operas and quiz shows
Rise of Television News November 22, 1963 Assassination of JFKMore than 9 out 10 American watched the coverage 1968Anti-War Demonstrations and Vietnam War
Radio in the TV Era 1936 1935 Gordon McLendon Edwin Armstrong Martin Block Introduced format introduces FM 1st DJ radio(frequency modulation) Licensed recordings -Standardized radio launch disc jockeys -programs
Portable Radios 1928 William Lear Car Radio“drive-time audiences” 6-9 am; 4-7pm Gerald Bartell 1957
Radio’s New Role • Once the leisure-time “reward” • Now accompanies almost every type of activity • Radio as companion • Radio survived because it adapted to fill a different need for its audience
• The previous notes gave you a quick run down of the history of Broadcasting.• Some points to remember: – A society has to be ready for change, technology can’t make it all happen. – Broadcast technologies underwent a lot of revisions before it truly made an impact in society. – Older technologies adapt to newer technologies as they come.
Quick Test: Arrange the following events chronologically.• Establishment of the “drive time audience” in radio.• Guglielmo Marconi sends the first wireless message.• Families watched the Vietnam war from their living rooms.• The word “television” appears on the journal Scientific American.
Ponder on it.• Has radio really lost its popularity because of television? Do you see radio broadcasting totally discontinuing?• What is the importance of Frank Conrad’s 1st radio broadcast from his home?• What are the functions of radio in society?• What are the functions of TV in society?