Television

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Television

  1. 1. Michelle Karns, Tyler Grimes, Casey Nishimura, and Reynold Price
  2. 2. “Information, knowledge, and culture are central to human freedom and human development. How they are produced and exchanged in our society critically affects the way we see the state of the world as it is and might be; who decides the questions; and how we, as societies and polities, come to understand what can and ought to be done” (Benkler, 2006, p. 1).
  3. 3. Photo courtesy of fanpop.com http://images.fanpop.com/images/image_uploads/Old-School-TV-television-296019_1544_1500.jpg
  4. 4.  By the late 1930s, radio was woven into the fabric of American life. It allowed millions to enjoy public events in the comfort of their own home (History.com).  Adding picture was the next logical step.  By the 1950’s, television had already become the main medium for shaping public opinion (Diggs- Brown, B. 2011).
  5. 5. Although the electronic television was demonstrated to the public by Philo Farnsworth in 1928 (Discovery.com), “technical difficulties, corporate competition, and World War II postponed its widespread introduction to the public until 1946” (History.com). Photo courtesy of The Guardian http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Music/Pix/pictures/2011/8/25/1314286928097/1950s-television-set-006.jpg
  6. 6.  In 1945 the the first experimental microwave relay system was introduced by Western Union between New York and Philadelphia. This distribution system transmitted communication signals via radio along a series of towers (FCC.gov).  Between 1945 and 1948, the number of commercial television stations grew from 9 to 48 and the number of cities having commercial service went from 8 to 23 (FCC.gov).  Television sales increase 500% (FCC.gov).
  7. 7.  There was an initial introduction of a color television set in 1951, but production was stopped because the federal government ruled the color set used strategic material necessary for the Korean War effort (Butler 2006).  In 1954, the color television was introduced by RCA in the United States (Butler 2006).  Color TVs took more than a decade to reach a significant number of households(Butler 2006).  Color became the dominant television set in 1966 (Butler 2006).
  8. 8.  Prior to the mid-1950’s, television was transmitted “live” or recorded on film on a kinescope recorder.  A specially adapted 16-mm or 35- mm motion picture camera filmed the program from a high quality monitor as it went to air. The result was poor by today’s standards.  In 1956, Ampex introduced its VR 1000 “quad” video tape recorder (VTR).  This physical technology led to a change in organizational technology by allowing high-quality television production to happen away from the New York studios (FCC.gov). Kinescope recorder recorded images on a video monitor (left) using a film camera (right). Source: Canada Science and Technology Museum
  9. 9.  In 1970, Robert Maurer, Donald Keck, and Peter Schultz invented the fiberopticwire, which carries 65,000 times more information than a conventional copper wire (Lemelson-MIT, 1997).  In 1981, HNK developed the first 1,125 HDTV system. Sharpness is a function of lines across the screen to constitute the picture.  60 years before Jenkins and Baird had been broadcasting at between 30 and 60 lines.  40 years before the standard was 525 lines (FCC.gov).  Ultra-HD 4K television technology is now available, boasting 4096 x 2160 resolution.
  10. 10.  Over the past decade, closed-captioned television has introduced millions of hearing-impaired viewers to the television (FCC.gov).  V-Chips have enabled parents to control the content of what their children watch (FCC.gov).  Now, digital video recorders (DVR) are changing the way people think about financing and viewing of television programs (FCC.gov).
  11. 11. PhotocourtesyofTVHistory.tv http://www.tvhistory.tv/2000_Sept-Oct_TECH_REV-Pg97.JPG
  12. 12. The television has become a staple of American culture. Virtually every household in the United States has a television set, and many have more than one. It is interesting that no one person can be credited with inventing the television. Over the course of a few years, many inventors added their contributions to make the television possible and improve performance.
  13. 13.  Charles Francis Jenkins - In May of 1920, Jenkins introduced prismatic rings that would replace the shutter on a film projector (Early Television Museum).  Allen B. DuMont - In the 1920’s, DuMont developed a cheaper version of the cathode ray tube (CRT), which would last for thousands of hours - much longer than the German version of the CRT, which would only last for 25 to 30 hours (Early Television Museum). Photocourtesyofearlytelevision.org http://www.earlytelevision.org/chas_jenkins.html Photo courtesy of earlytelevision.org http://www.earlytelevision.org/allen_b_d umont.html
  14. 14.  Vladimir Zworykin - In December of 1923, Zworykin applied for a patent for the iconoscope, which would scan pictures to produce images. He later developed a new tube called the kinescope, which is the basis of modern day televisions. The first entirely electronic television system was formed using these two inventions (Early Television Museum).  John Logie Baird - In 1924, Baird was able to transmit simple face shapes using a mechanical television (Early Television Museum). Photocourtesyofearlytelevision.org http://www.earlytelevision.org/j_l_baird.html Photocourtesyofmyhero.com http://www.myhero.com/go/hero.asp?hero=v_zworykin
  15. 15.  Dr. E.W. Alexanderson - On June 5, 1924, Alexanderson was able to transmit a facsimile message across the Atlantic Ocean for the first time. In 1927, Alexanderson used high frequency neon lamps and a perforated scanning disk to demonstrate the first home reception of the television (Early Television Museum).  Ulises Armand Sanabria - In January of 1926, Sanabria was the first person to use interlaced scanning to transmit a television picture. Using a triple interlace method, Sanabria was able to reduce the flicker in a picture (Early Television Museum). Photocourtesyofdigitalgallery.com http://bit.ly/1cEN85U Photocourtesyofearlytelevision.org http://www.earlytelevision.org/u_a_sanabria.html
  16. 16. Philo Farnsworth - Farnsworth was a specialist in cathode-ray tubes andtheir use in televisions. Farnsworth's first application for a patent was for an electronic television system, which included an image dissector tube used to scan images for transmission. At the receiver end, an oscillitetube received and showed the picture. Farnsworth’s multipactor, which was an electron multiplier tube, increased the image dissector’s sensitivity (Early Television Museum). Photocourtesyofnndb.com http://www.nndb.com/people/662/000024590/
  17. 17. David Sarnoff - In 1928, Sarnoff launched the NBC television station as an experiment, and by 1939, Sarnoff was able to demonstrate the success of his station at the World’s Fair in New York (Early Television Museum). Photo courtesy of wikipedia.org http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Sarnof f
  18. 18. Manfred von Ardenne - von Ardenne began experiments using CRT receivers in 1930. With mechanical scanners, he produced good quality images using CRTs. In April of 1931, von Ardenne invented the flying spot film scanner. It produced a 60 line picture using a horizontal scan rate of 1500 Hz. and a vertical scan rate of 25 Hz. An 8000 volt power supply was used on the CRT(Early Television Museum). Photo courtesy of wikipedia.org http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manf red_von_Ardenne
  19. 19. Rene Barthelemy - Barthelemydeveloped a mirror drum 30 line mechanical camera which was used in the first demonstration of the television to the public on April 14, 1931. By the end of 1934, his work with 60 line technology paved the way for the first official television broadcast by France, which took place on April 26, 1935. On December 2, 1935, Barthelemy broadcast his first 180 line television programs using a mechanical camera and electronic receivers(Early Television Museum). Photo courtesy of centrosangiorgio.org http://bit.ly/10tcKAg
  20. 20.  The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) was established by the Communications Act of 1934 under President Franklin D. Roosevelt and succeeded the Federal Radio Commission (FCC.gov).  The purpose of the FCC was to “make available so far as possible, to all the people of the United States, without discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, or sex, rapid, efficient, Nation-wide, and world-wide wire and radio communication services with adequate facilities at reasonable charges” (47 U.S.C. §151).
  21. 21. In terms of regulating television, the FCCimplements rules and regulations as well as “establishing broadcast regulatory policies through the individual cases that we decide, such as those involving license renewals, station sales, and complaints about violations of FCC rules” (FCC.com). Image courtesy of arstechnica.com http://origin.arstechnica.com/news.media/FCC.jpg
  22. 22.  In the early history of television, the structure of the radio was followed allowing corporations to sponsor and produce shows (Ezinearticles.com).  By the mid 1940’s, advertising was taking over, and the purpose of the television became selling things (Ezinearticles.com). Photo courtesy of BettyCrocker.com http://www.bettycrocker.com/~/media/images/Layout/Glo bal/BettyCrockerKitchens/BCKitchens_1943.ashx
  23. 23.  In 1928, Charles Jenkins received the first U.S. television license from the FRC for station W3XK in Wheaton, Maryland (FCC.gov).  In 1930, Jenkins aired the first television commercial and was fined by the FRC (FCC.gov). Photo credit by FCC.gov
  24. 24.  Beginning in the 1950’s, corporations would produce and sponsor television programming, which would include a one minute ad (History.com).  With programming becoming expensive, advertisers realized that 30 second ads were also effective and show would be sponsored by multiple products (History.com).
  25. 25.  Eventually, networks became fed up with sponsors controlling the shows (Ezinearticles.com).  Networks began to eliminate sponsors and sell advertising time between programs, which led to the commercial system we have today (Ezinearticles.com). Photo courtesy of 10minutesofbrilliance.com http://bit.ly/hlA8d7
  26. 26. To Inform, Entertain, and Influence Photo courtesy of tvasylum.com http://www.tvasylum.com/wp-content/uploads/peoplewatchingtv1.jpg
  27. 27.  Television is a mass communication tool that was initially used to add images to radio-style programming. It was utilized to disseminate news and information and provide entertainment.  The primary purpose of television remains relevant, but capitalism and technological innovations have transformed how television is used.  According to Kellner (1981), television produces both profit and ideology, maintains hegemony, and encourages the status quo.
  28. 28. Kellner (1981) notes how television networks and advertisers have capitalized on the technology.  Networks:  Set the agenda for news and information.  Dictate forms, values and ideologies of entertainment programming.  Promote capitalism, consumerism, and social conformity.  Exert political influence.  Advertisers:  Influence consumer demand and values.  Provide revenue that impacts network decisions.
  29. 29. American television networks not only influence citizens of the United States, but According to Kellner (1981), they have a global impact on values. Kellner (1981) asserts that American network television is “one of the most far-reaching communication apparatuses and entertainment transmitters that have ever existed” (p. 31). Photo courtesy of theawl.com http://s21.theawl.com/awl/up/2011/10/sons.jpg
  30. 30. According to Kellner (1981), the military, politicians, and corporations all have used television to solicit and disseminate their messages to the public. Photo courtesy of EmploymentgGuide.com http://i50.tinypic.com/5soxg.jpg
  31. 31. Advertising has long leveraged television’s influence to market products and build brands. Some popular icons include Betty Crocker, Ron Popeil, and the Pillsbury Doughboy. Shopping networks are now common on Image courtesy of Housewares.org http://www.housewares.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/popeil.jpg
  32. 32. With the continual development of new technology, including LED screens, faster refresh rates, numerous peripheral devices, 3D experience, and Ultra-HD 4K television sets, one might expect to see the purpose and use of television to continue to develop. Photo courtesy of Digital Trends http://www.digitaltrends.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Sony-4K-ces-2013-2.jpg
  33. 33. Modern televisions are compatible with a variety of peripheral devices that complement the medium and provide additional functionality. Below are a few popular peripherals:  Surround sound  Video game consoles  Blue ray players  Digital video recorders  DVD players
  34. 34.  Although televisions were initially a one-way communication device, today’s smart TVs feature Internet connectivity, allowing users to access a wider variety of content and achieve bidirectional communication.  Computer monitors and cell phone screens are an adaptation of television technology.  Television imaging technology is used in a variety of medical equipment to provide visual support that was not previously possible.
  35. 35. How Lady Justice Changed the Channel Photo courtesy of Sculpture Gallery http://www.sculpturegallery.com/sculpture/scales_of_justice_II.htm l
  36. 36.  The FCC was given its authority to regulate the scarce broadcast airwaves because the airwaves were seen as public property (O’Malley, M. 2004).  The FCC had the power to censor obscene material and maintain fair political programming across the spectrum. Photo courtesy of MSNBC http://msnbcmedia.msn.com/i/MSNB C/Sections/TVNews/MSNBC%20TV/ Maddow/Blog/2010/11/autumn_tower s.jpg
  37. 37.  The FCC also mandated that a percentage of the television broadcasts be for public use and not for commercial purposes.  In the early 1950’s, obscene and indecent content was prohibited by the FCC (O’Malley, M. 2004). Photo by www.freedigitalphotos.net
  38. 38. Obscene content is defined subjectively, as follows: "the average person, applying contemporary community standards, would find that the material appeals to the prurient interest; that the material describes or depicts sexual conduct in a patently offensive manner; or taken as whole, the material lacks serious literary, artistic, political or scientific value" (FCC.gov). Photo courtesy of growthnation.com http://growthnation.com/wp- content/uploads/2012/11/covering- eyes.jpg
  39. 39. Indecent content is defined as: “language or material that, in context, depicts or describes, in terms patently offensive as measured by contemporary community standards for the broadcast medium, sexual or excretory organs or activities” (FCC.gov). Image by Eric Drooker http://politic365.com/wp- content/blogs.dir/1/files/2012/12/Censorship.gi f
  40. 40.  Profanity is defined as “including language so grossly offensive to members of the public who actually hear it as to amount to a nuisance” (FCC.gov).  Profanity is also restricted on broadcast television between 6 a.m. and 10 p.m. Image courtesy of play.google.com http://bit.ly/11WUxbU
  41. 41. Television law historical highlights:  In 1941, the National TV Ownership Rule prohibited ownership of television stations that covered more than 35% of homes.  In 1946, the Dual Television Network Rule disallowed major networks from owning another major network.  In 1964, the Local TV Multiple Ownership Rule mandated that station ownership would be limited to one per market unless there were eight stations in the market.
  42. 42. More television law historical highlights:  In 1970, a restriction was put into place prohibiting the ownership of both a TV station and radio station in one market.  In 1985, the rules for non-advertising programs and advertising-per-hour were abolished.  In 1987, the Fairness Doctrine was eliminated.  The Telecommunications Act of 1996 reduced previous restrictions on TV station ownership, which led to an increase in media consolidation.
  43. 43. PhotocourtesyofHowStuffWorks.com http://static.ddmcdn.com/gif/watch-tv.jpg
  44. 44. 1. The FCC was established to ensure that all Americans would have access to communication networks. 2. In mid-2009, television broadcasts went digital, which required users to purchase a converter box or upgrade to a new digitally-compatible TV set. 3. Coupons for converter boxes were available from the government, but according to Condon (2009), millions of households were waiting for coupons in early 2009, prompting the DTV Delay Act, which postponed the deadline until June. 4. Satellite and cable services were hard to come by in many rural areas, which prevented competitive pricing and negated universal access.
  45. 45.  Television creates manufactured consent, which according to Herman & Chomsky (1988), generates public support for powerful special interests that influence government and business.  Chomsky told Jhally (1997) that control over economic and regulatory concerns resides in the hands of a select group of large corporations and investment firms that set the agenda for other media sources.  Government has historically influenced television messaging, as revealed in Hughes’s (2007) documentary for PBS, Buying the War.
  46. 46.  The agenda setting theory of McCombs and Shaw applies to television because as Griffin (2012) notes, “The mass media have the ability to transfer the salience of issues on their news agenda to the public agenda.”  Television, a dominant communication medium, has set the agenda for political thought and activity for decades, possibly limiting democracy.  Although new technology enables Internet access from TV sets, and a wider variety of digital programming is available, agenda setting remains a concern.
  47. 47. According to Graham and Marvin (2001):  Expensive infrastructure services like broadcasting help support politics and develop and sustain varied cultural identities.  Private firms and governments partner to build infrastructure in affluent areas where the greatest return is expected, rebalancing tariffs.  Disadvantaged groups, who might benefit most from new technology, may be excluded due to location and higher access fees.
  48. 48. According to Neuman (1982), advertisers played an important role in content development by spending more than $12 billion on television ads in 1980 alone.  Competition existed among networks for advertising funds.  Ratings directly correlated to advertising revenue.  Start-up costs were high, which discouraged new networks from being created and limited messaging.
  49. 49. Graham and Marvin (2001) assert that:  Because of television’s influence, global capitalism, private business, and consumer demand, increased programming and access options are available.  Digital divides continue to be created between those who have access to communication networks and those isolated from them. According to Kellner (1981), “American television is rooted in the economic process of corporate capitalism” (p. 32) and has a complex system of production and distribution.
  50. 50. The chart on the right shows the growth in television ownership and indicates that more than 66 million households owned at least one television by 1973. Today most American households own multiple TV sets. <1% in 1947 9% in 1950 95% in 1973 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 NumberofHouseholdsinMillions Households with Televisions
  51. 51. Morrisette (1973) noted that children in the early 1970’s had come to expect television access due to its unprecedented saturation. Photo courtesy of MakeMoneyInLife.com http://www.makemoneyinlife.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/watch-tv-and-get-rewards.jpg
  52. 52. Neuman (1982) reported that television was the most dominant form of mass media in America in 1982.  98% of households had a television.  The average daily usage per home was 7 hours.  Typical adults watched 4 hours of TV daily (equivalent to 8 years over an average lifespan).  Usage among all demographics was growing.  Possible implications were just beginning to be considered.
  53. 53. Kellner (1981) called television “one of the most powerful social forces in America” (p. 1), and it remains so today.  American dependence on television has continued to grow, with television programming available on the Internet and via mobile devices.  Televisions dominate public spaces like restaurants, bars, and airports.  Concerns exist regarding the effects that excessive viewership and violent programming have on society.  The Today Show recently reported on the prevalence of TV binge watching, which you may view here.
  54. 54. According to Kellner (1981), television has come under pressure by under-represented groups to more accurately depict their identities and experience, but a lag exists between social changes and their integration into television programming. Photo courtesy of TMP Muckraker http://talkingpointsmemo.com/images/gay-rights-1012.jpg
  55. 55. Neuman (1982) asserts that “Television is socially defined as the culture of the masses” (p. 472).  The medium is the message, according to McLuhan (1964), which explains television’s rapid dominance and emergence as a universal pastime.  Democracy may be negatively impacted by limited content choice, agenda setting, and message framing, resulting in cultural homogenization.  Due to advertising and product placement, television strongly correlates to consumerism.
  56. 56.  Television increases access to art, education, humanities, sports, politics and more, although according to Benckler (2006), content is limited by owners of infrastructure and media.  Meals are often centered around television, reducing important face-to-face communication.  The use of peripheral devices for gaming and access to content outside traditional broadcasts increases television’s ability to provide variety and connectivity to communication networks.
  57. 57. The costs of new television technology create digital divides, but the technology enhances information access for those who can afford it.  Since mid-2009, television has been broadcast exclusively in digital format.Those with analog TVsets must use a converter box toaccess programming.  New smart TVs are connected to communication networks via cable or satellite service providers and via the Internet, which increases freedom of choice and expression by providing access to a variety of mass and independent media sources.
  58. 58. Benkler, Y. (2006). The wealth of networks: How social production transforms markets and freedom. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Butler, J. (2007). Television: critical methods and applications. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Canada Science and Technology Museum. (2013). The collection: Television. Retrieved from http://www.sciencetech.technomuses.ca/english/collection/television4.cfm Condon, S. (2009). Obama signs law delaying digital-TV translation. CNET. Retrieved from http://news.cnet.com/8301-13578_3-10161954-38.html Diggs-Brown, B. (2011). Strategic public relations: An audience-centered approach. Boston: Wadsworth. Early Television Museum. (2013). Television pioneers. Retrieved from http://www.earlytelevision.org/tv_pioneers.html Federal Communication Commission. (2005). Historical periods in television technology. Retrieved from http://transition.fcc.gov/omd/history/tv/ Graham, S., & Marvin, S. (2001). Splintering urbanism: Networked infrastructures, technological mobilities and the urban condition. New York, NY: Routledge. Griffin, E. (2012). A first look at communication theory. (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
  59. 59. Herman, E. & Chomsky, N. (1988). Manufacturing consent: The political economy of the mass media. New York: Pantheon Books. History Channel, (2013), Radio and television. Retrieved from http://www.history.com/topics/radio- and-television Howstuffworks, Tv and radio. Retrieved from http://curiosity.discovery.com/question/why-cable- tv-invented Hughes, K. (Producer). (2007). Buying The War [DVD]. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/moyers/journal/btw/watch.html Jhally, S. (Producer, Director). (1997). The myth of the liberal media: The propaganda model of news [Video]. Northampton, MA: Media Education Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.filmsforaction.org/watch/the_myth_of_the_liberal_media_the_propaganda_mo del_of_news_1997/ Kellner, D. (1981). Network television and American society: Introduction to a critical theory of television. Theory & Society, 10(1), 31. Kimmel, J. (2013). Jimmy Kimmel Live: This week in unnecessary censorship. Los Angeles, CA:ABC. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QZ6xBSnFdg8 Lemelson-MIT. (1997). Robert D. Maurer, Donald B. Keck, and Peter C. Schultz: Fiberoptic communications. Retrieved from http://web.mit.edu/invent/iow/MaurKeckSchul.html
  60. 60. McLuhan, M. (1964). Understanding media: The extensions of man. London: Routledge. Media Bureau. (2008). The public and broadcasting. Washington, DC: Federal Communications Commission. Retrieved from http://www.fcc.gov/guides/public-and-broadcasting-july- 2008#FCC Morrisett, L. (1973). Television technology and the culture of childhood. Educational Researcher 2(12), 3-5. Neuman, W. (1982). Television and American culture: The mass medium and the pluralist audience. Public Opinion Quarterly 46(4), 471. O’ Malley, M. (2004). Regulating Television. George Mason University.Retrieved from http://chnm.gmu.edu/exploring/20thcentury/regulatingtelevision/ Parkman, D. (2013). History of the media, radio and television. Retrieved from http://ezinearticles.com/?History-of-the-Media,-Radio,-and-Television&id=15556 Public Broadcasting Corporation. (2004). Media Regulation Timeline. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/now/politics/mediatimeline.html# United States Code. (2006). Telegraphs, telephones, and radiotelegraphs.Retrieved from http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/granule/USCODE-2011-title47/USCODE-2011-title47-chap5- subchapI-sec151/content-detail.html

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