MASS MEDIA: DEFINITION *is a term used to denote a section of themedia specifically envisioned and designedto reach a very large audience such as thepopulation of a nation state.
MASS MEDIA: DEFINITION It was coined in the 1920s with the advent ofnationwide radio networks, mass-circulationnewspapers and magazines. Although mass media (like books andmanuscripts) were present centuries beforethe term became common.
PUBLIC MEDIA *The term public media has a similarmeaning:―It is the sum of the public massdistributors of news and entertainmentacross media such as newspapers,television, radio, broadcasting.‖
HISTORY: EARLY DEVELOPMENTS Types of drama in numerous cultures wereprobably the first mass-media, going backinto the Ancient World. Cave art, hieroglyphics, alphabets, scrolls The first dated printed book known is the"Diamond Sutra", printed in China in 868 AD. Movable clay type was invented in 1041 inChina.
HISTORY: 1400 The earliest printed mass-medium wasprobably European popular prints fromabout 1400. Although these were produced in hugenumbers, very few early examplessurvive, and even most known to beprinted before about 1600 have notsurvived.
HISTORY: PRINTING PRESS *Johannes Gutenberg printed the first bookon a printing press with movable type in1453. *This invention transformed the way theworld received printed materials, althoughbooks remained too expensive really to becalled a mass-medium for at least a centuryafter that.
HISTORY: 1600-1800 *Newspapers developed around from 1612,with the first example in English in 1620; butthey took until the nineteenth century toreach a mass-audience directly.
HISTORY: 20TH CENTURY *The growth of mass media in this centurywas driven by technology that allowed themassive duplication of material. *Physical duplication technologies such asprinting, record pressing and filmduplication allowed the duplication ofbooks, newspapers and movies at lowprices to huge audiences. Radio and television allowed the electronicduplication of information for the first time.
TIMELINE c1400: Appearance of European popularprints. *1453: Johnannes Gutenberg uses hisprinting press to print the Bible, makingbooks freely accessible to many peopleduring the Renaissance. 1620: First newspaper (or coranto) inEnglish. *1825: Nicéphore Niépce takes the firstpermanent photograph.
TIMELINE 1830: Telegraphy is independently developedin England and the United States. *1876: First telephone call made byAlexander Graham Bell. *1878: Thomas Alva Edison patents thephonograph. 1890: First juke box in San FranciscosPalais Royal Saloon.
TIMELINE 1890: Telephone wires are installed inManhattan. 1894: Thomas Edison patents theKinetograph and Kinetoscope, which wereinvented in his laboratories. *1895: Cinematograph invented by Augusteand Louis Lumiere, based on Edisonspatented Kinetograph.
TIMELINE 1896: Hollerith founds the TabulatingMachine Co. It will become IBM in 1924. *1897: Guglielmo Marconi patents thewireless telegraph. *1898: Loudspeaker is invented. 1902: Daily Nation is started in Kenya. *1906: The Story of the Kelly Gang fromAustralia is worlds first feature length film.
TIMELINE *1912: Air mail begins. 1913: Edison transfers from cylinderrecordings to more easily reproducible discs. *1913: The portable phonograph ismanufactured.
TIMELINE *1915: Radiotelephone carries voice fromVirginia to the Eiffel Tower. 1916: Tunable radios invented. *1919: Short-wave radio is invented.
TIMELINE 1920: KDKA-AM in Pittsburgh, UnitedStates, becoming the worlds first commercialradio station. 1922: BBC is formed and broadcasting toLondon.
TIMELINE 1924: KDKA created a short-wave radiotransmitter. 1925: BBC broadcasting to the majority ofthe UK. 1926: NBC is formed.
TIMELINE *1927: The Jazz Singer: The first motionpicture with sounds debuts. *1927: Philo T. Farnsworth debuts the firstelectronic television system.
TIMELINE 1928: The Teletype was introduced. 1933: Edward Armstrong invents FM Radio. *1935: First telephone call made around theworld.
TIMELINE 1939: Western Union introduces coast-to-coast fax service. 1939: Regular electronic televisionbroadcasts begin in the US. 1939: The wire recorder is invented in theUS.
TIMELINE 1940: The first commercial television station,WNBT New York signs on the air. 1948: Cable television becomes available inthe US.
TIMELINE *1951: The first color televisions go on sale. *1957: Sputnik is launched and sends backsignals from near earth orbit. 1959: Xerox makes the first copier.
TIMELINE 1960: Echo I, a US balloon in orbit, reflectsradio signals to Earth. 1962: Telstar satellite transmits an imageacross the Atlantic. 1963: Audio cassette is invented in theNetherlands by Philips for use as a dictation
TIMELINE 1965: Vietnam War becomes first war tobe televised. *1967: Newspapers, magazines start todigitize production. 1968: The Philips C-Cassette is introducedas a music recording cassette *1969: Mans first landing on the moon isbroadcast to 600 million people around theglobe.
TIMELINE 1970s: ARPANET, progenitor to the internetdeveloped. *1971: Intel debuts the microprocessor. *1972: Pong becomes the first video game towin widespread popularity.
TIMELINE 1973: The first home video cassette recorderis introduced by Philips in Europe. *1975: The MITS Altair 8800 becomes thefirst pre-assembled desktop computeravailable on the market.
TIMELINE 1976: JVC introduces VHS videotape -becomes the standard consumer format inthe 1980s & 1990s. *1979: First mobile phone service iscommercially launched by NTT in Japan,ESPN is launched in the USA.
TIMELINE 1980: CNN launches in the USA. 1980: New York Times, Wall StreetJournal, Dow Jones put news databaseonline. *1981: The IBM PC is introduced on 12August. MTV launches in the USA
TIMELINE 1982: Philips and Sony put the Compact Discon the Japanese market. *1984: Apple Macintosh is introduced. 1985: CD-ROMs begin to be sold.
TIMELINE *First laptop computer introduced by Toshibain Japan. 1987: Japanese Digital Audio Tapetechnology arrives both in the United Statesand in Western Europe.
TIMELINE *1991: World Wide Web (WWW) publiclyreleased by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN. 1993: CERN announces that the WWWwill be free for anyone to use. Firstadvertisements appear on the internet *1994: Mosaic became the first popularWorld Wide Web browser because of thegraphical interface.
TIMELINE 1996: First DVD players and discs areavailable in Japan. Twister is the first filmon DVD. *1997: The Nokia Communicatorsmartphone is launched in Finland, isworlds first fully internet capable mobilephone and offers full email on a phone 1998: First downloadable content formobile phones appears in Finland withadvent of ringing tone.
TIMELINE *1999: Napster contributes to thepopularization of MP3. First mobile internet service provider NTTDoCoMos i-Mode launches in Japan. 2000: First advertising appears on mobilephones in Finland. First cameraphones launched by J-Phone inJapan.
TIMELINE 2001: First video content for mobile launcheswith MainosTV3 news in Finland. *2004: Howard Dean is the first Presidentialcandidate to create a blog. *Citizen Journalism invented in South Koreaby Ohmy News.
TIMELINE 2005: Media forms begin to converge. First mobile broadcast TV service goes liveon TU Media in South Korea. First news ticker feed appears on mobilephone idle screen in Japan.
PURPOSES OF MEDIA Mass media can be used for various purposes: Advocacy, both for business and social concerns.This can includeadvertising, marketing, propaganda, publicrelations, and political communication. Enrichment and education. Entertainment, traditionally through performancesof acting, music, and sports, along with light reading;since the late 20th century also through video andcomputer games. Public service announcements.
MASS MEDIA ECONOMICS *Mass media had the economics of linearreplication:―a single work could make moneyproportional to the number of copies sold,and as volumes went up, units costs wentdown, increasing profit margins further.‖
MEDIA INFLUENCE *In a democratic society, independent mediaserve to educate the public/electorate aboutissues regarding government and corporateentities. This is called Media influence. Some consider the concentration of mediaownership to be a grave threat to democracy.
NEGATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF MASS MEDIA Another description of Mass Media is centralmedia which implies: *An ability to transmit implicit or hiddenknowledge *The manipulation of large groups of peoplethrough media outlets, for the benefit of aparticular interest party and/or group of people. *Bias, political or otherwise, towards favoring acertain individual, outcome or resolution of anevent.
MEDIA FORMS IN EDUCATION Broadcasting, in the narrow sense, for radio,television, and the Internet. Various types of discs or tapes. In the 20thcentury, these were mainly used for music.Video and computer uses followed.
MEDIA FORMS IN EDUCATION Broadcasting, in the narrow sense, forradio, television, and the Internet. Various types of discs or tapes. In the 20thcentury, these were mainly used for music.Video and computer uses followed.
PRINTED MASS MEDIA Objectives :# By the end of this lesson, studentsshould be able to:Identify the different types of printedmass media, and their application ineducation.
JOURNALISM *Journalism is a discipline of collecting,analyzing, verifying, and presentinginformation regarding current events,trends, issues and people. Those who practice journalism are knownas journalists.
JOURNALISM News-oriented journalism is sometimesdescribed as the "first rough draft ofhistory" (attributed to Phil Graham),because journalists often record importantevents, producing news articles on shortdeadlines.
JOURNALISM While under pressure to be first with theirstories, news media organizations usuallyedit and proofread their reports prior topublication, adhering to eachorganizations standards of accuracy,quality and style. Many news organizations claim proudtraditions of holding government officialsand institutions accountable to the public,while media critics have raised questions
PUBLIC RELATIONS Public relations is the art and science ofmanaging communication between anorganization and its key publics to build,manage and sustain its positive image.
PUBLIC RELATIONS Corporations use marketing publicrelations (MPR) to convey informationabout the products they manufacture orservices they provide to potentialcustomers to support their direct salesefforts. Typically, they support sales in the shortand long term, establishing and burnishingthe corporations branding for a strong,ongoing market.
PUBLIC RELATIONS Corporations also use public-relations as avehicle to reach decision makers, and theymay use public relations to portraythemselves as enlightened employers, insupport of human-resources recruitingprograms.
PUBLIC RELATIONS Non-profit organizations, including schoolsand universities, hospitals, and human andsocial service agencies, use publicrelations in support of awarenessprograms, fund-raising programs, staffrecruiting, and to increase patronage oftheir services. Decision makers use public relations toraise money, promote and defend theirservice in office
NEWSPAPER A newspaper is a publication containingnews and information and advertising,usually printed on low-cost paper callednewsprint. It may be general or special interest, mostoften published daily or weekly. The first printed newspaper was publishedin 1605, and the form has thrived even inthe face of competition from technologiessuch as radio and television.
NEWSPAPER Recent developments on the Internet areposing major threats to its business model. Paid circulation is declining in mostcountries, and advertising revenue, whichmakes up the bulk of a newspapersincome, is shifting from print to online. Some commentators, nevertheless, pointout that historically new media such asradio and television did not entirelysupplant existing.
PUBLISHING Publishing is the industry concerned withthe production of literature or information –the activity of making information availablefor public view. In some cases, authors may be their ownpublishers.
PUBLISHING *Traditionally, the term refers to the distributionof printed works such as books and newspapers. *With the advent of digital information systemsand the Internet, the scope of publishing hasexpanded to include websites, blogs, and thelike. As a business, publishing includes thedevelopment, marketing, production, anddistribution of newspapers, magazines, books,literary works, musical works, software, otherworks dealing with information.
BOOK *A book is a collection of sheets of paper,parchment or other material with a piece oftext written on them, bound together alongone edge within covers. A book is also a literary work or a maindivision of such a work. *A book produced in electronic format isknown as an e-book.
BOOK In library and information science, a bookis called a monograph to distinguish it fromserial publications such as magazines,journals or newspapers. Publishers may produce low-cost, pre-proof editions known as galleys or boundproofs for promotional purposes, such asgenerating reviews in advance ofpublication.
MAGAZINE *A magazine is a periodical publicationcontaining a variety of articles, generallyfinanced by advertising and/or purchaseby readers.
MAGAZINE Magazines are typically published weekly,biweekly, monthly, bimonthly or quarterly,with a date on the cover that is in advanceof the date it is actually published. They are often printed in color on coatedpaper, and are bound with a soft cover. *Magazines fall into two broad categories:consumer magazines and businessmagazines.
MAGAZINE *In practice, magazines are a subset ofperiodicals, distinct from those periodicalsproduced by scientific, artistic, academicor special interest publishers which aresubscription-only, more expensive,narrowly limited in circulation, and oftenhave little or no advertising.
MAGAZINE *Magazines can be classified as: General interest magazines (e.g. Oman daily,Al Watan, etc) Special interest magazines (educational,sports, business, diving, etc)
EDUCATION JOURNALISM *Journalism that focuses on what goes oninside classrooms requires that journalistsknow something about education. There’s much journalism about schools thatis important and compelling but that is notprecisely about education. Covering the school board, for example, isimportant. Education writers, however, need to also beable to communicate clearly about the heartof the matter—teaching and learning.
EDUCATION JOURNALISM *what goes on inside classrooms is acomplicated interaction between andamong students, and with their teacher,while wrestling with important content. And all of those interactions are influencedby what happens outside of class andoutside the school.