1 mass media

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1 mass media

  1. 1. MASS MEDIA
  2. 2. MASS MEDIA: DEFINITION *is a term used to denote a section of themedia specifically envisioned and designedto reach a very large audience such as thepopulation of a nation state.
  3. 3. MASS MEDIA: DEFINITION It was coined in the 1920s with the advent ofnationwide radio networks, mass-circulationnewspapers and magazines. Although mass media (like books andmanuscripts) were present centuries beforethe term became common.
  4. 4. PUBLIC MEDIA *The term public media has a similarmeaning:―It is the sum of the public massdistributors of news and entertainmentacross media such as newspapers,television, radio, broadcasting.‖
  5. 5. HISTORY: EARLY DEVELOPMENTS Types of drama in numerous cultures wereprobably the first mass-media, going backinto the Ancient World. Cave art, hieroglyphics, alphabets, scrolls The first dated printed book known is the"Diamond Sutra", printed in China in 868 AD. Movable clay type was invented in 1041 inChina.
  6. 6. HISTORY: 1400 The earliest printed mass-medium wasprobably European popular prints fromabout 1400. Although these were produced in hugenumbers, very few early examplessurvive, and even most known to beprinted before about 1600 have notsurvived.
  7. 7. HISTORY: PRINTING PRESS *Johannes Gutenberg printed the first bookon a printing press with movable type in1453. *This invention transformed the way theworld received printed materials, althoughbooks remained too expensive really to becalled a mass-medium for at least a centuryafter that.
  8. 8. HISTORY: 1600-1800 *Newspapers developed around from 1612,with the first example in English in 1620; butthey took until the nineteenth century toreach a mass-audience directly.
  9. 9. HISTORY: 20TH CENTURY *The growth of mass media in this centurywas driven by technology that allowed themassive duplication of material. *Physical duplication technologies such asprinting, record pressing and filmduplication allowed the duplication ofbooks, newspapers and movies at lowprices to huge audiences. Radio and television allowed the electronicduplication of information for the first time.
  10. 10. TIMELINE c1400: Appearance of European popularprints. *1453: Johnannes Gutenberg uses hisprinting press to print the Bible, makingbooks freely accessible to many peopleduring the Renaissance. 1620: First newspaper (or coranto) inEnglish. *1825: Nicéphore Niépce takes the firstpermanent photograph.
  11. 11. TIMELINE 1830: Telegraphy is independently developedin England and the United States. *1876: First telephone call made byAlexander Graham Bell. *1878: Thomas Alva Edison patents thephonograph. 1890: First juke box in San FranciscosPalais Royal Saloon.
  12. 12. TIMELINE 1890: Telephone wires are installed inManhattan. 1894: Thomas Edison patents theKinetograph and Kinetoscope, which wereinvented in his laboratories. *1895: Cinematograph invented by Augusteand Louis Lumiere, based on Edisonspatented Kinetograph.
  13. 13. TIMELINE 1896: Hollerith founds the TabulatingMachine Co. It will become IBM in 1924. *1897: Guglielmo Marconi patents thewireless telegraph. *1898: Loudspeaker is invented. 1902: Daily Nation is started in Kenya. *1906: The Story of the Kelly Gang fromAustralia is worlds first feature length film.
  14. 14. TIMELINE *1912: Air mail begins. 1913: Edison transfers from cylinderrecordings to more easily reproducible discs. *1913: The portable phonograph ismanufactured.
  15. 15. TIMELINE *1915: Radiotelephone carries voice fromVirginia to the Eiffel Tower. 1916: Tunable radios invented. *1919: Short-wave radio is invented.
  16. 16. TIMELINE 1920: KDKA-AM in Pittsburgh, UnitedStates, becoming the worlds first commercialradio station. 1922: BBC is formed and broadcasting toLondon.
  17. 17. TIMELINE 1924: KDKA created a short-wave radiotransmitter. 1925: BBC broadcasting to the majority ofthe UK. 1926: NBC is formed.
  18. 18. TIMELINE *1927: The Jazz Singer: The first motionpicture with sounds debuts. *1927: Philo T. Farnsworth debuts the firstelectronic television system.
  19. 19. TIMELINE 1928: The Teletype was introduced. 1933: Edward Armstrong invents FM Radio. *1935: First telephone call made around theworld.
  20. 20. TIMELINE 1939: Western Union introduces coast-to-coast fax service. 1939: Regular electronic televisionbroadcasts begin in the US. 1939: The wire recorder is invented in theUS.
  21. 21. TIMELINE 1940: The first commercial television station,WNBT New York signs on the air. 1948: Cable television becomes available inthe US.
  22. 22. TIMELINE *1951: The first color televisions go on sale. *1957: Sputnik is launched and sends backsignals from near earth orbit. 1959: Xerox makes the first copier.
  23. 23. TIMELINE 1960: Echo I, a US balloon in orbit, reflectsradio signals to Earth. 1962: Telstar satellite transmits an imageacross the Atlantic. 1963: Audio cassette is invented in theNetherlands by Philips for use as a dictation
  24. 24. TIMELINE 1965: Vietnam War becomes first war tobe televised. *1967: Newspapers, magazines start todigitize production. 1968: The Philips C-Cassette is introducedas a music recording cassette *1969: Mans first landing on the moon isbroadcast to 600 million people around theglobe.
  25. 25. TIMELINE 1970s: ARPANET, progenitor to the internetdeveloped. *1971: Intel debuts the microprocessor. *1972: Pong becomes the first video game towin widespread popularity.
  26. 26. TIMELINE 1973: The first home video cassette recorderis introduced by Philips in Europe. *1975: The MITS Altair 8800 becomes thefirst pre-assembled desktop computeravailable on the market.
  27. 27. TIMELINE 1976: JVC introduces VHS videotape -becomes the standard consumer format inthe 1980s & 1990s. *1979: First mobile phone service iscommercially launched by NTT in Japan,ESPN is launched in the USA.
  28. 28. TIMELINE 1980: CNN launches in the USA. 1980: New York Times, Wall StreetJournal, Dow Jones put news databaseonline. *1981: The IBM PC is introduced on 12August. MTV launches in the USA
  29. 29. TIMELINE 1982: Philips and Sony put the Compact Discon the Japanese market. *1984: Apple Macintosh is introduced. 1985: CD-ROMs begin to be sold.
  30. 30. TIMELINE *First laptop computer introduced by Toshibain Japan. 1987: Japanese Digital Audio Tapetechnology arrives both in the United Statesand in Western Europe.
  31. 31. TIMELINE *1991: World Wide Web (WWW) publiclyreleased by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN. 1993: CERN announces that the WWWwill be free for anyone to use. Firstadvertisements appear on the internet *1994: Mosaic became the first popularWorld Wide Web browser because of thegraphical interface.
  32. 32. TIMELINE 1996: First DVD players and discs areavailable in Japan. Twister is the first filmon DVD. *1997: The Nokia Communicatorsmartphone is launched in Finland, isworlds first fully internet capable mobilephone and offers full email on a phone 1998: First downloadable content formobile phones appears in Finland withadvent of ringing tone.
  33. 33. TIMELINE *1999: Napster contributes to thepopularization of MP3. First mobile internet service provider NTTDoCoMos i-Mode launches in Japan. 2000: First advertising appears on mobilephones in Finland. First cameraphones launched by J-Phone inJapan.
  34. 34. TIMELINE 2001: First video content for mobile launcheswith MainosTV3 news in Finland. *2004: Howard Dean is the first Presidentialcandidate to create a blog. *Citizen Journalism invented in South Koreaby Ohmy News.
  35. 35. TIMELINE 2005: Media forms begin to converge. First mobile broadcast TV service goes liveon TU Media in South Korea. First news ticker feed appears on mobilephone idle screen in Japan.
  36. 36. PURPOSES OF MEDIA Mass media can be used for various purposes: Advocacy, both for business and social concerns.This can includeadvertising, marketing, propaganda, publicrelations, and political communication. Enrichment and education. Entertainment, traditionally through performancesof acting, music, and sports, along with light reading;since the late 20th century also through video andcomputer games. Public service announcements.
  37. 37. MASS MEDIA ECONOMICS *Mass media had the economics of linearreplication:―a single work could make moneyproportional to the number of copies sold,and as volumes went up, units costs wentdown, increasing profit margins further.‖
  38. 38. MEDIA INFLUENCE *In a democratic society, independent mediaserve to educate the public/electorate aboutissues regarding government and corporateentities. This is called Media influence. Some consider the concentration of mediaownership to be a grave threat to democracy.
  39. 39. NEGATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF MASS MEDIA Another description of Mass Media is centralmedia which implies: *An ability to transmit implicit or hiddenknowledge *The manipulation of large groups of peoplethrough media outlets, for the benefit of aparticular interest party and/or group of people. *Bias, political or otherwise, towards favoring acertain individual, outcome or resolution of anevent.
  40. 40. MEDIA FORMS IN EDUCATION Broadcasting, in the narrow sense, for radio,television, and the Internet. Various types of discs or tapes. In the 20thcentury, these were mainly used for music.Video and computer uses followed.
  41. 41. MEDIA FORMS IN EDUCATION Broadcasting, in the narrow sense, forradio, television, and the Internet. Various types of discs or tapes. In the 20thcentury, these were mainly used for music.Video and computer uses followed.
  42. 42. PRINTED MASS MEDIA Objectives :# By the end of this lesson, studentsshould be able to:Identify the different types of printedmass media, and their application ineducation.
  43. 43. JOURNALISM *Journalism is a discipline of collecting,analyzing, verifying, and presentinginformation regarding current events,trends, issues and people. Those who practice journalism are knownas journalists.
  44. 44. JOURNALISM News-oriented journalism is sometimesdescribed as the "first rough draft ofhistory" (attributed to Phil Graham),because journalists often record importantevents, producing news articles on shortdeadlines.
  45. 45. JOURNALISM While under pressure to be first with theirstories, news media organizations usuallyedit and proofread their reports prior topublication, adhering to eachorganizations standards of accuracy,quality and style. Many news organizations claim proudtraditions of holding government officialsand institutions accountable to the public,while media critics have raised questions
  46. 46. PUBLIC RELATIONS Public relations is the art and science ofmanaging communication between anorganization and its key publics to build,manage and sustain its positive image.
  47. 47. PUBLIC RELATIONS Corporations use marketing publicrelations (MPR) to convey informationabout the products they manufacture orservices they provide to potentialcustomers to support their direct salesefforts. Typically, they support sales in the shortand long term, establishing and burnishingthe corporations branding for a strong,ongoing market.
  48. 48. PUBLIC RELATIONS Corporations also use public-relations as avehicle to reach decision makers, and theymay use public relations to portraythemselves as enlightened employers, insupport of human-resources recruitingprograms.
  49. 49. PUBLIC RELATIONS Non-profit organizations, including schoolsand universities, hospitals, and human andsocial service agencies, use publicrelations in support of awarenessprograms, fund-raising programs, staffrecruiting, and to increase patronage oftheir services. Decision makers use public relations toraise money, promote and defend theirservice in office
  50. 50. NEWSPAPER A newspaper is a publication containingnews and information and advertising,usually printed on low-cost paper callednewsprint. It may be general or special interest, mostoften published daily or weekly. The first printed newspaper was publishedin 1605, and the form has thrived even inthe face of competition from technologiessuch as radio and television.
  51. 51. NEWSPAPER Recent developments on the Internet areposing major threats to its business model. Paid circulation is declining in mostcountries, and advertising revenue, whichmakes up the bulk of a newspapersincome, is shifting from print to online. Some commentators, nevertheless, pointout that historically new media such asradio and television did not entirelysupplant existing.
  52. 52. PUBLISHING Publishing is the industry concerned withthe production of literature or information –the activity of making information availablefor public view. In some cases, authors may be their ownpublishers.
  53. 53. PUBLISHING *Traditionally, the term refers to the distributionof printed works such as books and newspapers. *With the advent of digital information systemsand the Internet, the scope of publishing hasexpanded to include websites, blogs, and thelike. As a business, publishing includes thedevelopment, marketing, production, anddistribution of newspapers, magazines, books,literary works, musical works, software, otherworks dealing with information.
  54. 54. BOOK *A book is a collection of sheets of paper,parchment or other material with a piece oftext written on them, bound together alongone edge within covers. A book is also a literary work or a maindivision of such a work. *A book produced in electronic format isknown as an e-book.
  55. 55. BOOK In library and information science, a bookis called a monograph to distinguish it fromserial publications such as magazines,journals or newspapers. Publishers may produce low-cost, pre-proof editions known as galleys or boundproofs for promotional purposes, such asgenerating reviews in advance ofpublication.
  56. 56. MAGAZINE *A magazine is a periodical publicationcontaining a variety of articles, generallyfinanced by advertising and/or purchaseby readers.
  57. 57. MAGAZINE Magazines are typically published weekly,biweekly, monthly, bimonthly or quarterly,with a date on the cover that is in advanceof the date it is actually published. They are often printed in color on coatedpaper, and are bound with a soft cover. *Magazines fall into two broad categories:consumer magazines and businessmagazines.
  58. 58. MAGAZINE *In practice, magazines are a subset ofperiodicals, distinct from those periodicalsproduced by scientific, artistic, academicor special interest publishers which aresubscription-only, more expensive,narrowly limited in circulation, and oftenhave little or no advertising.
  59. 59. MAGAZINE *Magazines can be classified as: General interest magazines (e.g. Oman daily,Al Watan, etc) Special interest magazines (educational,sports, business, diving, etc)
  60. 60. EDUCATION JOURNALISM *Journalism that focuses on what goes oninside classrooms requires that journalistsknow something about education. There’s much journalism about schools thatis important and compelling but that is notprecisely about education. Covering the school board, for example, isimportant. Education writers, however, need to also beable to communicate clearly about the heartof the matter—teaching and learning.
  61. 61. EDUCATION JOURNALISM *what goes on inside classrooms is acomplicated interaction between andamong students, and with their teacher,while wrestling with important content. And all of those interactions are influencedby what happens outside of class andoutside the school.

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