Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
George Gerbner et al.The“Mainstreaming”of America:Violence ProfileNo. 11
1. Television isessentially andfundamentallydifferent fromother media forms
2. Televisionas a medium isthe ‚centralcultural arm‛
3. ‚the substance of theconsciousness cultivatedby TV is not so muchspecific attitudes andopinions as more basicassumption...
4. Television’s majorcultural function isto stabilize socialpatterns, tocultivate resistanceto change
5. The observable,measurable,independentcontributions oftelevision to theculture arerelatively small
INTRODUCTION QUESTIONS
In a given week, what arethe chances that youwill be involved in somekind of violence?• About 1 in 10 or• About 1 in 100?
Of all the crimes in theUnited States, whatproportion is violentcrime like murder, rape,robbery, and assault?Would you gue...
FACT:In the actual world, onlyabout 1 in 200 violentcrimes occur amongAmericans. The StatisticalAbstract of the UnitedStat...
To scientificallydemonstrate their view ontelevision as a culturallyinfluential medium,Cultivation researchersdepended on ...
1.Message System Analysis - In cultivation analysis, detailed content analyses of television programming to assess recurri...
2. Formulation ofquestions aboutviewers’ socialrealities
3. Survey theAudience
4. Comparing thesocial realities oflight and heavyviewers
Cultivation occursin two ways: throughmainstreaming andresonance
Mainstreaming – Incultivation analysis, theprocess, especially forheavy viewers, by whichtelevision’s symbolsmonopolize an...
Resonance – Incultivation analysis,when viewers seethings on televisionthat are congruentwith their owneveryday realities
MAINSTREAMING
Mean World Index – Incultivation analysis,a series of questionsabout the incidence ofcrime and violence,the answers to whi...
Mean World Index1.Do you believe that most  people are just looking out  for themselves?2.Do you think that you can’t  be ...
In the Mean WorldIndex, Respondents weredivided into categoriesof educationalattainment and race
First aspect ofMainstreaming (MeanWorld Index)There is a significantrelationship betweenhighly educatedrespondents and the...
Mean World Index expressing ‚Mistrust‛403530252015                                    Heavy Viewers10                     ...
Gerbner and hiscolleagues found outthat light and heavyviewers give differingresponses and the amountof television consume...
Second aspect ofMainstreaming (MeanWorld Index)Mainstreaming introduces directexperience as a moderatingfactor in the cult...
Mean World Index expressing ‚Mistrust‛504540353025                        Heavy Viewers20                        Light Vie...
Those who are mostlikely to hold a viewmore extreme than the TVview is ‚coaxed back‛ tothe mainstream position
RESONANCE
The Gerbner team made use of thefive questions from the 1979 ORCsurvey to form a Perceptions ofDanger Index – I.1. The per...
3. Percentage saying thattheir neighbor hoods areonly somewhat safe or notsafe at all4. Percentage saying thatfear of crim...
Danger Index-I50403020                                   Light10                                   Heavy0     Male        ...
•The strongest positiveassociations between televisionviewing and fear of crime wereamong those who live in highcrime cent...
•Resonance predicts an    interaction between    television viewing    and life experience    that is essentially    oppos...
• Resonance suggests that    those people whose    life experiences are    more congruent with    the experiences of    te...
Relationship between amount of viewingand percent of respondents saying that‚Fear of Crime is a very seriouspersonal probl...
•Although cultivation is ageneral outcome oftelevision viewing, it isnot a universalphenomenon, despite themainstreaming e...
Final Note on CultivationGerbner’s 3 Bs of Television1.Blurs traditional  distinctions of people’s  views of their world2....
SOURCES:•Hanson, Jarice and David J. Maxcy, eds. (1996).Sources: Notable Selections in Mass Media.Guilford, Conn.: Dushkin...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Gerbner - Mainstreaming Violence (part 2)

1,303 views

Published on

a month long study in Communication Arts!

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Gerbner - Mainstreaming Violence (part 2)

  1. 1. George Gerbner et al.The“Mainstreaming”of America:Violence ProfileNo. 11
  2. 2. 1. Television isessentially andfundamentallydifferent fromother media forms
  3. 3. 2. Televisionas a medium isthe ‚centralcultural arm‛
  4. 4. 3. ‚the substance of theconsciousness cultivatedby TV is not so muchspecific attitudes andopinions as more basicassumptions about the‘facts’ of life andstandards of judgment onwhich conclusions arebased."
  5. 5. 4. Television’s majorcultural function isto stabilize socialpatterns, tocultivate resistanceto change
  6. 6. 5. The observable,measurable,independentcontributions oftelevision to theculture arerelatively small
  7. 7. INTRODUCTION QUESTIONS
  8. 8. In a given week, what arethe chances that youwill be involved in somekind of violence?• About 1 in 10 or• About 1 in 100?
  9. 9. Of all the crimes in theUnited States, whatproportion is violentcrime like murder, rape,robbery, and assault?Would you guess15 or 25 percent?
  10. 10. FACT:In the actual world, onlyabout 1 in 200 violentcrimes occur amongAmericans. The StatisticalAbstract of the UnitedStates reported that, only10 percent of all crime inthe country is violentcrime
  11. 11. To scientificallydemonstrate their view ontelevision as a culturallyinfluential medium,Cultivation researchersdepended on a four-stepprocess
  12. 12. 1.Message System Analysis - In cultivation analysis, detailed content analyses of television programming to assess recurring and consistent presentations of images, themes, values and portrayals
  13. 13. 2. Formulation ofquestions aboutviewers’ socialrealities
  14. 14. 3. Survey theAudience
  15. 15. 4. Comparing thesocial realities oflight and heavyviewers
  16. 16. Cultivation occursin two ways: throughmainstreaming andresonance
  17. 17. Mainstreaming – Incultivation analysis, theprocess, especially forheavy viewers, by whichtelevision’s symbolsmonopolize and dominateother sources ofinformation and ideasabout the world
  18. 18. Resonance – Incultivation analysis,when viewers seethings on televisionthat are congruentwith their owneveryday realities
  19. 19. MAINSTREAMING
  20. 20. Mean World Index – Incultivation analysis,a series of questionsabout the incidence ofcrime and violence,the answers to whichcan be used todifferentiate heavyand light viewers
  21. 21. Mean World Index1.Do you believe that most people are just looking out for themselves?2.Do you think that you can’t be too careful in dealing with people?3.Do you think that most people would take advantage of you if they got a chance?
  22. 22. In the Mean WorldIndex, Respondents weredivided into categoriesof educationalattainment and race
  23. 23. First aspect ofMainstreaming (MeanWorld Index)There is a significantrelationship betweenhighly educatedrespondents and theamount of viewing…
  24. 24. Mean World Index expressing ‚Mistrust‛403530252015 Heavy Viewers10 Light Viewers 5 0 Those with Those less College educated/ Low degree/ High Income Income Education Subgroups
  25. 25. Gerbner and hiscolleagues found outthat light and heavyviewers give differingresponses and the amountof television consumederase individualdistinctions like incomeand education
  26. 26. Second aspect ofMainstreaming (MeanWorld Index)Mainstreaming introduces directexperience as a moderatingfactor in the cultivationeffect. Those with less directexperience with crime should bemore affected by televisionviewing than those who have moredirect experience with crime
  27. 27. Mean World Index expressing ‚Mistrust‛504540353025 Heavy Viewers20 Light Viewers1510 5 0 White Non White Race
  28. 28. Those who are mostlikely to hold a viewmore extreme than the TVview is ‚coaxed back‛ tothe mainstream position
  29. 29. RESONANCE
  30. 30. The Gerbner team made use of thefive questions from the 1979 ORCsurvey to form a Perceptions ofDanger Index – I.1. The percentage of respondents overestimating their chances of being involved in violence2. Percentage agreeing that women are more likely to be victims of crime
  31. 31. 3. Percentage saying thattheir neighbor hoods areonly somewhat safe or notsafe at all4. Percentage saying thatfear of crime is a veryserious problem5. Percentage agreeingthat crime is rising
  32. 32. Danger Index-I50403020 Light10 Heavy0 Male City Female Suburb
  33. 33. •The strongest positiveassociations between televisionviewing and fear of crime wereamong those who live in highcrime centers.•For those urban dwellers wholive in high crimecenters, television’s violentimagery may be most congruentwith their real lifeperceptions.
  34. 34. •Resonance predicts an interaction between television viewing and life experience that is essentially opposite to that of mainstreaming.
  35. 35. • Resonance suggests that those people whose life experiences are more congruent with the experiences of television world will be most affected by the television message, rather than least affected as mainstreaming predicts
  36. 36. Relationship between amount of viewingand percent of respondents saying that‚Fear of Crime is a very seriouspersonal problem‛50403020 Light10 Heavy 0 Medium Male Female Suburb Low White Non-white City High Income Race Sex Residence Mainstreaming Resonance
  37. 37. •Although cultivation is ageneral outcome oftelevision viewing, it isnot a universalphenomenon, despite themainstreaming effect.• Your interaction withothers affects yourtendency to accept TVreality
  38. 38. Final Note on CultivationGerbner’s 3 Bs of Television1.Blurs traditional distinctions of people’s views of their world2.Blends their realities into television’s cultural mainstream3.Bends that mainstream to the institutional interests of television and its sponsors
  39. 39. SOURCES:•Hanson, Jarice and David J. Maxcy, eds. (1996).Sources: Notable Selections in Mass Media.Guilford, Conn.: Dushkin Publishing Group.• Baran, J. S. & Davis, K. D. (2003). Masscommunication theory: foundations, ferment, andfuture. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.•Littlejohn, Stephen (2008). Theories of HumanCommunication. California: Wadsworth Group.•Bischack, Valerie and Shrum, L.J. (2001).Mainstreaming, Resonance and Impersonal Impact:Testing Moderators of the Cultivation Effectfor estimates of crime risk. (pdf file)•McQuail, Dennis. (2000). Mass CommunicationTheory. London, Sage Publication.

×