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Internet History


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A brief look at the inventions that played a major role in developing the internet as an information sharing network.

Published in: Technology, Business

Internet History

  1. 1. The Internet!!
  2. 2. Definition: Internet <ul><li>A vast network that connects many independent networks spanning over 170 countries in the world </li></ul><ul><li>It links computers of many different types, sizes, and operating systems, and of course, the many people of those countries that use the Internet to communicate. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Internet Usage for a two week period
  4. 4. Number of Internet Users (millions)
  5. 5. Americans Online by Age
  6. 6. Internet Users by Continent
  7. 7. Parental Attitudes Toward the Internet
  8. 8. Internet Use Among Parents of Teenagers
  9. 9. What can I do on the Internet? <ul><li>Get Information </li></ul><ul><li>Send and receive email and chat </li></ul><ul><li>Join discussion groups and message boards </li></ul><ul><li>Get or exchange software and files </li></ul><ul><li>Explore the World Wide Web </li></ul><ul><li>Publish your own material on the web </li></ul>
  10. 11. Who Owns the Internet? <ul><li>No organization, corporation, or government owns or runs the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations work together to oversee and standardize what happens on the internet </li></ul><ul><li>The equipment, the computers, cables, routers, and so on, are owned by government and private organizations. </li></ul>
  11. 12. The Internet didn’t just happen… <ul><li>Other inventions in our history had to happen in order for the Internet to be created. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telegraph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Television </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. The Development of the Telegraph <ul><li>The idea for the telegraph—sending electronic signals across wires—originated in the 1700s. </li></ul><ul><li>Samuel Morse, a New York University professor, presented his version of the telegraph to Congress in 1838. </li></ul><ul><li>Morse built the first telegraph system in 1843 from Washington, D.C. to Baltimore. </li></ul><ul><li>Western Union was the first company to build a transcontinental telegraph line in 1861. </li></ul>
  13. 14. World Changes due to the Telegraph <ul><li>Before the telegraph, it took days, weeks, and even months for messages to be sent to a far-flung location. </li></ul><ul><li>After the telegraph cable stretched across the US in the 1850s, a message could be sent in a matter of minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Politics used to be isolated to </li></ul><ul><li>regions; with the telegraph, </li></ul><ul><li>information seemed to flow </li></ul><ul><li>like water. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Past Predictions about the Telegraph <ul><li>In the 1850s, it was predicted that the telegraph would: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alter business and politics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make the world smaller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Erase national rivalries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contribute to the establishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of world peace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make newspapers obsolete </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Past Predictions about the Telegraph <ul><li>In 1838, Morse wrote in a letter, “ This mode of instantaneous communication must inevitable become an instrument of immense power, to be wielded for good or for evil, as it shall be properly or improperly directed .” </li></ul><ul><li>In 1858, President Buchanan and Queen Victoria exchanged messages: “ Tomorrow the hearts of the civilized world will beat in a single pulse, and from that time forth forevermore the continental divisions of the earth will, in a measure, lose those conditions of time and distance which now mark their relations .” </li></ul>
  16. 17. Let’s see (hear) how the telegraph works Telegraph video: Click on image above to start video. If video does not start, you may view it by clicking the link below.
  17. 18. Let’s try it!! See if you can translate the Morse Code…listen VERY closely!!
  18. 19. The Development of the Radio <ul><li>Guglielmo Marconi first developed the idea of a radio, or a wireless telegraph, in the 1890s. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1895, he was able to send a wireless message to a source more than 1 km away. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1897, he received the official British patent for the radio. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1900, there were four competing wireless systems. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Development of the Radio <ul><li>More sophisticated messages </li></ul><ul><li>Radio waves transmitted thousands of miles by 1914 </li></ul><ul><li>Initially developed for military use in WWI </li></ul><ul><li>1930s called the “Golden Era of Radio” </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 80% of Americans owned a radio by 1939 </li></ul>
  20. 21. World Changes due to the Radio <ul><li>Businesses and social structures had to adapt when people rushed to buy radios. </li></ul><ul><li>Radio-based classes from universities </li></ul><ul><li>Church services broadcasted </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers worked with radio </li></ul><ul><li>“ Government will be a living thing to its citizens instead of an abstract and unseen force.” Radio Broadcast , 1922 </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment became the rule </li></ul><ul><li>Lifeline of information during WWII </li></ul>Audio file location: You may listen to the audio by clicking on the speaker image above. If the sound file does not start, you may hear it by clicking the link below.
  21. 22. Past Predictions About the Future of Radio <ul><li>“ Well-informed people know it is impossible to transmit the voice over wires and that were it possible to do so, the thing would be of no practical value.” A Boston Post editorial from 1865 </li></ul><ul><li>“ All the nations of the earth would be put upon terms of intimacy and men would be stunned by the tremendous volume of news and information that would ceaselessly pour in upon them.” A May 7, 1899 review in the New York Times headlined “Future of Wireless Telegraphy” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I have anticipated radio’s complete disappeared…confident that the unfortunate people, who must now subdue themselves to listening in, will soon find a better pastime for their leisure.” H.G. Wells wrote in “The Way the World is Going” in 1925. </li></ul>
  22. 23. The Development of the Telephone <ul><li>Early inventors: Antonio Meucci (1849) and Charles Bourseul (1854) </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander Graham Bell received first U.S. patent in 1876. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st telephone line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st switchboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st telephone exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By 1890, almost 49,000 telephones in use. </li></ul>1877-1878
  23. 24. The Development of the Telephone <ul><li>American Bell Telephone Company was formed in 1880. </li></ul><ul><li>Its competitor, American Telegraph and Telephone Company (AT&T), was formed in 1885. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominated tele- phone commu- nications for next 100 years </li></ul></ul>175 million 1980 80 million 1960 30 million 1948 5.8 million 1910 2.2 million 1905 600,000 1900 # of phones Year
  24. 25. Development of the Telephone <ul><li>Telephone industry under government regulation from 1934 to 1984. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1984, government split AT&T into seven smaller phone companies; AT&T became a long distance service company. </li></ul><ul><li>1 st digital cellular network in 1993 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1995, 25 million cellular phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular service expected to replace land-line phones for most customers by 2010 </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. World Change Due to the Telephone <ul><li>Within 50 yrs of its invention, the telephone became an indispensable tool in the US. </li></ul><ul><li>Many people debated the positive and negative aspects of the telephone </li></ul>Alter the ways wars are fought Lead to advanced form of the transmission of intelligence Impact language patterns and creation of new words Bring a decline in the art of writing Bring people closer together Valuable tool for journalists Aid doctors, police, fire, and emergency workers Increase crime and aid criminals Make the world smaller, fostering world peace Cause the postal system to lose business Lead to advances in networked communications Help further democracy
  26. 27. World Changes Due to the Telephone <ul><li>Privacy a major concern. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First phones were public phones; eavesdropping happened frequently. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Switchboard operators often listened in on conversations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early house-to-house lines were party-lines on which several families would receive calls & others were free to listen in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today, sophisticated surveillance methods allow for listening to private conversations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy also interrupted by unwanted phone calls from telemarketers and such </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Past Predictions about the Telephone <ul><li>“ That’s an amazing invention, but who would ever want to use one of them?” —President Hayes in 1876 </li></ul><ul><li>“ While two persons, hundreds of miles apart, are talking together, they will actually see each other.” —reporter predicted in 1878 </li></ul><ul><li>“ We do not see that this device will be ever capable of sending recognizable speech over a distance of several miles.” —executives on buying the telephone patent from Bell </li></ul>
  28. 29. Video Source: Click on box above to start video. If video does not start, you may view it by clicking the link below.
  29. 30. The Development of Television <ul><li>Writers in the late 1800s wrote about the idea of “seeing at a distance.” </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists worked on the earliest concepts of television for decades. </li></ul><ul><li>Key breakthroughs came in the early 20 th century. </li></ul>
  30. 31. The Development of Television <ul><li>Inventor Charles Francis Jenkins transmitted pictures from Washington to Philadelphia by radio in 1923. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1925, he demonstrated a mechanical television scanning system using a revolving disk that synchronized transmission of silhouette pictures and sound. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He correctly predicted: “ It will not be very long now before one may see on a small white screen in one’s home notable current events, like inaugural ceremonies, ball games, pageants, as well as pantomime performance broadcast from motion-picture film.” </li></ul>
  31. 32. The Development of Television <ul><li>American Telephone & Telegraph also got into the act in the early days of television, transmitting moving images over phone circuits in 1927. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1928, General Electric began broadcasting images from New York. </li></ul><ul><li>Many others from around the world worked on the concept of television, but none is seen as the true inventor. </li></ul>
  32. 33. The Development of Television <ul><li>Philo Taylor Farnsworth developed what he called the “image dissector,” the first working electronic camera tube, in San Francisco in 1927. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His studies in molecular theory and electricity made his invention possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the late 1920s, Vladimir Zworykin was sent by RCA to visit Farnsworth’s lab. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1933, Vladimir had perfected his “inconoscope,” an invention almost identical to Farnsworth’s image dissector. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A patent battle began and ended with RCA agreeing to pay Farnsworth royalties. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. The Development of the Television <ul><li>In the 1930s, several broadcast stations began producing television programming. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio companies, such as NBC and CBS, built stations in New York. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WWII slowed down progress on the television; people and resources were directed to the war. </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1950s, television had replaced radio as the dominant broadcast medium and took over home entertainment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1946, 8000 U.S. homes had televisions; by 1960, the number increased to 45.7 million. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. World Changes due to the Television <ul><li>The pace of the development of information technologies in America has been due to several factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The competitive atmosphere of the free-market system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laid-back role of the government as a watchdog of monopolies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The spirit of invention and entrepreneurship prevalent in U.S. society. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. World Changes Due to the Television <ul><li>Because other countries usually have some sort of government control on communications tech- nologies, they have not developed as much quality content for television over the decades. </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation stifled creativity and constrained production; U.S. television producers found themselves creating content for the entire world. </li></ul><ul><li>The worldwide success of film and television over the course of the 20 th century has spread images of the American culture—both good and bad—to the most distant corners of the planet. </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment has become one of the most lucrative and influential exports of the United State. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Past Predictions about the Television <ul><li>Indianapolis Star, April 9, 1927: “ Distance will be annihilated for sound and sight and the world made immeasurably smaller for the purpose of communication. ” </li></ul><ul><li>A 1939 New York Times review: “ The problem with television is that people must sit and keep their eyes glued on a screen; the average family hasn’t time for it. ” </li></ul><ul><li>Film mogul Darryl F. Zanuck of 20 th Century Fox, 1946: “ Television won’t be able to hold on to any market it captures after the first six months. People will soon get tired of staring at a plywood box every night. ” </li></ul>
  37. 38. The Development of the Internet <ul><li>The public internet came along after 40 years of television dominance and decades of private internet use and development. </li></ul><ul><li>The key innovators were dozens of scientists whose work covers decades; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The entrepreneurs were thousands of political leaders, policy makers, technology administrators, government and commercial contractors, and even grassroots organizations. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. The Development of the Internet <ul><li>In the early 1960s, a group of scientists came up with the ideas that allowed them to individually dream of and eventually come together and create a globally interconnected set of computers through which everyone could quickly and easily access data and programs from any site. </li></ul>
  39. 40. Development of the Internet <ul><li>With the possibility of nuclear war with Russia on the horizon, the United States began to focus attention to its vulnerable communications network. </li></ul><ul><li>A change from centralized networks (direct message routes) to decentralized networks (multiple route messaging) began to take place. </li></ul><ul><li>The Defense Advancement Research Project Agency was born in 1958 and began its work on developing ARPANET, a large scaled computer network in order to accelerate knowledge transfer and avoid doubling up of already existing research. </li></ul>
  40. 41. Development of the Internet <ul><li>Three other concepts developed that were fundamental to the development of the internet: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The RAND Corporation—an American military focused network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The National Physical Laboratory in England—a network focused on commercial use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyclades—a French network that also focused on scientific data </li></ul></ul>
  41. 42. Development of the World Wide Web <ul><li>In 1991, the World Wide Web was developed by Tim Berners-Lee as a way for people to share information. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The hyper-text format available through his Web made the internet much easier to use because all documents could be seen easily on screen without downloading. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The first browser software—Mosaic—was introduced by Marc Andreesen in 1993, and it enabled more fluid use of images and graphics online and opened up a new world for internet users. </li></ul>
  42. 43. Development of the Internet Video Source: Click on box above to start video. If video does not start, you may view it by clicking the link below.
  43. 44. World Changes Due to the Internet <ul><li>After Tim Berners-Lee brought his “WWW” to life in 1990, and Andreesen launched Mosaic in 1993, the Internet had an estimated 16 million users by 1995. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals all over the world began sharing their interests, hopes and dreams online, and the number of internet users is now nearing one billion. </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet has become a crazy-quilt mix of commercial sites, government information, and incredibly interesting pages built by individuals who want to share their insights. </li></ul>
  44. 45. Past Predictions about the Internet <ul><li>John Perry Barlow, internet activist and co-founder of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, in a 1994 essay for Wired magazine titled “The Economy of Ideas”: “ We’re going to have to look at information as though we’d never seen the stuff before…The economy of the future will be based on relationship rather than possession. It will be continuous rather than sequential. And finally, in the years to come, most human exchange will be virtual rather than physical, consisting not of stuff but the stuff of which dreams are made. Our future business will be conducted in a world made more of verbs than nouns.” </li></ul>
  45. 46. You may view this presentation online by visiting: Click on 8 th Grade Notes.
  46. 47. Resources <ul><li>Howe, Walt. What is the Internet? June 1998. 04 February 2009 < http:// > </li></ul><ul><li>Jones, Sydney and Susannah Fox. Pew Internet Project Data Memo, RE: Generations Online in 2009 . Pew Internet & American Life Project . 28 January 2009. Pew Research Center. 04 February 2009 </li></ul>