Virtual Water as a Concept

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Virtual Water as a Concept

  1. 1. Virtual Water as a Concept Chan Ka Nok MSc candidate in Sustainable Resources Management, Technische Universität München, Germany
  2. 2. What is Virtual Water?
  3. 3. Virtual Water • Freshwater • Origin • Reference to product mass • Virtual Water Content Sources: deviantart.net
  4. 4. Examples Sources:http://virtualwater.eu
  5. 5. Examples (cont’) Sources:http://virtualwater.eu
  6. 6. Classification of Water Footprint
  7. 7. Green Water • rainwater stored in the soil in form of soil moisture sources: diacarbon.com
  8. 8. Blue Water • surface water • groundwater sources: wallpaperscraft.com
  9. 9. Grey Water • pollution related • freshwater required to assimilate the load of pollutants • based on existing ambient water quality standards (Hoekstra et al., 2011) Sources: ed101.bu.edu
  10. 10. Source: Hoekstra AY. (ed) (2003) Virtual water trade balances of thirteen world regions 1995-1999
  11. 11. Source: Mekonnen and Hoekstra (2011) Virtual water balance per country related to trade in agricultural and industrial products 1996-2005
  12. 12. WF Accounting Approach Water Footprint Assessment Manual
  13. 13. WF Accounting 1. setting goals and scope 2. accounting 3. assessing sustainability 4. formulating responses
  14. 14. Top-Down Approach total use of water resources in the area + Net import of Gross virtual water (import - export) Sources: www.tradeandexportme.com
  15. 15. Bottom-up Approach • ALL goods and services • number of inhabitants • respective water needs (Hoekstra and Mekonnen, 2012a) Sources: tmemarketing.com
  16. 16. WF Accounting Approach Top-down or Bottom-up?
  17. 17. Top-Down Approach total use of water resources in the area + Net import of Gross virtual water (import - export) Sources: www.tradeandexportme.com
  18. 18. Bottom-up Approach • ALL goods and services • number of inhabitants • respective water needs (Hoekstra and Mekonnen, 2012a) Sources: tmemarketing.com
  19. 19. Current Problem large product WFs in waterabundant areas • Increase water productivities (reduce product WFs) in waterabundant areas traded internationally • wise allocation of freshwater resources to alternative purposes (Hoekstra, 2011)
  20. 20. Sources: dailynewsegypt.com/ Solution? Like always
  21. 21. Policy Responses • Reduction • Efficiency • Offsetting • Water Neutral • Water Footprint Cap • Water Footprint Permits • Water Labelling
  22. 22. Emission Reduction • Market Potential • Economic Potential • Technical Potential
  23. 23. “One person can make a difference, and everyone should try.” –John Fitzgerald Kennedy
  24. 24. Reference • Ercin, A. Ertug; Hoekstra, Arjen Y. (2012): Carbon and water footprints. Concepts, methodologies and policy responses. Paris: UNESCO. • Hoekstra AY. (ed) (2003) Virtual water trade: Proceedings of the International Expert Meeting on Vir- tual Water Trade, Delft, The Neth- erlands, 12-13 December 2002. Value of Water Research Report Series No.12, IHE, Delft, the Netherlands. • Jones, J. A. A (2010): Water sustainability. A global perspective. London: Hodder Education. • Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) National water footprint accounts: the green, blue and grey water footprint of production and consumption, Value of Water Research Report Series No.50, UNESCO-IHE.

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