Water, people and the media

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Water, people and the media

  1. 1. PeoplBajinder Pal Singhbajinder@hotmail.com Presented at seminar “Water Crisis and Role of Media in People’s Movement-organised by the local chapter of the Indian Media Centre at ICSSR Complex, Panjab University (PU), on 14 June 2009. Medi
  2. 2. How much water do you Consume?
  3. 3. An early morning in our life Courtesy: R K Laxman’s common man
  4. 4. An early morning in our life
  5. 5. An early morning in our life = 0.5 litre = 5 min
  6. 6. An early morning in our life = 0.5 litre = 5 min
  7. 7. An early morning in our life = 0.5 litre = 5 min = 15 litre = 15 min
  8. 8. An early morning in our life = 0.5 litre = 5 min = 15 litre = 15 min
  9. 9. An early morning in our life = 0.5 litre = 5 min = 15 litre = 15 min = 15 litre = 5 min
  10. 10. An early morning in our life = 0.5 litre = 5 min = 15 litre = 15 min = 15 litre = 5 min
  11. 11. An early morning in our life = 0.5 litre = 5 min = 15 litre = 15 min = 15 litre = 5 min
  12. 12. An early morning in our life = 0.5 litre = 5 min = 15 litre = 15 min = 15 litre = 5 min
  13. 13. An early morning in our life = 0.5 litre = 5 min = 15 litre = 15 min = 15 litre = 5 min
  14. 14. An early morning in our life = 0.5 litre = 5 min = 15 litre = 15 min = 15 litre = 5 min
  15. 15. An early morning in our life = 0.5 litre = 15 litre = 30 litre = 5 min = 20 min = 30 min = 15 litre = 50 litre = 100 litre = 15 min = 15 min = 20 min = 1 litre = 15 litre = 10 min = 5 min
  16. 16. An early morning in our life = 0.5 litre = 15 litre = 30 litre = 5 min = 20 min = 30 min = 15 litre = 50 litre = 100 litre = 15 min = 15 min = 20 min = 1 litre = 226.5 litre = 15 litre = 10 min = 100 min = 5 min
  17. 17. An early morning in our life = 0.5 litre = 15 litre = 30 litre = 5 min = 20 min = 30 min = 15 litre = 50 litre = 100 litre = 15 min = 15 min = 20 min = 1 litre = 226.5 litre = 15 litre = 10 min = 100 min = 5 min
  18. 18. 6 PosersPOSER 1: How much water do you consume?
  19. 19. How much water do you Consume? Drink?
  20. 20. How much water do you drink every day? 2 LITRES ?Thirst : a painting by William Bouguereau
  21. 21. How much water do you Consume ? Drink ?
  22. 22. How much water do you Consume ? Drink ? Eat ?
  23. 23. How much water do you eat?
  24. 24. How much water do you eat?
  25. 25. How much water do you eat?
  26. 26. How much water do you eat?
  27. 27. How much water do you eat?
  28. 28. How much water do you eat?
  29. 29. How much water do you eat?
  30. 30. From Real Water…Real Water
  31. 31. …to Virtual WaterReal Water
  32. 32. From Real Water to Virtual Water Once crop is harvested the water changesReal Water Virtual Water Source: http://fao.org/nr/water
  33. 33. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  34. 34. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  35. 35. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  36. 36. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  37. 37. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  38. 38. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  39. 39. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  40. 40. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  41. 41. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  42. 42. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  43. 43. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  44. 44. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  45. 45. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  46. 46. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  47. 47. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  48. 48. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  49. 49. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  50. 50. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  51. 51. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  52. 52. Virtual Water Virtual water is the amount of water that is embedded in food or other products needed for its production. For example, to produce one kilogram of wheat we need about 1,000 litres of water, i.e. the virtual water of this kilogram of wheat is 1,000 litres. : World Water Council
  53. 53. Virtual Water Also known as •Embedded water •Hidden water •Embodied waterCrown Princess Victoria presented the Stockholm Water Prizeto John Anthony Allan for his “virtual water" concept. Date: 2008-08-29Source: http://www.royalcourt.se/royalcourt/theroyalfamily/latestnews/2008/2008archive/crownprincesspresentsstockholmwaterprize.5.30963a1811be3fda3ab80001644.html
  54. 54. Calculation virtual water
  55. 55. Calculating virtual water India may require more water to produce wheat than the US Because of heat, climate, soil......
  56. 56. Calculating virtual water India may require more water to produce than the US Because of heat, climate, soil...... M3 /ton India Wheat 1654 Rice 2850 Paddy Cotton 8264 Seed Coffee 12180 (green)Source: UNESCO – Institute of Water EducationWater footprints of nations Volume 1: Main Chicken 7736Report, MeatA.K. Chapagain & A.Y. Hoekstra, November 2004
  57. 57. Calculating virtual water India may require more water to produce than the US Because of heat, climate, soil...... M3 /ton USA China India World Average Wheat 849 690 1654 2975 Rice 1275 1321 2850 2291 Paddy Cotton 2535 1419 8264 3644 Seed Coffee 4864 6290 12180 17375 (green)Source: UNESCO – Institute of Water EducationWater footprints of nations Volume 1: Main Chicken 2389 3652 7736 3918Report, MeatA.K. Chapagain & A.Y. Hoekstra, November 2004
  58. 58. Implications of virtual water India may require more water to produce than the US Because of heat, climate, soil...... M3 /ton USA China India World Average Wheat 849 690 1654 2975 Rice 1275 1321 2850 2291 Paddy Cotton 2535 1419 8264 3644 Seed Coffee 4864 6290 12180 17375 (green)Source: UNESCO – Institute of Water EducationWater footprints of nations Volume 1: Main Chicken 2389 3652 7736 3918Report, MeatA.K. Chapagain & A.Y. Hoekstra, November 2004
  59. 59. How much water do you Consume ? Drink ? Eat ?
  60. 60. How much water do you Consume ? Drink ? Eat ? Export ?
  61. 61. Implications of virtual water
  62. 62. Implications of virtual water India Pakistan
  63. 63. Implications of virtual water India 1 kg wheat Pakistan
  64. 64. Virtual water trade India 1 kg wheat = 1654 litres Pakistan
  65. 65. Global Virtual Water Trade
  66. 66. Change in export policy?Water-scarcecountries like Israeldiscourage the exportof oranges (relativelyheavy water guzzlers)precisely to preventlarge quantities ofwater being exportedto different parts ofthe world
  67. 67. Reverse drain? “Research shows that certain states in water-deficit North Western India send surplus grain to meet the deficit of water- abundant states”: International Water Management Institute (IWMI)Source: p4. Water Figures . Quaterly Newsletter of IWMI. ISSUE 1 2009
  68. 68. Virtual Water exportersState Virtual Water ExportPunjab 20.9 x 109 cubic m / yearSource: Kampman, D.A., Hoekstra, A.Y. and Krol, M.S. (2008) The water footprint of India
  69. 69. Virtual Water exportersState Virtual Water ExportPunjab 20.9 x 109 cubic m / yearUttar Pradesh 20.8 x 109 cubic m / yearSource: Kampman, D.A., Hoekstra, A.Y. and Krol, M.S. (2008) The water footprint of India
  70. 70. Virtual water exportersState Virtual water ExportPunjab 20.9 x 109 cubic m / yearUttar Pradesh 20.8 x 109 cubic m / yearHaryana 14.1 x 109 cubic m / yearSource: Kampman, D.A., Hoekstra, A.Y. and Krol, M.S. (2008) The water footprint of India
  71. 71. Virtual water exportersState Virtual water ExportPunjab 20.9 x 109 cubic m / yearUttar Pradesh 20.8 x 109 cubic m / yearHaryana 14.1 x 109 cubic m / year Virtual Water ImportBihar 15.3 x 109 cubic m / yearJharkhand 9.3 x 109 cubic m / yearOrissa 4.8 x 109 cubic m / year
  72. 72. Virtual water exportersState Virtual water Export Per capita Water resources (Cubic metre /capita/year )Punjab 20.9 x 109 cubic m / year 3554Uttar Pradesh 20.8 x 109 cubic m / year 2992Haryana 14.1 x 109 cubic m / year 2176 Virtual Water ImportBihar 15.3 x 109 cubic m / year 6898Jharkhand 9.3 x 109 cubic m / year 4580Orissa 4.8 x 109 cubic m / year 8710
  73. 73. Virtual water exportersState Virtual water Export Per capita Water resources (Cubic metre /capita/year )Punjab 20.9 x 109 cubic m / year 3554Uttar Pradesh 20.8 x 109 cubic m / year 2992Haryana 14.1 x 109 cubic m / year 2176 Virtual Water ImportBihar 15.3 x 109 cubic m / year 6898Jharkhand 9.3 x 109 cubic m / year 4580Orissa 4.8 x 109 cubic m / year 8710
  74. 74. PunjabSource: Kampman, D.A., Hoekstra, A.Y. and Krol, M.S. (2008) The water footprint of India
  75. 75. How much water do you Consume ? Drink ? Eat ? Export ?
  76. 76. How much water do you Consume ? Drink ? Eat ? Export ? Wear ?
  77. 77. How much water do you wear?Production of 1 cotton shirt weighing 300 grams approximately 2,500 litersSource: UNESCO-IHE
  78. 78. Water Footprint
  79. 79. How much water do you Consume ? Drink ? Eat ? Export ? Wear ?
  80. 80. How much water do you Consume ? Drink ? Eat ? Export ? Wear ? Footprint?
  81. 81. Water Footprint Is defined as the total water used for the production of the goods and services consumed by the individual. It can be estimated by multiplying all goods and services consumed by their respective virtual-water content.
  82. 82. Water FootprintOf an individualOf a productOf a companyOf a nation
  83. 83. Water FootprintCountry Water Footprint m3/cap/yrGlobal 1240USA 2480Greece, Italy, Spain 2300-2400China 700India 980Source: Water footprints of nationsVolume 1: Main Report, A.K. Chapagain & A.Y. Hoekstra, November 2004
  84. 84. Water Footprint The 10 largest water users (in volume) are India, China, the United States, Pakistan, Japan, Thailand, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Mexico and the Russian Federation** Source: 3rd UN World Water Development Report, 2009
  85. 85. Water Footprint The 10 largest water users (in volume) are India, China, the United States, Pakistan, Japan, Thailand, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Mexico and the Russian Federation*• India is the country with the largest footprint in the world 987 Gm3/yr* Source: 3rd UN World Water Development Report, 2009
  86. 86. Era of scarcity
  87. 87. Era of scarcity
  88. 88. Era of scarcitySource:Shiklomanov, I.A. 1999. World water resources and their use: a joint SHI/UNESCO product. http://webworld.unesco.org/water/ihp/db/shiklomanov/
  89. 89. India and water Year Water Ranking availability m3/capita/year 1980 2000-5000 Low 2000 1000-2000 Very low 2020 < 1000 Drastically low(Source: Stockholm Environmental Institute data – Comprehensive assessment of fresh water resources in the world.)
  90. 90. Waste water in agriculture ? Survey of 53 cities in world conducted by the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 80 % are using untreated or partially treated wastewater for agriculture. In over 70 % of the cities, more than 50 % of urban agricultural land is irrigated with wastewater that is either raw or diluted in streams There are now WHO guidelines on use of water in agriculture titled “Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater”
  91. 91. Ismail Serageldin Former Vice President, World BankKofi AnnanFormer Secretary General of UN
  92. 92. Water Wars “The wars of the next century will be fought not over oil, but water...unless we change the way we manage it" : Ismail Serageldin (1996)"fierce competition for fresh water may well becomea source of conflict and wars in the future“ (2000)
  93. 93. Water Wars The CIA’s report, Global Trends 2015 …water scarcities and allocation will pose significant challenges to governments in the Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and northern China Water will remain South Asia’s most vital and most contested natural resource
  94. 94. Potential & Existing ConflictsCountries RiverTurkey, Syria & Iraq Tigris & EuphratesIsrael, Jordan, Syria & Palestine Jordan river, Golan height aquifersIndia & Pakistan PunjabIndia & Bangladesh Ganges &BrahmaputraChina, Indochina & Taiwan MekongTajikistan, Kyrghyzstan & Oxus & JaxartesUzbekistanEthiopia, Sudan and East African Nile riverriparian countries, Source: http://www.unep.org/dewa/assessments/ecosystems/water/vitalwater/22.htm
  95. 95. Potential & Existing ConflictsCountries RiverTurkey, Syria & Iraq Tigris & EuphratesIsrael, Jordan, Syria & Palestine Jordan river, Golan height aquifersIndia & Pakistan PunjabIndia & Bangladesh Ganges &BrahmaputraChina, Indochina & Taiwan MekongTajikistan, Kyrghyzstan & Oxus & JaxartesUzbekistanEthiopia, Sudan and East African Nile riverriparian countries, Source: http://www.unep.org/dewa/assessments/ecosystems/water/vitalwater/22.htm
  96. 96. Water Wars
  97. 97. Rivalry rival (n.) from L. rivalis "a rival," originally, "one who uses the same stream" (or "one on the opposite side of the stream"), from rivus "brook" (see rivulet). The notion is of the competitiveness of neighbors.
  98. 98. How could water scarcity impact our lives
  99. 99. How could water scarcity impact our lives It is already impacting our lives
  100. 100. How could water scarcity impact our lives It is already impacting our lives Ban on  watering of lawns during mornings  washing cars during mornings  preparation of milk based sweets  Sowing of paddy before June 15 We are already consuming food prepared from waste water
  101. 101. What more? Shift from  Rice Paddy to other crops  Meat eating to vegetarian diets  Burgers back to naan / roti / paratha
  102. 102. Media AnalysisSerious analysis on media coverage of Water issues has been found lackingA very good example which could be followed is that of Australia. Using the CARMA® system, an internationally recognised Computer Aided Research and Media Analysis methodology Source: http://www.mediamonitors.com.au/insights/media-analysis
  103. 103. Media coverage of water in Australia Every adult or child over the age of reason in Australia is aware of a water crisis Between Jan-April 2007 - 80,000 media news reports, features articles, columns, letters to the editor and radio and TV program segments discussing water 3.5 billion Opportunities to See* Source: http://www.mediamonitors.com.au/insights/media-analysis
  104. 104. Source: http://www.mediamonitors.com.au/insights/media-analysis
  105. 105. Quantitive & Qualitative AnalysisSource: http://www.mediamonitors.com.au/insights/media-analysis
  106. 106. Media coverage of water in IndiaAn analysis of national English dailiesAn analysis of vernacular daily in PunjabAn analysis of city supplements of English dailiesDuration: June 4-10, 2009Page analysed : Page 1
  107. 107. The Times of India: June 4. 2009
  108. 108. The Times of India: June 5. 2009
  109. 109. The Times of India: June 6. 2009
  110. 110. The Times of India: June 7. 2009
  111. 111. The Times of India: June 8. 2009
  112. 112. The Times of India: June 9. 2009
  113. 113. The Times of India: June 10. 2009
  114. 114. The Indian Express: June 4. 2009 The Indian Express: June 5. 2009
  115. 115. The Indian Express: June 6. 2009 The Indian Express: June 7. 2009
  116. 116. The Indian Express: June 8. 2009 The Indian Express: June 9. 2009
  117. 117. The Indian Express: June 10. 2009
  118. 118. Daily Ajit: June 4. 2009 Daily Ajit: June 5. 2009
  119. 119. Daily Ajit: June 6. 2009 Daily Ajit: June 7. 2009
  120. 120. Daily Ajit: June 8. 2009 Daily Ajit: June 9. 2009
  121. 121. Daily Ajit: June 10. 2009
  122. 122. Chandigarh Newsline: June 09. 2009
  123. 123. HT Chandigarh Live: June 09. 2009 HT Chandigarh Live: June 09. 2009
  124. 124. Who loves water more? National dailies lack coverage on water issues Vernacular dailies are reporting on water issues City supplements – in their quest for civic journalism stress on water issues – though policy issues are missing
  125. 125. When does water make to news Water becomes an issue  Scarcity • Drought, • late monsoon etc  Surplus • Floods  Contamination • Unclean • pesticide
  126. 126. Indian film song – clamouring for water/rainshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=toJxhZ-DZQk

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