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Environmental Problems - water


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Save Water Save World - Environmental Problems

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Environmental Problems - water

  1. 1. ENVIRONMENTAL Problem - Water Akshitha IBS HYD
  2. 2. The next WORLD WAR will be over WATER
  3. 3. Is There Really A Water Crisis? Over 1 billion people lack access to safe water 2 out of 3 people will be living with water shortages by 2025 Half of the world's wetlands have been lost since 1900. The basis for most projections for future conflicts is that with the growth of demand, the decline in freshwater availability , and the adverse health effects from poor water quality, scarcity will result in violence and water wars. YES
  4. 4. ? Why… [Situation]
  5. 5. The global situation
  6. 6. The global situation • Less than 3% of the world’s water is fresh – the rest is seawater and undrinkable. • Of this 3% over 2.5% is frozen, locked up in Antarctica, the Arctic and glaciers, and not available to man. • Thus humanity must rely on this 0.5% for all of man’s and ecosystem’s fresh water needs.
  7. 7. The Indian situation PM's Independence Day Speech, 2009 Dr Manmohan Singh, said: “Climate change is threatening our ecosystems; water scarcity is becoming a way of life and pollution is a growing threat to our health and habitat.”
  8. 8. The Indian situation India has 16 % of the world’s population and 4% of its fresh water resources. Water availability(Rank): Weighted average: 14.0 thousand cubic metres # 1 Iceland: 294.34 thousand cubic metres # 47 USA: 7.09 thousand cms # 68 UK: 3.1 thousand cms # 89 China: 1.72 thousand cms # 93 India: 1.56 thousand cubic metres # 141 Botswana: -7.46 thousand cubic metres Severe water stress: Weighted average: 25.5 % #1 Israel: 100 % # 23 India: 80.2 % # 36 China: 44.7 % # 42 United States: 31.3 % # 51 United Kingdom: 21 %
  9. 9. The Indian situation • Groundwater [Depleted] • Surface water [Polluted] • Rainfall [Wasted] • Population [ ] • Demand [ ] • Consumption [ ] SCARCITY • Agriculture [ ] • Health & Environment[ ] • Future [ ? ] • Industrial Growth [ ] • Economy-Industry [ ] • Water Business[ ]
  10. 10. The Indian situation • Groundwater is the major source of water in our country with 85% of the population dependent. • Groundwater water table decline - 33 centimeters per year.
  11. 11. The Indian situation • Fresh water (rain and snow)availability - 4,000 BCM Most of which returns to the seas via rivers. • Surface and ground water availability - 1,869 BCM. Of this, 40 % is not available. Groundwater Consumption: • 92% - Agricultural • 5% - Industrial • 3% - Domestic. Surface water Consumption: • 89% - Agricultural • 2% - Industrial • 9% - Domestic.
  12. 12. The Indian situation
  13. 13. The Indian situation Fewer than 10 countries possess 60% of the world’s available fresh water supply: • Brazil • Russia • China • Canada, • Indonesia • U.S • India • Columbia • Democratic Republic of Congo.
  14. 14. The Indian situation India receives abundant rains compared to other water scared countries but… This map shows how much water the Indian infrastructure fails to store!
  15. 15. The Indian situation The Indian Government • Indian government is too focused on economic growth, instead of facilitating in basic human needs. • Poor water Management system. • Biofuel threatens India water supply. • Package Water Industries are encouraged.
  16. 16. ? How… [Problem]
  17. 17. Challenges
  18. 18. Challenges Industries Over exploitation Groundwater depletion Pollution Land Degraded Groundwater & Surface water polluted Agriculture Spoiled Health Issues
  19. 19. Challenges Government • Inefficient Government – State construction • Lack of integrated water management • Inadequate enforcement of environment legislation relating to water • Insufficient facilities for waste water treatment • Insufficient local technological research on water
  20. 20. Challenges Public • Wasting Water • Polluting Water
  21. 21. Challenges • Climate change. • 2020 India will become a water stressed nation. • 66 million Indians in 20 states are at risk due to excess fluoride • 10 million due to excess arsenic in groundwater • Out of these 6.3 lakh rural schools only 44 % have water supply facilities • Half of all Indian children are undernourished and half of all adult women suffer from anaemia.
  22. 22. Challenges • 37.7 million Indians are affected by waterborne diseases annually • 1.5 million children are estimated to die of diarrhoea alone • 180 million working days are lost due to waterborne disease each year • Economic burden is estimated at $600 million a year. • 1,95,813 habitations in the country are affected by poor water quality.
  23. 23. Challenges • India’s rivers carry 90% of the water during the period from June to November, but only 10% is available during the other six months. • Biofuel threatens India’s water supply. • 161 of out of approximately 600 districts in India have been declared drought. • At least 45% of India's land area is degraded. • 90% of the sewage generated by municipal councils and over 50% of sewage discharged by municipal corporations goes untreated
  24. 24. Challenges Overview of the major problems: Drinking Water • Inadequate and intermittent supply of drinking water • Metallic and bacterial pollution of water • Inadequate piped water supply in rural areas and some urban slum areas • Loss of water in transmission (distribution) and storage • Lack of financial resources for improvements.
  25. 25. Challenges • Affect agriculture production • Insufficient local technological research on water • Lack of integrated water management • Inadequate enforcement of environment legislation relating to water • Lack of control over-exploitation of groundwater resources • Insufficient facilities for waste water treatment
  26. 26. Challenges Industrial Water • Inadequate enforcement of special water regime for industries requiring considerable amounts of water • Inability of municipal water supply organizations to meet increasing demands of existing and new industries
  27. 27. Challenges Safety of industrial establishments from surplus surface water and floods Lack of proper draining facilities Uncontrolled exploitation of ground water by some industrial establishments
  28. 28. Challenges River Yamuna- “the principal drain for New Delhi’s waste.” “Residents pour 150 million gallons of sewage into the river each day.” “In New Delhi the Yamuna itself is clinically dead.” River Ganges- “River of Dead Bodies”
  29. 29. Challenges The World's Most Polluted Places (Times survey) Sukinda, India Number of people potentially affected: 2,600,000 Groundwater in Sukinda is believed to be contaminated with chromium. Sukinda, which contains one of the largest open cast chromite ore mines in the world, 60% of the drinking water contains hexavalent chromium
  30. 30. Market Study Supply & Demand There are two dominant features in current global water consumption patterns: The supply of fresh water is limited, but demand is growing steadily. Many countries are failing to satisfy the basic need to provide sufficient quantities of water of acceptable quality. The development of the water market is being shaped by four mega trends: • global population growth. • infrastructure • water quality • Climate change
  31. 31. Case Study [ecosan* ecological sanitation ] The concept behind ecological sanitation (ecosan) is that sanitation problems could be solved more sustainably and efficiently if the resources contained in excreta and wastewater were recovered and used rather than discharged into the water bodies and the surrounding environment. THE SOLUTION Applying Ecological Sanitation means both creating awareness for recycling of human disposals as well as developing an adequate toilet design for separating urine and faces to make agricultural use possible and exude the use of water.
  32. 32. Signs of hope… [Solution]
  33. 33. Solution Progress is Must, But Environment is First.
  34. 34. Solution Solutions to water problems require the consideration of cultural, educational, communication and scientific aspects. Plant Trees Avoid Pollution Conserve water Technologies and Innovations Water Purification Systems Seawater desalination Water Footprint
  35. 35. Solution The much-awaited seawater desalination plant, the largest in the country with a capacity of 100 MLD (million litres per day), coming up near Minjur about 35 km north of Chennai . Under the technology, developed by the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT), warm water is pumped into a vacuum flash chamber and the resultant vapour is condensed using cold water to get crystal clear potable water. Desalinated water is of a better quality and the cost is only 6 paise per litre.
  36. 36. Solution Water Footprint To manage the water consumption better. A water footprint measures the total amount of water it takes for a company to manufacture and transport a product, or for a city, country, or business to operate. Calculating water footprints can help businesses and communities better understand and prepare for the impacts of global water scarcity, according to experts. Such data allows companies to identify potential water savings and plan for future shortages
  37. 37. Solution • Rain Water Harvesting • Irrigation Water Management • Hydrological projects - Construction of Dams • Artificial Recharge to Ground Water through Dug well
  38. 38. Solution National River Linking Project
  39. 39. Solution Try to do one thing each day that will result in saving water. Don't worry if the savings are minimal every drop counts! You can make a difference. Remember to use only the amount you actually need. Form a group of water-conscious people and encourage your friends and neighbors to be part of this group. Promote water conservation in community newsletters and on bulletin boards. Encourage your friends, neighbors and co-workers to also contribute. Encourage your family to keep looking for new ways to conserve water in and around your home. Make sure that your home is leak-free. Many homes have leaking pipes that go unnoticed. Do not leave the tap running while you are brushing your teeth or soaping your face.
  40. 40. Solution Avoid flushing the toilet unnecessarily. Put a brick or any other device that occupies space to cut down on the amount of water needed for each flush. When washing the car, use water from a bucket and not a hosepipe. Do not throw away water that has been used for washing vegetables, rice or dals. Use it to water plants or to clean the floors, etc You can store water in a variety of ways. A simple method is to place a drum on a raised platform directly under the rainwater collection source. You can also collect water in a bucket during the rainy season. Donate fund for ongoing projects.
  41. 41. Solution Water awareness groups among social media networking sites like Twitter, Facebook are creating new trend among the social awareness groups. Web 2.0 concept helps to bridge gap between the people – more interactive By doing this water project, I have learned more about saving a drop of water rather using wordpress  Its not a solution to be found, it should be a RESOLUTION everyone should take.
  42. 42. Solution sAvE wAtEr SaVe WoRlD
  43. 43. Thank You…