WATER FOOTPRINT ACCOUNTING FOR CATCHMENTS AND RIVER BASINS
WATER FOOTPRINT ACCOUNTING FOR CATCHMENTS AND RIVER BASINS DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO, RÍO PIEDRASCIAM 6115 - Ambiente TerrestreDr. Jorge R. Ortiz ZayasNovember 22, 2011
THE WATER FOOTPRINT NETWORKMission: Promoting sustainable,equitable and efficient water usethrough development of sharedstandards on water footprintaccounting and guidelines for thereduction and offsetting of impacts ofwater footprints.Network: bringing together expertisefrom academia, businesses, civilsociety, governments andinternational organisations. Professor Arjen Y. Hoekstra Twente Water Centre University of Twente, The Netherlands
ASSESSING OUR WATER FOOTPRINTClimate change, rapid population growth andunsustainable practices are putting our waterresources at risk. Whether it is the fuel that makes ourcars run or the packaging that keeps our food fresh,the products we use every day require a largeamount of water to produce. In a water stressedworld, the water footprint of products will be a keyenvironmental indicator in the drive towards anincreased sustainable development.
WATER FOOTPRINT WITHIN A GEOGRAPHIC AREAThe water footprint within ageographic area is definedas the total freshwaterconsumption and pollutionwithin the boundaries of thearea. It is crucial to clearlydefine the boundaries of thearea considered. The areacan be a catchment area, ariver basin, a province, stateor nation or any otherhydrological or administrativespatial unit.
Water footprint of national consumption► total amount of water that is used to produce the goods and servicesconsumed by the inhabitants of the nation.► two components: • internal water footprint – inside the country. • external water footprint – in other countries.► water footprint of national consumption = water footprint within the nation + virtual water import – virtual water export
WATER ACCOUNTING FRAMEWORK Internal External WF of + = water water national Consumption footprint footprint consumpt. + + + Water use Virtual water Virtual for export + import for = water Export re-export export = = = WF Virtual Virtual + = within water water nation import budget Production ImportThe traditional statistics onwater use, butthen limited to withdrawals
Transparency along the supply chain Indirect Indirect Indirect Indirect water water water water footprint footprint footprint footprintFeed crop Livestock Food Retailer Consumercultivation farming processor Direct Direct Direct Direct Direct water water water water water footprint footprint footprint footprint footprint
The water footprint of a productGreen water footprint► volume of rainwater evaporated or incorporated into vegetation,Evapotranspiration, no infiltrates, no runoffBlue water footprint► volume of surface or groundwaterincorporated into product or returned to other catchment or the sea.Grey water footprint► volume of polluted water
Components of a water footprint Direct water footprint Indirect water footprint consumption Green water footprint Green water footprint WaterWater withdrawal Return flow Blue water footprint Blue water footprint pollution Water Grey water footprint Grey water footprint The traditional statistics on water use [Hoekstra et al., 2011]
Country/region National water footprint (Gm3/year) from the from the perspective of perspective of production consumptionAustralia 91 27Canada 123 63China 893 883Egypt 59 70EU25 559 744India 1013 987Japan 54 146Jordan 1.8 6.3USA 750 696Traditional statistics WF within WF of national on water use, but a nation consumption then restricted to water withdrawal [Hoekstra & Chapagain, 2008]
Regional virtual water balances (only agricultural trade) Arrows show trade flows >10 Gm3/yr [Hoekstra & Chapagain, 2008]
Water footprint per capita 3000 Domestic water consumption Industrial goods Agricultural goods 2500Water footprint (m /cap/yr) 20003 1500 Global average water footprint 1000 500 0 Pakistan Mexico Russia Thailand Indonesia Brazil USA Italy Nigeria China India Japan [Hoekstra & Chapagain, 2008]
Quiñones, F. (2011). Disponibilidad, Condición y Manejo de los Recursos de Agua de Puerto Rico.
CALCULATION OF THE WATER FOOTPRINTTop-down approachBottom-up approach .The bottom-up versus the top-down approach• The bottom-up approach depends on the quality of consumption data, while the top-down approach relies on the quality of trade data.• The bottom-up approach will yield a more reliable estimate than the top-down approach.
The water footprint of a consumer Virtual Virtual Virtual water water water flow Food flow flow Farmer Processor Retailer Consumer green grey blue grey blue grey blue grey and water water water water water water water blue use use use water use Indirect WF Direct WF[Hoekstra, 2008]
Surface and Ground Water Use in Puerto Rico Surface Water, Ground Water, 576 mgd, 80 % 147 mgd, 20 % Total Water Use in 2005 723 million gallons per day (mgd) Vulnerabilidad de las cadenas de suministros de alimentos de Puerto Rico, elQuiñones, F. (2011). Disponibilidad, Condición y Manejo de los Recursos de Agua de Puerto Comas Pagán, PhD cambio climático y estrategias de adaptación, Myrna Rico.
Vulnerabilidad de las cadenas de suministros de alimentos de Puerto Rico, elcambio climático y estrategias de adaptación, Myrna Comas Pagán, PhD
Vulnerabilidad de las cadenas de suministros de alimentos de Puerto Rico,el cambio climático y estrategias de adaptación, Myrna Comas Pagán, PhD
POPULATION IN THE RIVER BASIN 2,444 19,258 2,664 11,310 22,406 8,008 27,464
POPULATION IN THE RIVER BASINMunicipio Censo 2010 Censo 2000Caguas 80,438 77,963Aguas Buenas 13,116 13,029Total 93,554 90,992Barrio MuestraCañabon 44Cañaboncito 117 Unidades de Vivienda Barrio Unidades de Vivienda OcupadasBarrio Pueblo 105 Cañabon 4317 3952Bairoa - C 78 Cañaboncito 11647 10380 Barrio Pueblo 10920 9360Bairoa - AB 9 Bairoa - C 7772 6957Cagüitas 10 Bairoa - AB 968 819 Cagüitas 1043 925Sumidero 32 Sumidero 3136 2817Total 396 Total 39803 35210 “Let’s be realistic and do the impossible” -Ernesto “Che” Guevara
INDUSTRIAL GOODS CONSUMPTIONAguas Buenas Household Income Number Caguas Household Income NumberHouseholds 9,123 Households 48,185Less than $10,000 3,793 Less than $10,000 15,942$10,000 to $14,999 1,420 $10,000 to $14,999 6,488$15,000 to $24,999 1,679 $15,000 to $24,999 8,931$25,000 to $34,999 1,001 $25,000 to $34,999 5,810$35,000 to $49,999 658 $35,000 to $49,999 5,330$50,000 to $74,999 300 $50,000 to $74,999 3,526$75,000 to $99,999 147 $75,000 to $99,999 1,130$100,000 to $149,999 46 $100,000 to $149,999 668$150,000 to $199,999 26 $150,000 to $199,999 141$200,000 or more 53 $200,000 or more 219 Median household incomeMedian household income (dollars) $12,463.00 (dollars) $16,558.00Average household size 3.13 Average household size 2.97Average income per member of Average income per memberhousehold $3,981.79 of household $5,575.08 What is your gross yearly income?
WATER FOOTPRINT ASSESSMENT• A water footprint study can be undertaken for many different reasons.• The phase of water footprint accounting is the phase in which data are collected and accounts are developed.• The phase of sustainability assessment, in which the water footprint is evaluated from an environmental perspective, as well as from a social and economic perspective.• In the final phase, response options, strategies or policies are formulated.
Environmental sustainability criterion:Grey water footprint < available assimilation capacity Assimilative capacity Grey water footprint < runoff not fully used Full assimilative Grey water footprint = runoff capacity of the river used Pollution exceeding Grey water footprint > runoff the assimilative capacity of the environment
LOCAL ACTION PLANS AND WATER POLICY• Water allocation and resource protectionProviding specific allocations to protect the ecological integrity of waterbodies and ensuring sufficient availability for domestic consumption beforeindustrial water users are allocated water rights.• Water use efficiencyOf particular relevance to the drive for efficiency is the government’s drivefor geographic-specific, water conservation/demand management.• Water use licensing and enforcementThis relates to where water rights/licenses are withheld for certain types ofactivity considered to have a detrimental impact on water resources andthe monitoring and enforcement of these directives.• Economic instruments and pricingThe use of economic instruments to manage water will become moreapparent in the future. This will include full cost pricing in relation to waterinfrastructure development, water charges related to efficiency of use ofthe resource and reviewing the structure of the polluter pays principleinsofar as waste discharges are concerned.
Reducing humanity’s water footprint – ConsumersReduction of the direct water footprint: water saving toilet, shower-head, etc. “Save water in the supermarket”Reduction of the indirect water footprint: substitution of a consumer product that has a large water footprint by a different type of product that has a smaller water footprint; substitution of a consumer product that has a large water footprint by the same product that is derived from another source with smaller water footprint.Ask product transparency from businesses and regulation from governments
WATER – AGUA – DLO – EAU – जल“Water is the sleeping giant issue of the 21st centuryand we all need wake up about it.” – Robert Redford
PROYECCIONES DE DEMANDA DE AGUA POR EL SECTOR AGRÍCOLA AL 2030Quiñones, F. (2011). Disponibilidad, Condición y Manejo de los Recursos de Agua de Puerto Rico.
QUESTION OF CONVERSATION Is Puerto Rico prepared to internalize its water footprint of consumptions (to increase its production) without affecting the water quality? What would need to happen in order to do this and how would you do it? Conservation Technology Information Center (CTIC)