MEANING & CONCEPT
• Why do a student burning midnight oil during the days
• Why do you learn to cycle even after getting many cuts
• Why does an athlete gets up early in the morning and
practice in spite of odd seasons?
Motivation is the answer for all these “why” and “how”.
It is something which prompts, compels, and
energizes and individual to act or behave in a
particular fashion at a particular time for attaining
some specific goal or purpose.
• There is a force behind
every motivation. These
are our basic need and
can be named as motives.
• Our needs (biological
psychological) give birth
to motive(a dynamic force
to motivate an individual)
and it give rise to
• It is indicated in
• The motivation functions as a continuous flow in the
shape of a cycle name as motivational cycle.
• The behaviour is initiated on account of some inherent
need. It is a desire/want/need.
• The intensified need is called drive.
• He become quite anxious for the satisfaction which
leads to arousal of actions.
• It initiates one’s behaviour to goal directed path.
• Then the organism reaches the desired goal and feel
satisfied of the need.
• The satisfaction provides temporary halt to his
behavioural activities due to reduction of arousal.
MOTIVATION AND LEARNING
• One can learn to the degree
or extent he is ready or
willing to learn.
• This readiness is called
• Interest is the central factor
in every learning process.
• The motivation for learning
may be intrinsic (cognition,
affect, conation) or
conditioning or social
TYPES OF MOTIVATION
• Natural Motivation/Intrinsic motivation: This directly
linked with natural instincts (innate pattern of behaviour
in response to certain stimuli), urges (a strong desire or
impulse), impulses (a sudden strong desire to act).
• This act finds interest within the activity. It carries own
reward and it is genuine interest.
• Unnatural or Extrinsic Motivation: In this the source of
pleasure does not lie within the task. The learning of an
individual is motivated by external reward such as an
honour, rewards etc.
• It is always better to make use of the Intrinsic motivation
as it is better and more advantageous.
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
The process and mechanism of motivation can be
explained in number ways such as,
•Need and drive reduction theory.
•Social urges theory.
•Goal oriented theory.
•Two Factor theory.
•Self Actualization theory.
Need and drive reduction theory.
• It is the view point of Behaviourists like
Watson, and Skinner.
• According to this theory, deviations from
homeostasis create physiological needs.
• These needs result in psychological drive
that directs behaviour to meet
the need and, ultimately, bring the system
back to homeostasis.
• A need or stimulation give birth to a drive or
motive which may be biological.
• The motive sets the motivational behaviour.
• The reduction of the need and the
associative drive then works as a reinforces
for maintaining behaviour.
• It is Freud’s view point.
• He asserted the that human beings are having two
instincts such as Eros (erotic life) and Death (desire of
destruction) and it decides our motivation.
• Both these instincts cannot act at the same time.
When Eros stops death starts Eg: Love failure: Suicide.
• He also suggests that the energy behind Eros is sexual
gratification/sex motive which every human being
experiences from birth onward.
Social urges theory.
• It is Adler’s view point. He rejected the extreme views of
Freud’s regarding sex.
• We feel encouraged, we feel capable and appreciated and will
generally act in a connected and cooperative way.
• When we are discouraged, we may act in unhealthy ways by
competing, withdrawing, or giving up.
• He advocated that human being are motivated primarily by
• Adlerians believe that "a misbehaving child is a discouraged
• To maintain self one has to obtain social recognition. This is
achieved through domination and superiority.
• In order not to feel inferior he strives for achievement and
Goal oriented theory.
• It is otherwise called as Cognitive view point.
• Human behaviour is purposeful with certain end or
goal in view.
• The motivational behaviour is always supported by
• The achievement of the goal satisfies the individual
which in turn reinforces the maintained behaviour.
• We are motivated to set the imbalance right, either by
changing our beliefs (cognition) or our behaviour
Eg. The advertisement “Smoking Kills” either help us to
quit smoking (conation)or avoid fear and continue
Two Factor theory.
• According to Herzberg, two kinds of factors affect
motivation, and they do it in different ways:
• Hygiene factors. These are factors whose absence
motivates, but whose presence has no perceived
effect. They are things that when you take them away,
people become dissatisfied and act to get them back.
Eg. Good salary, benefits and interpersonal
• Motivators. These are factors whose presence
motivates. Their absence does not cause any particular
dissatisfaction, it just fails to motivate. Examples are all
the things at the top of the Maslow hierarchy, and the
• This is based on Operant Conditioning B.F. Skinner.
• There are four types of Operant Conditioning:
• Positive reinforcement. Strengthening a behaviour.
You do a good job, you get a bonus & a promotion.
• Negative reinforcement. Strengthening a behaviour.
This is the process of having a stressor taken away as a
consequence of a behaviour.
• Extinction. Weakening a behaviour. If a person does
extra effort, but gets no thanks for it, he stop doing it.
• Punishment. Weakening a behaviour. This is the
process of getting a punishment as a consequence of a
Self Actualization theory.
• Abraham Maslow said
we are motivated by
needs, and all needs
are not created equal.
• We are driven to
satisfy the lower
level needs first.
• These are the basic activation force behind
• A motive can be defined as an inclination to action
plus some degree of orientation.
• A motive may be defined as readiness or
disposition to respond in some ways and not
others to a variety of situations.
TYPES OF MOTIVES
• The motives can be broadly classified into two
A.Primary motives: they are linked with the basic
primary needs associated with the biological or
physiological well being of the individual. Eg. Hunger,
thirst, sex, avoidance of pain, elimination, sleep, rest,
B.Secondary motives: are linked with one’s socio-
psychological needs. Eg. Aggression, Achievement,
Affiliation, Security etc.
• Need for food.
• More intensified.
• If deprived forced to do any type of act desirable or
• It is influenced by culture, belief, and other
• It is stronger than hunger.
• A person may do anything for thirst.
• Sexual motivation is one of the most
important aspects of humanity.
• Without sex, none of us would be here.
• Although not so much essential as food
• It has 4 stages such as Initial excitement,
Plateau phase, Orgasm/Euphoria and
• It is also influenced by emotional and
• The present and history have seen
violence and wars for the satisfaction of
• Sleep and
It is related to those behaviors that are intended to
inflict physical or psychological harm on others.
• Rewards we get
internally, such as
enjoyment or satisfaction.
• Reward that we get for
outside ourselves (grades
or money or etc..)
• Work great in the short
IMPLICATION FOR NURSES
• She can well understand the role of motivation in the
process of learning or training.
• The true reward lies in the inner satisfaction.
• Motives helps to modify the behaviour.
• Modify the behaviour to patients, relatives, own
colleagues, students etc.
• Can avoid or control negative motives.