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Unit 4 motivation


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motivation: Psychology

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Unit 4 motivation

  1. 1. Motivation by Johny Kutty Joseph
  2. 2. MEANING & CONCEPT • Why do a student burning midnight oil during the days of examination? • Why do you learn to cycle even after getting many cuts and bruises? • Why does an athlete gets up early in the morning and practice in spite of odd seasons? Motivation is the answer for all these “why” and “how”. It is something which prompts, compels, and energizes and individual to act or behave in a particular fashion at a particular time for attaining some specific goal or purpose.
  3. 3. MOTIVATION CYCLE • There is a force behind every motivation. These are our basic need and can be named as motives. • Our needs (biological /sociological and psychological) give birth to motive(a dynamic force to motivate an individual) and it give rise to motivation. • It is indicated in motivation cycle.
  4. 4. MOTIVATION CYCLE • The motivation functions as a continuous flow in the shape of a cycle name as motivational cycle. • The behaviour is initiated on account of some inherent need. It is a desire/want/need. • The intensified need is called drive. • He become quite anxious for the satisfaction which leads to arousal of actions. • It initiates one’s behaviour to goal directed path. • Then the organism reaches the desired goal and feel satisfied of the need. • The satisfaction provides temporary halt to his behavioural activities due to reduction of arousal.
  5. 5. MOTIVATION AND LEARNING • One can learn to the degree or extent he is ready or willing to learn. • This readiness is called motivation. • Interest is the central factor in every learning process. • The motivation for learning may be intrinsic (cognition, affect, conation) or extrinsic (operant conditioning or social conditioning).
  7. 7. TYPES OF MOTIVATION • Natural Motivation/Intrinsic motivation: This directly linked with natural instincts (innate pattern of behaviour in response to certain stimuli), urges (a strong desire or impulse), impulses (a sudden strong desire to act). • This act finds interest within the activity. It carries own reward and it is genuine interest. • Unnatural or Extrinsic Motivation: In this the source of pleasure does not lie within the task. The learning of an individual is motivated by external reward such as an honour, rewards etc. • It is always better to make use of the Intrinsic motivation as it is better and more advantageous.
  8. 8. THEORIES OF MOTIVATION The process and mechanism of motivation can be explained in number ways such as, •Need and drive reduction theory. •Instinctive Theory. •Social urges theory. •Goal oriented theory. •Two Factor theory. •Reinforcement theory. •Self Actualization theory.
  9. 9. Need and drive reduction theory. • It is the view point of Behaviourists like Watson, and Skinner. • According to this theory, deviations from homeostasis create physiological needs. • These needs result in psychological drive that directs behaviour to meet the need and, ultimately, bring the system back to homeostasis. • A need or stimulation give birth to a drive or motive which may be biological. • The motive sets the motivational behaviour. • The reduction of the need and the associative drive then works as a reinforces for maintaining behaviour.
  10. 10. Instinctive Theory. • It is Freud’s view point. • He asserted the that human beings are having two instincts such as Eros (erotic life) and Death (desire of destruction) and it decides our motivation. • Both these instincts cannot act at the same time. When Eros stops death starts Eg: Love failure: Suicide. • He also suggests that the energy behind Eros is sexual gratification/sex motive which every human being experiences from birth onward.
  11. 11. Social urges theory. • It is Adler’s view point. He rejected the extreme views of Freud’s regarding sex. • We feel encouraged, we feel capable and appreciated and will generally act in a connected and cooperative way. • When we are discouraged, we may act in unhealthy ways by competing, withdrawing, or giving up. • He advocated that human being are motivated primarily by social urges. • Adlerians believe that "a misbehaving child is a discouraged child • To maintain self one has to obtain social recognition. This is achieved through domination and superiority. • In order not to feel inferior he strives for achievement and superiority. •
  12. 12. Goal oriented theory. • It is otherwise called as Cognitive view point. • Human behaviour is purposeful with certain end or goal in view. • The motivational behaviour is always supported by cognitive abilities. • The achievement of the goal satisfies the individual which in turn reinforces the maintained behaviour. • We are motivated to set the imbalance right, either by changing our beliefs (cognition) or our behaviour (conation). Eg. The advertisement “Smoking Kills” either help us to quit smoking (conation)or avoid fear and continue smoking (cognition)
  13. 13. Two Factor theory. • According to Herzberg, two kinds of factors affect motivation, and they do it in different ways: • Hygiene factors. These are factors whose absence motivates, but whose presence has no perceived effect. They are things that when you take them away, people become dissatisfied and act to get them back. Eg. Good salary, benefits and interpersonal relationships. • Motivators. These are factors whose presence motivates. Their absence does not cause any particular dissatisfaction, it just fails to motivate. Examples are all the things at the top of the Maslow hierarchy, and the intrinsic motivators.
  14. 14. Reinforcement theory. • This is based on Operant Conditioning B.F. Skinner. • There are four types of Operant Conditioning: • Positive reinforcement. Strengthening a behaviour. You do a good job, you get a bonus & a promotion. • Negative reinforcement. Strengthening a behaviour. This is the process of having a stressor taken away as a consequence of a behaviour. • Extinction. Weakening a behaviour. If a person does extra effort, but gets no thanks for it, he stop doing it. • Punishment. Weakening a behaviour. This is the process of getting a punishment as a consequence of a behaviour.
  15. 15. Self Actualization theory. • Abraham Maslow said we are motivated by needs, and all needs are not created equal. • We are driven to satisfy the lower level needs first.
  16. 16. MOTIVES • These are the basic activation force behind behaviour. • A motive can be defined as an inclination to action plus some degree of orientation. • A motive may be defined as readiness or disposition to respond in some ways and not others to a variety of situations.
  17. 17. TYPES OF MOTIVES • The motives can be broadly classified into two categories. A.Primary motives: they are linked with the basic primary needs associated with the biological or physiological well being of the individual. Eg. Hunger, thirst, sex, avoidance of pain, elimination, sleep, rest, etc. B.Secondary motives: are linked with one’s socio- psychological needs. Eg. Aggression, Achievement, Affiliation, Security etc.
  18. 18. THIRST MOTIVE • Need for food. • More intensified. • If deprived forced to do any type of act desirable or undesirable. • It is influenced by culture, belief, and other psychological aspects. • It is stronger than hunger. • A person may do anything for thirst. HUNGER MOTIVE
  19. 19. Sexual Motive • Sexual motivation is one of the most important aspects of humanity. • Without sex, none of us would be here. • Although not so much essential as food and water. • It has 4 stages such as Initial excitement, Plateau phase, Orgasm/Euphoria and Resolution phase: • It is also influenced by emotional and other factors. • The present and history have seen violence and wars for the satisfaction of
  20. 20. • Avoidance of pain • Elimination • Sleep and Rest
  21. 21. Aggression Motive It is related to those behaviors that are intended to inflict physical or psychological harm on others.
  22. 22. Achievement Motive Intrinsic Motivators • Rewards we get internally, such as enjoyment or satisfaction. Extrinsic Motivators • Reward that we get for accomplishments from outside ourselves (grades or money or etc..) • Work great in the short run.
  23. 23. IMPLICATION FOR NURSES • She can well understand the role of motivation in the process of learning or training. • The true reward lies in the inner satisfaction. • Motives helps to modify the behaviour. • Modify the behaviour to patients, relatives, own colleagues, students etc. • Can avoid or control negative motives.