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Unit 4 emotions

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Emotion: Psychology

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Unit 4 emotions

  1. 1. Emotions
  2. 2. What is Emotion? Agitated state of our mind and body leading us to perform some or other types of behavioral acts. • Emotions are private experiences. • We use operational definitions because we cannot actually see feelings. • We infer observable behavior associated with emotion. • The word emotion is derived from the Latin word emovere: to stir up or to excite.
  3. 3. What is Emotion? Definition According to Crow and Crow Emotion is an affective experience that accompanies generalized inner adjustment and mental and physiological stirred up states in the individual and that shows itself in his overt behavior.
  4. 4. Nature and Characteristics of Emotions 1. The emotional experiences are associated with some instincts or biological drives: Challenge of basic needs. 2. Emotions are the product of perception: according to perception organic changes takes place within body pr psychologically may be favorable or unfavorable. 3. The core of an emotion is feeling: Both are affective experiences. Emotions are intensified feelings. Feelings are after effects of some perceptions. 4. Emotions bring physiological changes: eg. Bulge of eyes, flush of the face, flow of tears, choking of voice, etc.
  5. 5. Nature and Characteristics of Emotions 5. Emotions are present in all organisms. 6. They are present in all stages of life. 7. Emotions are individualized and differ from person to person. 8. Emotions can be displaced. 9. There is a negative correlation between the upsurge of emotions and intelligence.
  6. 6. What Are Emotions? MOODS Feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus. EMOTIONS Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something. AFFECT A broad range of feelings that people experience.
  7. 7. Four components of Emotion Social- Expressive Sense of Purpose Bodily Arousal Feelings Emotion Significant life event
  8. 8. Feeling component • Emotions are subjective feelings • Make us feel in a particular way. • Anger or joy. • Meaning and personal significance. • Vary in intensity and quality. • Rooted in mental processes (labeling).
  9. 9. Bodily Arousal • Biological activation. • Autonomic and hormonal systems. • Prepare and activate adaptive coping behavior during emotion. • Body prepared for action. • Alert posture, clenched fists.
  10. 10. Purposive component • Give emotion its goal-directed force. • Motivation to take action. • Cope with emotion-causing circumstances. • Why people benefit from emotions. • Social and evolutionary advantage.
  11. 11. Social-Expressive component • Emotion’s communicative aspect. • Postures, gestures, vocalizations, facial expressions make our emotions public. • Verbal and nonverbal communication. • Helps us interpret the situation. • How person reacts to event.
  12. 12. Facial Expressions Convey Emotions
  13. 13. Types of emotion • Emotions in general can be categorized as a positive and negative emotions. • Unpleasant emotions like fear, anger, jealousy are harmful for development. • Pleasant emotions like love, curiosity, joy, happiness are helpful and essential for normal development. • However the emotions are categorized as positive or negative in relation to circumstance, intensity, impact and frequency.
  14. 14. Types of emotions
  15. 15. Components of Emotions • There are three components of emotions. A. Cognition: This component serves primarily to influence an evaluation of given situation, prompting us to become emotional in one way or another, or not at all. B. Feeling: The feelings are most readily evident changes in an aroused person. Feelings have immediate motivational significance. They give rise to many physiological processes in the cardiovascular system and produce increased blood pressure, changes in sexual urge. They also stimulate nervous system and prompt widespread electrochemical activities. C. Behaviour: The behavioural component involves facial, postural, gestures and vocal responses.
  16. 16. Physiological Changes during Emotions Changes during emotions are divided into external and internal changes. External changes: • The voice changes according to the type of emotion. Experiments have proved that emotions can be identified on the basis of voice. • Facial expressions change. We can identify emotion experienced by a person by looking at his face. • There will be changes in the body language like stiffness of muscles, twisting of fingers, movements of hands and legs. • Sweating, Wrinkles on forehead, Redness of eyes, Erection of hairs on the skin, etc.
  17. 17. Physiological Changes during Emotions Internal changes: Sympathetic division prepares the body for facing emergency either by fight or by flight, i.e. fights if possible, otherwise escapes from the situation. It stimulates the adrenal glands and causes the excess release of adrenaline and nor-adrenaline. Adrenaline gets circulated all over the body and stimulates vital organs leading to following internal changes. Increase in heart rate thereby increase in BP, Increase in rate of respiration, Increase in blood sugar level. Decrease in functioning of GI tract-that is why we do not experience the feeling of hunger during emotional states.
  18. 18. FACTORS AFFECTING EMOTIONS
  19. 19. •PERSONALITY: Personality features are associated with individual differences in daily emotional life, such as negative and positive affectivity, affect variability and affect reactivity. •CULTURE: Culture provides structure, guidelines, expectations, and rules to help people understand and interpret behaviours.
  20. 20. WEATHER: Higher temperatures raise a person with a low mood up, while things like wind or not enough sun made a low person feel even lower. Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is an example. •STRESS: It can also negatively affect people with Bipolar Disorder. This illness, also known as manic depression or bipolar affective disorder, involves dramatic shifts in mood, energy level etc.
  21. 21. •AGE: Older adults report more emotional stability than younger persons. Older adults pay more attention to the good and less to the bad. When older adults experience a negative emotion, they may be able to recover more quickly than younger persons. •GENDER: Women are more emotional than men are. However, it depends on the emotional development at childhood as how to express emotions.
  22. 22. ENVIRONMENTAL: Our environment has an effect on how we feel. An untidy room makes bad feeling about self. Living in clean and tidy room, wearing clean dress, enjoying natural beauty, makes emotional changes in human. •MARITAL RELATION: it explains life style challenges, accepting different preferences, sexual life etc.
  23. 23. •ORGANIZATIONAL: Work load, Colleagues, Job satisfaction etc. •SOCIAL: Traditions, Religion, culture and norms.
  24. 24. Theories of Emotions: Evolutionary Theory • Charles Darwin proposed that emotions evolved because they were adaptive and allowed humans and animals to survive and reproduce. • Feelings of love and affection lead people to seek mates and reproduce. Feelings of fear compel people to either fight or flee the source of danger. • It states that our emotions exist because they serve an adaptive role. Emotions motivate people to respond quickly to stimuli in the environment, which helps improve the chances of success and survival. • If you encounter hissing, spitting, and clawing animal, chances are you will quickly realize that the animal is frightened or defensive and leave it alone.
  25. 25. Theories of Emotions: James-Lange Theory • James-Lange Theory: In the late 19th century, William James (1842-1910), formulated one theory. • This theory suggests that when you see an external stimulus that leads to a physiological reaction. • Your emotional reaction is dependent upon how you interpret those physical reactions. • For example, suppose you are walking in the woods and you see a grizzly bear. You begin to tremble, and your heart begins to race. • According to this theory of emotion, you are not trembling because you are frightened. Instead, you feel frightened because you are trembling.
  26. 26. Theories of Emotions: Cannon-Bard Theory • According to the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion, we feel emotions and experience physiological reactions such as sweating, trembling, and muscle tension simultaneously. • More specifically, it is suggested that emotions result when the thalamus sends a message to the brain in response to a stimulus, resulting in a physiological reaction. At the same time, the brain also receives signals triggering the emotional experience. Cannon and Bard’s theory suggests that the physical and psychological experience of emotion happen at the same time and that one does not cause the other.
  27. 27. Theories of Emotions: Schachter-Singer Theory • Also known as the two-factor theory of emotion. • This theory suggests that the physiological arousal occurs first, and then the individual must identify the reason for this arousal to experience and label it as an emotion. A stimulus leads to a physiological response that is then cognitively interpreted and labelled which results in an emotion. • Schachter and Singer’s theory draws on both the James- Lange theory and the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion. • The Schachter-Singer theory proposes that people do infer emotions based on physiological responses. • The critical factor is the situation and the cognitive interpretation that people use to label that emotion.
  28. 28. Theories of Emotions: Schachter-Singer Theory • Like the Cannon-Bard theory, the Schachter-Singer theory also suggests that similar physiological responses can produce varying emotions. • For example, if you experience a racing heart and sweating palms during an important math exam, you will probably identify the emotion as anxiety. If you experience the same physical responses on a date with your significant other, you might interpret those responses as love, affection, or arousal.
  29. 29. Theories of Emotions: Activation Theory • Emotions represents a state of heightened arousal rather than a qualitatively unique type of psychological, physiological or biological process. • Arousal is considered to lie on a wide continuum ranging from a very low level to extreme agitation. • According to Lindsley emotions provoking stimuli activate the reticular activating system in brain stem which send impulses to cortex as well as musculature an hence emotion are created or expressed.
  30. 30. Emotional Adjustment • Emotions are described as the prime movers of behaviour. • Emotional adjustment is an important task because, adjustment during emotions lead to a normal behaviour, whereas maladjustment leads to abnormal behaviour. • These stirred up states are store houses of energy, which may work for both intense vigour and efficiency and strong disruption of mental life. • There are many instances where even highly intelligent people fail to manage their emotions and some average intelligent persons manage their emotions effectively and harmoniously. It is called ’emotional intelligence’.
  31. 31. Emotional Adjustment • Human being is considered as a rational being. But in the grip of emotions people behave like immature. Some people may breakdown completely, cannot take proper decisions, and many people even collapse in severe emotional arousal, because of serious changes in vital systems such as heart, lungs, brain, etc. • Emotions may hamper the studies of students and occupations of people. In some people emotions may lead to crimes, because people lose reasoning power and their ability to control behaviour is hampered. Hence, emotional control and management is very essential for an adjusted life.
  32. 32. Emotion in health and Illness • The argument you’ve just had with your lover has left your blood boiling. You phone a friend, who makes light of it and, before long, you’re laughing. • Our emotions have a capacity to harm and heal – not just psychologically but physically. • Research has shown that having to deliver a speech can double the severity of allergy symptoms for two days, while crying is soothing because stress hormones are carried out of your body in tears. • Some of the examples are given here;
  33. 33. Emotion in health and Illness • When you sing your loved one’s praises: According to a research in human communication research says that expressing the affectionate feelings you have towards your partner lowers cholesterol levels. • Fighting and argument delays the healing process: According to scientists at Ohio State University, a 30- minute argument with your partner can slow your body’s ability to heal by at least a day. This is under the influence of cytokines, which can even cause arthritis, diabetes, heart disease and cancer. • When you bottle things up: the people who holds the anger for long duration are at high risk of heart attack, stroke and cancer. It also impatience and irritability.
  34. 34. Emotion in health and Illness • Falling in love raises levels of nerve growth factor for about a year, according to researchers at the University of Pavia in Italy and it induce a calming effect on both the body and the mind. • Depression, pessimism and apathy affect our health in several ways. Low mood is linked to low levels of serotonin and dopamine, the feel-good neurotransmitters in the brain. • Laughing increases stress and prevents many diseases. • Emotional tears were found to contain high levels of the hormones and neurotransmitters associated with stress.
  35. 35. Thank U…….

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