Johny Kutty Joseph
• We, in spite of belonging to a common
species known as human beings, have our
own individuality which contributes
towards the variation and differences
found in us.
• It is these differences that are entitled
as ‘individual differences” in the
languages of sociology and psychology.
• The psychology of individual differences is
concerned with the systematic study of
intelligence and abilities associated with
personality of learner, learning styles and
needs and interests of learner.
• Learning is most effective when differences in
learner’s language, cultural, and social behaviour
are taken into account.
• A teacher should be sensitive to individual
• A teacher’s challenge is to acknowledge and
celebrate the differences among children and
work to maximize the growth in each child.
Definition of individual difference
• Individual differences stand for the
variations or deviations among individuals in
regard to a single characteristic or a
number of characteristics
-Carter B. Good
• Individual differences stand for “those
differences which in their totality,
distinguish one individual from another.
Types or varieties of individual
• Physical differences: individual
differ in height, weight, colour
of skin, colour of eyes and hair,
size of hands and heads, arms,
feet, mouth and nose, length of
waistline, structure and
functioning of internal organs,
facial expression, mannerisms
of speech and walk, and other
such native or acquired physical
• People differ in intellectual abilities and
capacities like reasoning and thinking, power
of imagination, creative expression,
• On the basis of these differences they are
usually classified as idiot, imbecile, moron,
border line, normal, very superior and genius
Difference in motor /
• There exist wide
differences in motor
abilities such as reacting
time, speed of action,
steadiness, rate of muscular
moment, manual dexterity
and resistance to fatigue
• It also include general
abilities such as jumping,
running, dancing etc.
Difference in achievement
Differences exist in achievement and in
knowledge even among individuals who have
almost the same amount of intelligence and
have been subjected to equal amount of
schooling and experience.
Some seem to excel in all aspects but few are
Some are good in academics but poor in other
It depends on the learning situations and
• In some individuals, positive emotions like
love, affection and amusement and the like
are prominent whereas, in some negative
emotions are more powerful.
• Individuals also differ in the manner they
express their emotions. Some are
emotionally stable and mature, while others
are emotionally unstable and immature.
Differences in interests
• It is the central force that drives
• Learning depend in interest.
• Variations occur among the individuals in
relation to the specific tastes and
interests. Eg. TV channels, sports, others,
• Some are interested in socialization, picnics,
but some feel happy in solitude.
• Some are interested in social gathering but
some like meditation.
Differences in attitudes
• It is our important attribute.
• Behaviour depends on attitude such as
ideas, persons, object and environment.
• Feeling about something makes our attitude
• We may have positive(strong like) or
negative attitude(dislike, hatred, enmity
• It is linked to our studies and friend too.
Differences in aptitudes
• People are found to have different
aptitudes. Some have mechanical aptitude,
while the others have scholastic, musical or
• It decides their growth and success.
Differences in Values
It includes our values such as materialistic,
social, moral or spiritual in nature.
It depend on philosophy of life, environment
It includes economic values, employment
values, political values, psychological values,
social and moral.
Differences in self-concept
• Self concept reflects the images, considerations
or judgement about one’s abilities and
limitations usually held by an individual not only
projecting himself before others but also for
estimating his self in his own eyes.
• Students must be made to form proper and real
concept about their self so that they may be
helped in their progress and development by
maximizing their potentials after getting rid of
evils and negative things detrimental to
• Some learn more easily and are able to make
use of their learning more comfortably than
• For some, one method of learning or
memorization is more suitable, while for others,
a different method suits.
Factors Effecting Individual
1. Heredity (What occurs naturally as a function
of the genes) the physical parameters are
best examples for it.
2. Environment (What is learned and
communicated in different cultures or other
social groups) includes Family, Socio-economic
status, Culture, Previous knowledge,
experience and gender differences.
Distribution of Individual differences
1. Majority among us consist of averages or normals in
terms of the possession of all the attributes of our
2. As study was conducted among 10000 students of
CBSE to understand the individual differences.
3. As revealed by the bell curve we can locate the
majority 34.13% + 34.14%=68.26% of the students
4. 15.74% were less than average and 15.74% were
Distribution of Individual differences
1. The central line indicates the mean score. Either of
its side we can assess the range normal IQ.
2. The small line at left indicates below average
students and the portion after the mean score
indicates the above average students.