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Unit 3 individual diffrences


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individual differences psychology

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Unit 3 individual diffrences

  1. 1. “Individual difference and Variability by Johny Kutty Joseph Asstt. Professor SMVDCoN
  2. 2. Individual difference Introduction • We, in spite of belonging to a common species known as human beings, have our own individuality which contributes towards the variation and differences found in us. • It is these differences that are entitled as ‘individual differences” in the languages of sociology and psychology.
  3. 3. Introduction… • The psychology of individual differences is concerned with the systematic study of intelligence and abilities associated with personality of learner, learning styles and needs and interests of learner.
  4. 4. Introduction… • Learning is most effective when differences in learner’s language, cultural, and social behaviour are taken into account. • A teacher should be sensitive to individual differences. • A teacher’s challenge is to acknowledge and celebrate the differences among children and work to maximize the growth in each child.
  5. 5. Definition of individual difference • Individual differences stand for the variations or deviations among individuals in regard to a single characteristic or a number of characteristics -Carter B. Good • Individual differences stand for “those differences which in their totality, distinguish one individual from another.
  6. 6. Types or varieties of individual differences • Physical differences: individual differ in height, weight, colour of skin, colour of eyes and hair, size of hands and heads, arms, feet, mouth and nose, length of waistline, structure and functioning of internal organs, facial expression, mannerisms of speech and walk, and other such native or acquired physical characteristics.
  7. 7. Mental differences • People differ in intellectual abilities and capacities like reasoning and thinking, power of imagination, creative expression, concentration etc. • On the basis of these differences they are usually classified as idiot, imbecile, moron, border line, normal, very superior and genius
  8. 8. Difference in motor / Psychomotor ability • There exist wide differences in motor abilities such as reacting time, speed of action, steadiness, rate of muscular moment, manual dexterity and resistance to fatigue etc. • It also include general abilities such as jumping, running, dancing etc.
  9. 9. Difference in achievement Differences exist in achievement and in knowledge even among individuals who have almost the same amount of intelligence and have been subjected to equal amount of schooling and experience. Some seem to excel in all aspects but few are not. Some are good in academics but poor in other activities. It depends on the learning situations and other factors.
  10. 10. Emotional differences • In some individuals, positive emotions like love, affection and amusement and the like are prominent whereas, in some negative emotions are more powerful. • Individuals also differ in the manner they express their emotions. Some are emotionally stable and mature, while others are emotionally unstable and immature.
  11. 11. Differences in interests • It is the central force that drives everything. • Learning depend in interest. • Variations occur among the individuals in relation to the specific tastes and interests. Eg. TV channels, sports, others, • Some are interested in socialization, picnics, but some feel happy in solitude. • Some are interested in social gathering but some like meditation.
  12. 12. Differences in attitudes • It is our important attribute. • Behaviour depends on attitude such as ideas, persons, object and environment. • Feeling about something makes our attitude towards it. • We may have positive(strong like) or negative attitude(dislike, hatred, enmity etc.). • It is linked to our studies and friend too.
  13. 13. Differences in aptitudes • People are found to have different aptitudes. Some have mechanical aptitude, while the others have scholastic, musical or artistic aptitudes. • It decides their growth and success.
  14. 14. Differences in Values It includes our values such as materialistic, social, moral or spiritual in nature. It depend on philosophy of life, environment and circumstances. It includes economic values, employment values, political values, psychological values, social and moral.
  15. 15. Differences in self-concept • Self concept reflects the images, considerations or judgement about one’s abilities and limitations usually held by an individual not only projecting himself before others but also for estimating his self in his own eyes. • Students must be made to form proper and real concept about their self so that they may be helped in their progress and development by maximizing their potentials after getting rid of evils and negative things detrimental to progress.
  16. 16. Learning differences • Some learn more easily and are able to make use of their learning more comfortably than others. • For some, one method of learning or memorization is more suitable, while for others, a different method suits.
  17. 17. Differences in study habits
  18. 18. Factors Effecting Individual Differences 1. Heredity (What occurs naturally as a function of the genes) the physical parameters are best examples for it. 2. Environment (What is learned and communicated in different cultures or other social groups) includes Family, Socio-economic status, Culture, Previous knowledge, experience and gender differences.
  19. 19. Distribution of Individual differences 1. Majority among us consist of averages or normals in terms of the possession of all the attributes of our personality. 2. As study was conducted among 10000 students of CBSE to understand the individual differences. 3. As revealed by the bell curve we can locate the majority 34.13% + 34.14%=68.26% of the students were normal/average. 4. 15.74% were less than average and 15.74% were above average.
  20. 20. Distribution of Individual differences 1. The central line indicates the mean score. Either of its side we can assess the range normal IQ. 2. The small line at left indicates below average students and the portion after the mean score indicates the above average students.