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Psychology unit 1st


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psychology, definition, history, methods, scope, importance of psychology in nursing

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Psychology unit 1st

  1. 1. Topic : Introduction to Psychology Unit I: INTRODUCTION Duration: 3hours Prescribed: 2hours PRESENTED BY: Mrs. Sukhbir kaur Assistant professor RN. BSN. PGDHM. MSN Ph.D (N) Scholar S.G.R.D. COLLEGE OF NURSING, AMRITSAR
  2. 2. Introduction • Psychology is fairly a new science. • Untill 19th century was recognized as separate field of study. • The birth of formal psychology can be tracked back to 1879. • It was found by Wilhelm Wundt in Leipizig, Germany.
  3. 3. • Word psychology used by Rudolf Gockle - 1590. • Psychology derived from two Greek words psyche logos (spirit or soul, mind) (study) Word- soul means spiritual or immortal elements in a person. William James used word mind instead of soul in 1890. Mind is abstract and could not be seen but behavior is what mind do. Mind is a stream of consciousness.
  4. 4. • According to Aristotle psychology is study of soul. (not accepted). • Later on Philosopher Plato said Psychology is study of mind.(incomplete). • According to Sigmund Freud “ mind” is divided into three parts – conscious, subconscious and unconscious. • This was also rejected. • Later on 18th century experimental psychology or scientific psychology came into being – founder was William Wundt.(1832-1920) : first psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany, 1879.
  5. 5. • Definition of Psychology changed to • “ Psychology is the systematic study of behavior” • By this definition psychology became as a subject of science and it comes under Behavioral sciences. • Scientific study of behavior by measuring tools or tests- called as Psychological tests.
  6. 6. Why Psychology is science? 1. Method e.g. observation, recording, analysis etc., 2. Cause and effect relationship 3. Study of facts : factual concepts like intelligence, memory, learning. 4. Universality. E.g., laws of learning applicable to universe. 5. Validity and reliability e.g., intelligence tests. 6. Verification e.g., research 7. Statistical analysis 8. Predictability e.g., theories and principles can predict the behavior of person.
  7. 7. Defintion • Psychology is the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. It is study of mind and how it works. - oxford dictionary. • Psychology is the science of human and animal behavior which includes the application of this science to solve human behavior. • - W.Hamilton • Psychology is the scientific study of the human mind and its functions, especially those affecting behavior in given context.
  8. 8. • Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state and external environment.
  9. 9. Roots of Psychology: • Psychology: The scientific study of behavior and mental processes. • Let’s break down the definition • Behavior – Anything that you do that can be observed. • Mental Processes – Internal experiences such as: thoughts, feelings, sensations, and perceptions. • Systematic Study: Systematic collection and examination of data (empirical evidence) to support or disprove hypotheses (predictions) rather than depending on common sense.
  10. 10. Sub- Fields /Areas/Scope of Psychology • It is broad and diverse field and divided into two broad categories : • Pure psychology: provide framework and theory: basic concepts of psychology. Formulation of psychological principles and theories. • Applied psychology: pure psychology is used in practical form. Application of principles, rules and techniques of psychology is done.
  11. 11. Branches of pure psychology • General psychology • Abnormal psychology • Social psychology: scientific methods used to study social influences, social interactions. • Experimental psychology • Physiological/ biological psychology. E.g., MRI, CT Scan, EEG. • Para Psychology; telepathy, re-birth • Geo-psychology: effect of change in environment. • Developmental psychology: growth and lifespan. • Comparative Psychology: study of animal behavior. • Coginitive psychology: thought process and cognition.
  12. 12. Branches of applied psychology • Educational psychology. • Clinical psychology: assessment, diagnosis and treatment of mental disorder. • Organizational psychology • Legal psychology e.g., criminals behavior. • Military psychology • Political psychology • School psychology.
  13. 13. Which subfield is most directly concerned with studying how marketing effects human behavior? 20 % 20 20 % % 20 % 20 % Clinical Personality Engineering psych... Industrial- Organ... Counseling 0 32 0 1. Clinical 2. Personality 3. Engineering Organizational 30 psychology 4. Industrial- 5. Counseling 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  14. 14. Which of the following individuals is also a physician? 20 % 20 20 % % 20 % 20 % Clinical psycholo... Psychologist Experimental psyc... Psychiatrist Developmental Psy... 30 1. Clinical psychologist 2. Psychologist 3. Experimental psychologist 4. Psychiatrist 5. Developmental Psychologist 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  15. 15. A person working within this subfield of psychology might work closely with their local police department to explain the behavior of a suspect. 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% Health Psy... Criminal P... Clinical P... Forensic P... Counseling... 3 0 1. Health Psychologist 2. Criminal Psychologist 3. Clinical Psychologist 4. Forensic Psychologist 5. Counseling Psychologist 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  16. 16. History of Psychology: • People have been studying human behavior for thousands of years. (Examples: Romans, Egyptians, Indians) • This was good, but was not done in an organized manner. • Psychology as a science has a very short history. • Some scientists (like Mr. Lark) still call psychology a “soft” science.
  17. 17. Key Players in the History of Psychology: • Roots of psychology can be traced back 2000 years ago to the early philosophers, biologists, and physiologists of ancient Greece. • Hippocrates – Greek Physiologist that thought the mind or soul resided in the brain. • He believed that it was not composed of a physical substance. • This is called mind-body-dualism – seeing mind and body as two different things that interact.
  18. 18. Key Players in the History of Psychology: • Plato (350 B.C.) – Greek philosopher that believed that who we are and what we know are innate (inborn). • Aristotle – Plato’s student believed that who we are and what we know are acquired from experience.
  19. 19. Important People in the Dev’t. of Psychology Aristotle (384 –322 BC) – He made assumptions out of observation regarding human behavior. He believed that all beings, humans included, have souls, which animate them. Humans, however, compared to other animal, have rational souls. Thus, humans are not only, physical, but also rational. He also theorized about learning, memory, motivation, emotion, perception and personality.
  20. 20. Important People in the Dev’t. of Psychology Rene Descartes (1596 – 1650) - supported the view that humans enter the world with an inborn store of knowledge. He argued that some ideas (such as God, the self, perfection and infinity) are innate. He is also notable for his conception of the body as a machine that can be studied.
  21. 21. Two historical roots of psychology are the disciplines of: 25 % 25 % 25 % 25 % Philosophy and ch... Physiology and ch... Philosophy and ph... Philosophy and ph... 1. Philosophy and chemistry 2. Physiology and chemistry 3. Philosophy and physiology 4. Philosophy and physics 30 Seconds Remaining 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  22. 22. Life Before Psychology Descartes believed that there was a link between the mind and body •Predict what will happen •Systematically observe events •Do events support predictions? René Descartes (1596-1650) Philosophy asks questions about the mind:  Does perception accurately reflect reality?  How is sensation turned into perception? Problem- No “scientific” way of studying problems Physiology asks similar questions about the mind – but with a biological perspective (ie chemicals, etc) SCIENTIFIC METHOD
  23. 23. Key Players in the History of Psychology: • About 2000 yrs. later John Locke and Rene Descartes had a similar argument. • John Locke – Believed that knowledge comes from observation, and what we know comes from experience. • He coined the term “tabula rasa” – blank slate. • “The mind is like a blank slate in which the environment writes upon.” • Rene Descartes – Believed that what we know is innate. • Focused much of his research on how the nervous system responds • “I think therefore I am.”
  24. 24. The 17th century philosopher who believed that the mind is blank at birth and that most knowledge comes through sensory experience is: 25 % 25 % 25 % 25 % Plato Aristotle Descartes Locke 1. Plato 2. Aristotle 3. Descartes 4. Locke 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  25. 25. The Greek philosopher who believed that intelligence was inherited was: 25 % 25 % 25 % 25 % Aristotle Plato Descartes Simonides 1. Aristotle 2. Plato 3. Descartes 4. Simonides 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 30
  26. 26. Important People in the Dev’t. of Psychology Charles Darwin (1809 – 1882) - He is the author of the Law of Natural Selection or Theory of Evolution; inspired the Psychological school of thought, Functionalism.
  27. 27. Important People in the Dev’t. of Psychology Francis Galton (1822–1911) - He was concerned with the study of individual differences. He was considered as the “Father of Mental tests”
  28. 28. Important People in the Dev’t. of Psychology Ernst Weber (1795–1878); Gustav Fechner; Herman von Helmholtz (1821–1894) German Physicians who started experimenting with behavior through scientific methodologies.
  29. 29. Important People in the Dev’t. of Psychology Wilhelm Wundt – Considered as the “Father of Modern Psychology.” He established the first experimental laboratory for the study of Psychology, in Leipzig, Germany, 1879. He created a machine that measured the time lag between people’s hearing a ball hit the platform and their pressing a telegraph key. Wundt has seeking to measure the “atoms of the mind” – the fastest and simplest mental processes.
  30. 30. Important People in the Dev’t. of Psychology G. Stanley Hall A student of Wundt’s who established what many consider as the first American psychology laboratory at Johns Hopkins University in 1883.
  31. 31. Important People in the Dev’t. of Psychology Hermann Ebbinghaus - A German who reported on the first experiments on memory, 1885.
  32. 32. American Psychological Association (APA) • Founded in 1892, has grown tremendously in size and today has many different divisions. • Now has a division for high school students. • Oversees all current research not done in universities. •
  33. 33. APA: G. Stanley Hall • First president of the APA • established the first psychological lab in the U.S. in 1883, at Johns Hopkins University. • Started the American Psychological Journal (1887) now the American Journal of Psychology.
  34. 34. Female significance… Mary Whiton Calkins • 1st female President APA • 1905 (memory researcher) Margaret Floy Washburn • PhD in psychology • Animal behavior researcher
  35. 35. Schools of Thought 1. Structuralism (Edward Titchener) – Study of the parts of conscious experiences through introspection. Conscious experiences are composed of sensations, feelings, and images. Introspection is a process of studying the self, or self-examination. Introduced by St. Thomas of Aquinas.
  36. 36. Schools of Thought 2. Functionalism (William James) – Defines behavior or the mental phenomena in terms of their functions in man’s adjustment to his environment. It is very much influenced by Darwin’s Theory of Evolution.
  37. 37. Schools of Thought 3. Gestalt Psychology (Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler, Kurt Koffka) Believed that the human mind imposes meaning to related experiences. It advocates that the study of human behavior should be wholistic. “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.”
  38. 38. Schools of Thought 4. Behaviorism (John B. Watson) Emphasized the need to study what is observable. Its objective was to predict and control behavior. S-R Psychology.
  39. 39. Schools of Thought 5. Psychoanalysis (Sigmund Freud) – Much of our behavior is governed by unconscious motive and primitive biological instincts. It considered all humans basically would like to gain pleasure and avoid pain.
  40. 40. This German philosopher and psychologist was the first to set up a laboratory to gather empirical data related to psychology. 20 % 20 20 % % 20 % 20 % Wundt, 1879 James, 1890 Freud, 1900 Watson, 1913 Wertheimer, 1950 1. Wundt, 1879 2. James, 1890 3. Freud, 1900 4. Watson, 1913 5. Wertheimer, 1950 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  41. 41. Contemporary Approaches • Neuroscience - Views behavior from the perspective of biological functioning • Psychodynamic - Believes behavior is motivated by inner, unconscious force over which a person has little control
  42. 42. Contemporary Approaches  Behavioral - Focuses on observable behavior  Cognitive - Examines how people understand and think about the world  Humanistic – Contends that people can control their behavior and that they naturally try to reach their full potential
  43. 43. Work In Psychology (?) Universities & Colleges 27.2% Elementary/ Secondary Schools 4.2% Hospitals, Counseling, Clinics, etc. 22.3% Business, Government or Consulting 12.1% Independent Practice 33.1%
  44. 44. Specialties In Psychology Clinical, Community & Counseling 51.1% Research/university 3.6% Cognitive 5.2% Industrial 5.7% Social/ Developmental 6.4% Other School 8.6% 19.4%
  45. 45. Methods of Psychology • 1. Introspection method. • 2. Observation method. • 3. Scientific or experimental method. • 4. Clinical method. • 5. Case study method. • 6. Co relational method. • 7. Interview method. • 8. Survey method. • 9. longitudinal study method. • 10. cross-sectional study method.
  46. 46. 1. Introspection method Historically introspection is the oldest method of all, which was formerly used in philosophy, and then in psychology to collect data about the conscious experience of the subject. Introspection means to see with in one self or self observation. To understand one’s own mental health and the state of mind. This method was developed by the structuralists in psychology who defined psychology as the study of conscious experiences of the individual. Introspection has some advantages and disadvantages; 3..
  47. 47. • Merits: 1. It gives information about one’s own self which is difficult by other methods. 2. It is an easy method and needs no equipment 3. It makes a base for other methods such as experimental and observation method
  48. 48. • Demerits: 1. This method is subjective in nature and lacks scientific objectivity 2. The most serious objection against this method is that human mind is not static like inanimate objects such as stone or chairs etc. our mental process is under constant changes so when one attempts to introspect, the sate of mental process disappears and it becomes a retrospect.
  49. 49. 3. The human mind is divided in two parts. One is his own mental operation and the other is the object to which this mental operation is directed. To expect any individual to attend the workings of his own mind during a mental process, specially in a complex and emotional state such as anger or fear, is a mistaken idea. Ross commenting on the limitation of introspection said, “ The observer and the observed are the same, the mind is both the field and the instrument of observation 4. Introspection can not be employed on children and insane propel. 5. There are conflicting reports, as regards the findings collected from different introspectionists
  50. 50. 2. Observation method With the development of psychology as an objective science of behavior, the method of introspection was replaced by careful observation of human and animal behavior. Observation literally means looking outside oneself. It is a very important method for collecting data in almost all type of research studies. Different type of Observation used in research, direct or indirect, scheduled or unscheduled, natural or artificial, participant and non-participant. But there are two basic types of observation. They are;
  51. 51. 1. Natural observation In natural observation the observer observe the specific behavioral and characteristics of subjects in natural settings and the subject does not aware of the fact that their behavior is being observed by someone. The teacher can observe the behavior of his student in the playground or in any other social gathering without making him conscious. Natural observation can be done any where with out any tools.
  52. 52. 2. Participant observation In participant observation the observer became the part of the group which he wants to observe. Observational study is particularly very important and produces significant results on developmental characteristics of children. No doubt that observation is a scientific technique of collecting data, whose results can be verified and relied upon to locate behavioral problems
  53. 53. • Merits: 1. this type of observation is a natural and normal way of knowing the external world but also the mind of the subject 2. This method is objective in nature and free form personal bias and prejudice. 3. Through this method we can observe as many children as we like 4. This method id quite suitable for children and abnormal person who can not be examined through introspection. 5. this can be used any time and anywhere
  54. 54. • Demerits: 1. Observation is useful only for collecting data about overt behavior which is manifested in a number of activities. This overt behavior does not provide reliable information regarding the internal mental process. We can only guess about the mental state of the individual on the basis of overt behavior which may or may not be true. It becomes very difficult to draw any conclusion in case of adults who can hide their actual behavior in the presence of the observer.
  55. 55. • 2. Subjectivity of interpretation is another limitation of this method. The observer may interpret his sensation of external stimulus on the bias of his past experience. He may be biased in his interpretation. It has also been found in some studies that strong personal interests tend to make researcher see only those things which he wants to see. 3. Observation is subject to two types of errors, sampling error and observer error. The first error occurs because of inadequacies of selecting situation to be observed. The observer error may be due to knowledge and background of the situation to be observed. Because some time the observer is not familiar with the total situation and hence he may commit error.
  56. 56. 3. The Scientific Method • Form of critical thinking based on careful measurement and controlled observation.
  57. 57. The Scientific Method (cont) • Six Basic Elements – Observation – Defining a problem – Proposing a hypothesis (an educated guess that can be tested) – Gathering evidence/testing the hypothesis – Publishing results – Building a theory
  58. 58. Some Terms • Hypothesis testing: Scientifically testing the predicted outcome of an experiment or an educated guess about the relationship between variables • Operational definition: Defines a scientific concept by stating specific actions or procedures used to measure it
  59. 59. Experimental Method
  60. 60. The Scientific Method • The approach used by psychologists to systematically acquire knowledge and understanding about behavior and other phenomena of interest. 1. Identifying questions of interest, 2. Formulating an explanation, (Theories and Hypotheses) 3. Carrying out research designed to support or refute the explanation.
  61. 61. • Merits: 1. This method is the most systematic procedure of solving problems. It provides reliable information. 2. it is a revisable method 3. it makes psychology a scientific study 4. It provides objective and precise information about the problems. 5. it give observer easy approach to the mind of an individual 6. It provides innovative ideas for the further experimentation. 7. It enable us to control and direct human behaviour 8. it is applicable in educational, individual and social problems
  62. 62. • Demerits: 1. It is arranged in a laboratory like situation. This situation is artificially arranged. Behaviour is a natural phenomena and it may change under artificial environment. 2. This method is time consuming and costly. Moreover it requires specialized knowledge and skills. 3. Psychologists have criticized the fact that mostly the experiments have conducted on rats, cats and dogs. The results are conducted and then applied on human beings. 4. It some times interferes with the very thing that we are trying to observe.
  63. 63. 4 . Clinical Method This method is primarily used to collect detailed information on the behavior problems of maladjusted and deviant cases. The main objective of this method is to study individual case or cases of group to detect and diagnose their specific problems and to suggest therapeutic measures to rehabilitate them in their environment. It involves the following steps; 1. Interview 2. Information gathering 3. A hypothesis formulate 4. Diagnoses are made 5. Planned a treatment programme
  64. 64. 5. Case Study Case study is in-depth study of the subject. It is the in-depth analysis of a person, group, or phenomenon. A variety of techniques are employed including personal interviews, psychometric tests, direct observation, and archival records. Case studies are most often used in psychology in clinical research to describe the rare events and conditions of the subject; case study is specially used in education psychology. It deals in education the following problems;
  65. 65.  Lack of interest in students  Aggressive behaviour in student  Day dreaming  Poor academic performance  Emotional problems  Social problems  Empathetic understanding  Find the problem  Establish rapport  Treatment
  66. 66. 6. Correlation Method The correlation method involves systematically measuring the relationship between two or more variables Correlation Coefficient : +1.00 to -1.00 Positive Correlation Negative Correlation
  67. 67. Correlational Method
  68. 68. 7. Interview Method Today, for psychological researches, mainly, interview method has become very popular. In this method there is direct face to face contact between the investigator and the subject. Here the interviewer or the investigator asks questions to the subject and records the answers usually without the latter knowing it. In the words of Fred N. Kerlinger, “The interview is perhaps the ubiquitous method of obtaining information from people. It has been and is still being used in all kinds of practical situations, eg. the lawyer obtains information from his client, the physian learns about a patient; the administrative officer or professor determines the suitability of students for schools, departments and curricula.
  69. 69. • Only recently, however, interview has been used systematically for scientific purposes, both in the laboratory and in the field. He also said that it is a face to face inter-personal situation in which one person, the interviewer asks a person being interviewed, the respondent, questions designed to obtain answers pertinent to research problems” According to P.V. Young, “Interviewing is not a simple way to conversation between an interrogator and informant. Gestures, glances, facial expressions and pauses often reveal subtle feelings”
  70. 70. Objectives of Interview Method: • The main objective of the interview method is to collect information about unknown fact of the subject, his inner feelings, • Another objective is to make sure that the interviewer and the subject know each other quite well, so that the collected data is verified well, • Interview method aims at providing an opportunity to the investigator to observe the subject very closely; as a result, at times, the subject can provide new ideas to the investigator which help the latter in research work.
  71. 71. • Types of Interview Method: There are different types of interview – focused interview repeated interview, clinical interview, diagnostic interview, research interview personal interview etc. • Merits of the Interview Method: The merits of the interview method are- • High participation of the subject or respondent. The subject answers the questions in a free manner. Illiterate as well as children provide proper in-depth information as compared to other methods like observation, questionnaire method etc. • This method is very flexible as it becomes possible for the interviewer to reframe, repeat and rephrase the questions as suitable for the subject.
  72. 72. • The subject’s emotions can be studied well. It is often observed that during an interview, the subject may become emotional and get excited, and may express freely his fears, anxieties, and complexes. • Through the interview method the investigator may get to know the cause of any behavior pattern of the subject, the historical background of each incident. • The data collected through the interview method is reliable. The interviewer analyses and crosschecks the information provided, to find out whether the data is correct or not. • The interview method can be applied on all types of people-literate or illiterate children and adults and at times also on mentally unbalanced persons.
  73. 73. • In the interview method, the subject and investigator are face to face with each other. Both discuss the problems and during discussion views can be exchanged and this is desirable in order to study every social problem along with the subject’s own problems. Demerits of the Interview Method : The demerits of the interview methods are :- It is a costly method. It involves a lot of traveling on the part of the interviewer. It is also time consuming as the interviewer has to physically locate a subject. • A lot of planning is required. The investigator has to provide a number of stimuli to get information from the subject, must make careful observation of the latter’s behaviour patterns so the interviewer must remember a number of things at the same time. So the whole process becomes too strenuous.
  74. 74. • The subject may not reveal his true feelings and emotions. • Sometimes the interviewer may have preconceived notions which may not hold true during interview, but he is reluctant to change his views. P.V. Young said that biased and prior thinking may distort and invalidate the results of the whole interview. • The interviewer’s perception of things may clash with those of the interviewee’s. Their beliefs and values may be totally different. So the Investigator must be very proficient and must have proper insight into human nature. • There can be difficulty in persuading the subject to be interviewed. The subject may tend to be bored during the process and then the data obtained will not be valid
  75. 75. Goals of psychology • 1. Describe: understanding human behavior must begin with careful description of how people think, feel and act in specific situations. • 2. Explain: to know why people behave in certain manners. We want explanation • 3. predict : to predict people’s behavior. One will behave in certain way in a certain set of circumstances. • 4. control: we can change or influence people’s behavior once we know what is in their mind.
  76. 76. Importance of psychology • 1. understanding behavioral factors: behavior which promotes health. • 2. Effects of disease: disease effect psychological well- being. • 3. preventing illness: psychologist changes behavior to prevent illness. • 4. critical analysis of health policy: scope of health psychology • 5. Improves relationship between health team members. • 6. managing pain • 7. improving adherence to medical advice.
  77. 77. Relevance of Psychology to Nursing Understanding self Nursing and Psychology Understanding Patients Understanding Others
  78. 78. • 1. Development and maturation: By understanding developmental stage, nurses will not misidentify normal process as diseases. • 2. Learning and motivation: When nurses need to give education, they know when, where, and what to do. • 3. Personality and behavior : • Expand nurse’s perception. • Understanding patient’s reaction. Change negative behavior to positive. • Practice effective interaction. • Helps nurses to deal with her own emotion when dealing with patient.
  79. 79. • 4. Adaptation : • Nurses help patients to adapt with their diseases, anxiety and disability. • Help nurses to understand and deal with patient's reaction. • 5. Counseling: • Counsel regarding healthy behavior and how to get rid of stress. • 6. Research: • To explore more about human behavior. • To improve quality of care.
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